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AVOID PLAGIARISM In its simplest form, it is copying text word-for-word & not giving credit to the source, BUT... Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting.

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Presentation on theme: "AVOID PLAGIARISM In its simplest form, it is copying text word-for-word & not giving credit to the source, BUT... Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting."— Presentation transcript:

1 AVOID PLAGIARISM In its simplest form, it is copying text word-for-word & not giving credit to the source, BUT... Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

2 AVOID PLAGIARISM It goes beyond that, though. When you take ideas from a source & put them in your own words, you can still commit PLAGIARISM. Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

3 Plagiarism: Yes or No? Original text From page 625 of Wendy Martin’s book Columbia Literary History of the United States Some of Dickinson’s most powerful poems express her firmly held conviction that life cannot be fully comprehended without an understanding of death. Borrowed segment in student paper Emily Dickinson strongly believed that we cannot understand life fully unless we also comprehend death. Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

4 Plagiarism: Yes or No? Original text From page 625 of Wendy Martin’s book Columbia Literary History of the United States Some of Dickinson’s most powerful poems express her firmly held conviction that life cannot be fully comprehended without an understanding of death. Borrowed segment in student paper Emily Dickinson strongly believed that we cannot understand life fully unless we also comprehend death. PLAGIARISM Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

5 Plagiarism: Yes or No? Original text From page 625 of Wendy Martin’s book Columbia Literary History of the United States Some of Dickinson’s most powerful poems express her firmly held conviction that life cannot be fully comprehended without an understanding of death. Borrowed segment in student paper Emily Dickinson strongly believed that we cannot understand life fully unless we also comprehend death (Martin, 2009, p. 625). OR... Martin (2009) noted that Emily Dickinson strongly... (p. 625) FIXED Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

6 PLAGIARISM PENALTIES? YES! Academic Loss of grade, credit, disciplinary action, academic probation, expulsion, poor academic record/resume, loss of money, dishonesty/lying = loss of character & trust Professional Public shame, loss of credibility, loss of job, loss of income, monetary penalties See real cases here Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

7 JUST DON’T PLAGIARIZE! Don’t lie & steal Your goal of your paper is to discover and then SHOW CREDIBLE SOURCES to support your thesis. Give creators (authors, webmasters, organizations) CREDIT for their hard work because you WANT to. When in DOUBT, cite it OUT. Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

8 CITE YOUR SOURCES APPROPRIATELY. Use in-text citations to show respect for intellectual property and to help someone interested in the topic find materials for further research. Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

9 In-text Citations: Basics Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide Items not yours that should be cited: word-for-word segments (direct quotations shown with “.”) theories & beliefs statistics & studies opinions unique phrasing Generally common knowledge needs not be cited specifically, although you should reference a source used within a paragraph of your paper.

10 In-text Citations: Basics Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide In-text citations help readers locate the cited source in the References section of the paper. Whenever you use a source, provide in parenthesis: the author’s name and the date of publication for quotations and close paraphrases, provide the author’s name, date of publication, and a page number

11 In-text Citations: Formatting Quotations Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide Caruth (2006) has stated that a traumatic response frequently includes a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena”(p.11). A traumatic response frequently includes a “delayed, uncontrolled repetitive appearance of hallucinations and other intrusive phenomena” (Caruth, 2006, p.11). When quoting, introduce the quotation with a signal phrase. Make sure to include the author’s name, the year of publication, the page number, but keep the citation brief—do not repeat the information.

12 Direct Quotations Provide context! Avoid using a direct quotation as text. Provide and introduction and a context for the quotation. All direct quotations will be introduced in the text and followed up with a parenthetical citation. Introduce all directly quoted source material and follow it with a parenthetical citation as appropriate. Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide

13 In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide Provide the author’s last name and the year of publication in parenthesis after a summary or a paraphrase. (You may also add the page number.) Though feminist studies focus solely on women's experiences, they error by collectively perpetuating the masculine-centered impressions (Fussell, 2008).

