How can you best help students with disabilities know lots of words? How can you build their motivation to learning words? What is the benefit of direct and indirect vocabulary instruction? How can you authentically assess students’ vocabulary development?
Knowledge of word meanings Key to comprehension Related to conceptual knowledge What is Vocabulary?
Vocabulary is vital to communicating with others and understanding what you read Vocabulary is the study of: the meaning of words, how the words are used, root words, prefixes, and suffixes, and analogies Vocabulary should be introduced within a context; not word by word or giving students a vocabulary list In order for students to comprehend while they read, they need to know enough vocabulary words Vocabulary is not just learning the definitions of words, but it includes learning how the word should be used in language
(NICHD, 2001) vocabulary should be taught both directly and indirectly;directlyindirectly repetition and multiple exposures to vocabulary items are important; learning in rich contexts is valuable for vocabulary learning; how vocabulary is assessed and evaluated can have differential effects on instruction; and dependence on a single vocabulary-learning strategy will not result in optimal learning.
Eight Characteristics of Effective Vocabulary Instruction 1.Effective vocabulary instruction does not rely on definitions. 2.Students must represent their knowledge of words in linguistic and nonlinguistic ways. 3.Effective vocabulary instruction involves the gradual shaping of word meanings through multiple exposures. 4.Teaching word parts enhances students’ understanding of terms. 5.Different types of words require different types of instruction. 6.Students should discuss the terms they are learning. 7.Students should play with words. 8.Instruction should focus on terms that have a high probability of enhancing academic success. Marzano and Pickering, 2005
1.Provide a description, explanation, or example of the new term. 2.Ask students to restate the description, explanation, or example in their own words. 3.Ask students to construct a picture, symbol, or graphic representation of the term. 4.Engage students in activities that help them add to their knowledge of the terms. 5.Ask students to discuss the terms with one another. 6.Involve students in games that allow them to play with the terms. Marzano and Pickering, 2005
This article has ideas for sight vocabulary but they can easily be used for meaning vocabulary – can you think of ways to do it? This article has ideas for vocabulary assessment and instruction – take a look- what are some insights you gained?
This article has good ideas for instruction. What ones do you think are best? Good info about vocabulary instruction – and some meaningful lesson examples at end of article.
Research suggests that if students are going to grasp and retain words and comprehend text, they need incremental, repeated exposure in a variety of contexts to the words they are trying to learn. When students make multiple connections between a new word and their own experiences, they develop a nuanced and flexible understanding of the word they are learning. In this way, students learn not only what a word means but also how to use that word in a variety of contexts, and they can apply appropriate senses of the word’s meaning in order to understand the word in different contexts (Landauer & Dumais, 1997; Landauer, McNamara, Dennis, & Kintsch, 2007; Nagy, Herman, & Anderson, 1985). CCSS – Appendix A
The word can be explained in known words that the students will understand. The word will be able to be used by students in what they might write or talk about. Beck, Kucan, McKeown, 2002
Tier One the words of everyday speech usually learned in the early grades Examples…. dog, baby, run
General Academic Words more likely to appear in written texts than in speech. appear in all kinds of texts › informational texts (words such as relative, vary, formulate, specificity, and accumulate), › technical texts (calibrate, itemize, periphery), and › literary texts (misfortune, dignified, faltered, unabashedly). often represent subtle or precise ways to say relatively simple things—saunter instead of walk highly generalizable. CCSS, Appendix A
Domain Specific Words specific to a domain or field of study (lava, carburator, legislature, circumference, aorta) and key to understanding a new concept within a text. far more common in informational texts than in literature. Recognized as new and “hard” words for most readers (particularly student readers), they are often explicitly defined by the author of a text, repeatedly used, and otherwise heavily scaffolded (e.g., made a part of a glossary). CCSS, Appendix A
In early times, no one knew how volcanoes formed or why they spouted red-hot molten rock. In modern times, scientists began to study volcanoes. They still don’t know all the answers, but they know much about how a volcano works. Our planet made up of many layers of rock. The top layers of solid rock are called the crust. Deep beneath the crust is the mantle, where it is so hot that some rock melts. The melted, or molten, rock is called magma. Volcanoes are formed when magma pushes its way up through the crack in Earth’s crust. This is called a volcanic eruption. When magma pours forth on the surface, it is called lava. Simon, Seymour. Volcanoes. New York: HarperCollins, 2006 CCSS – Appendix A Examples of Tier 2 Words
Sketching Words Use a sketch to show the meaning of each word. Word: ______________________________
Sketching Words Use a sketch to show the meaning of each word. Word: ______________________________ spoutedlayers solideruption surfacecrust
What needs to be taught? How is this best taught to students with disabilities? What is the relationship between vocabulary and comprehension? How can you assess a student’s comprehension?
the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language. Comprehension entails three elements:1 › The reader who is doing the comprehending capacities, abilities, knowledge, and experiences that a person brings to the act of reading › The text that is to be comprehended any printed text or electronic text › The activity in which comprehension is a part the purposes, processes, and consequences associated with the act of reading. The Rand Group
cognitive capacities (e.g., attention, memory, critical analytic ability, inferencing, visualization ability), motivation (a purpose for reading, an interest in the content being read, self- efficacy as a reader), and various types of knowledge (vocabulary, domain and topic knowledge, linguistic and discourse knowledge, knowledge of specific comprehension strategies).
Features of text Background knowledge of the reader influences text difficulty Vocabulary Linguistic structure Electronic Texts
Purpose- teacher mandated or internally motivated – for enjoyment, to learn, to perform a task Process- skimming for information or reading intently for remembering or studying (influenced by purpose) Consequence of reading – knowledge, application, engagement
Students with disabilities can learn isolated skills and strategies but need support with generalizing. Teach comprehension skills through read alouds, think alouds, and oral language to provide students with weak decoding skills access to higher levels of language and content. Teach vocabulary of frequently encountered words as well as content area vocabulary. Provide students with a diverse range of text structures to read and process. This will improve vocabulary and background knowledge. Teach students to self monitor when they read by asking if the text makes sense and if they can remember what they read. The three most highly researched types of strategy instruction for students with disabilities are question answering, text structure, and multiple strategy instruction such as Reciprocal Teaching and Collaborative Strategic Reading.text structureReciprocal Teaching Collaborative Strategic Reading Grillo, 2010
Comprehension is the understanding and interpretation of what is read To be able to accurately understand written material, children need to be able to: › Decode what they read quickly and automatically › Make connections between what they read and what they already know › Think deeply about what they read Readers who have good comprehension are able to draw conclusions about what they read Comprehension involves combining reading with thinking and reasoning
Ask and answer questions Make inferences and draw conclusions, citing text Summarize text Identify themes Interpret words and phrases within texts Analyze text structure Identify and assess point of view Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats Compare and contrast texts- themes, topics, approaches
(Tompkins, 2006; Reutzel, Smith, & Fawson, 2005; Harvey & Goudvis, 2000 ) Activating Prior Knowledge – making connections with the text to think about what is already known about the text or topic Predicting – making connections with the text to make guesses about what might happen or about the content to be presented Inferring – using text clues and reader clues to draw conclusions about the story and characters Self-Questioning – generating questions to guide reading and being able to find the answers to those questions and/or generate new ones Visualizing/Sensing – creating mental pictures and other sensory images while reading the text Identifying Important Information – making decisions while reading about what is most important and worth remembering Monitoring – asking “Does this make sense?” and clarifying by adapting strategic processes to accommodate the response Summarizing – recalling important information and being able to synthesize those ideas
uExplain the strategies and the thinking process, what kind of thinking to use, how you will document it, and why it’s important uModel the strategies, the thinking process, and the documentation, using a read aloud and think aloud to demonstrate how to think like an effective reader uGuide the students to apply the strategies, thinking process, and documentation, providing hints or prompts to ensure thinking. Gradually fade the support as students show they understand. uProvide opportunities for students to practice the strategies and thinking process in groups, pairs, and independently uSummarize the learning, reflect on the use of the strategies, and set goals for applying the strategies in new contexts
Before Reading - Anticipation Get ready to read - activate prior knowledge, set purpose, get motivated, make connections, ask questions, make inferences, draw conclusions, make predictions During Reading - Reader-Text Interactions- Realizations Engage meaningfully with text, actively respond to the reading – determine importance, make inferences, ask and answer questions, summarize, visualize, monitor, draw conclusions, adjust predictions After Reading - Contemplation Extend and elaborate ideas from the text – summarize, make inferences, ask and answer questions, evaluate, extend learning Allen & Mohr, 2006; Vacca & Vacca, 1999; Vaughn & Estes, 1986
This article has some specific teaching ideas to help you support students with their comprehension. Think of how you can use one of these in your own teaching. More ideas in this article. Can you use any? Be ready to share.
Text Enhancement Strategies: Text Enhancement Strategies: › Graphic Organizers › Mnemonic Illustrations › Story Maps › Computer Assisted Instruction › Study Guides Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies: › Text Structure › Questioning › Cognitive Mapping/Story Mapping › Main Idea Instruction › Summarization
What you need to think about to plan effective vocabulary and comprehension lessons? What is most important? How can these ideas and strategies be integrated into a scripted or published program?