14 In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide Include the author’s name in a signal phrase followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. Recently, the history of warfare has been significantly revised by Hitchen et al. (2007), Marcus (2000), and Raitt and Tate (1997) to include women’s personal and cultural responses to battle and its resultant traumatic effects (p. 2).

15 In-text Citations: Formatting a Summary or Paraphrase Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide When including the quotation in a summary/paraphrase, also provide a page number in parenthesis after the quotation: According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate (1997), “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2).

16 In-text Citations: Signal Words Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide Introduce quotations with signal phrases, e.g. According to X (2008), “….” (p. 3). X (2008) argued that “……” (p. 3). Use such signal verbs as: acknowledged, contended, maintained, responded, reported, argued, concluded, etc. Use the past tense or the present perfect tense of verbs (ie. have said) in signal phrases when they discuss past events.

17 In-text Citations: A Work with Two Authors Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide When citing a work with two authors, use “and” in between authors’ name in the signal phrase yet “&” between their names in parenthesis. According to feminist researchers Raitt and Tate (2007), “It is no longer true to claim that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (p. 2). Some feminists researchers question that women's responses to the war have been ignored” (Raitt & Tate, 1997, p. 2).

18 In-text Citations: A Work with Three to Five Authors Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide When citing a work with three to five authors, identify all authors in the signal phrase or in parenthesis. (Harklau, Siegal, & Losey, 2005) In subsequent citations, only use the first author's last name followed by "et al." in the signal phrase or in parentheses. (Harklau et al., 2005)

19 In-text Citations: A Work with Six and More Authors Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide When citing a work with six and more authors, identify the first author’s name followed by “et al.” Smith et al. (2006) maintained that…. (Smith et al., 2006)

20 In-text Citations: A Work of Unknown Author Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide When citing a work of unknown author, use the source’s full title in the signal phrase and cite the first word of the title followed by the year of publication in parenthesis. Put titles of articles and chapters in quotation marks; italicize titles of books and reports. According to “Indiana Joins Federal Accountability System” (2008), … Or, (“Indiana,” 2008)

21 In-text Citations: Organization Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide When citing an organization, mention the organization the first time when you cite the source in the signal phrase or the parenthetical citation. The data collected by the Food and Drug Administration (2008) confirmed that… (2008, p. 23). If the organization has a well-known abbreviation, include the abbreviation in brackets the first time the source is cited and then use only the abbreviation in later citations. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) confirmed … FDA’s experts tested…

22 In-text Citations: Personal Communication Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide When citing interviews, letters, s, etc., include the communicator’s name, the fact that it was personal communication, and the date of the communication. Do not include personal communication in the reference list. A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2013). Or, (E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2012).

23 In-text Citations: Electronic sources Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide When citing an electronic document, whenever possible, cite it in the author-date style. If electronic source lacks page numbers, locate and identify paragraph number/paragraph heading. According to Smith (1997),... (Mind over Matter section, para. 6).

24 APA Headings Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide APA uses a system of five heading levels

25 Additional APA Resources and Support Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide The Purdue OWL APA Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6 th ed. APA’s website

26 Abstract notes Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide Typed, double-space, 12-pt. font same as rest of paper Word “Abstract” is centered at the top of the page Must be written in 3 rd person (cannot use ‘I’ or ‘you’) Written in Block Format (do not indent 1 st sentence) Write a 120- to 150-word summary of your paper *** seniors – this includes both secondary and primary research Must end paragraph with your thesis statement as the last sentence NEVER refer directly to your paper For example: Do not say “In this paper, I will explain ……”

27 Abstract Page Adapted from the Purdue OWL APA Formatting and Style Guide Page header: Include “Running head: THEN ALL CAPS TITLE” Abstract: Centered, at the top of page. Do not use language like in this paper I will... ; the paper will show you... ; this paper will... ; etc. Write a concise word summary of the whole paper. Do not copy your opening paragraph for the abstract.


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