Row 1, Col 1 Shoot one in order to save nineteen falls under this ethical approach. What is Consequentialism or Utilitarianism?
1,2 One way of beginning this stage is to classify the problem as a disagreement, conflict, or harm. What is Problem Specification?
1,3 This ethics test telescopes non-consequentialism. It asks us to view the action under consider- ation from the standpoint of those affected by it. What is Reversibility?
1,4 Students exercise this right when they understand the terms of a course and exercise an un- coerced choice as to whether to continue or drop it. What is the right of Free and Informed Consent?
2,1 The choice not to shoot a villager and to leave the village best fits this ethical approach. What is Non-consequentialism or Deontology?
2,2 In this stage to problem-solving we examine our solution in terms of resource, interest, and technical constraints the situation could impose. What is Solution Implementation?
2,3 This test has us assess an action in terms of its likely harms. We then choose that alternative that minimizes harm. What is the harm test?
2,4 This element of a social contract refers to its mutually beneficial exchange, the something for something clause. What is the Quid Pro Quo?
3,1 You choose under this approach not to shoot the villager because murder (killing an innocent person) is not, given who you are, the kind of thing you would do. What is Virtue Theory or Virtue Ethics?
3,2 In this stage of problem-solving we use reversibility, harm, and publicity to assess the ethics of our solution alternatives. What is Solution Testing?
3,3 In this test we associate the agent with the moral quality of the act under consideration. Then we ask if we would want to be publicly associated with this action. What is the publicity test?
3,4 Quid pro quo, informed consent, free consent, and a safe exit. What are the elements of a Social Contract?
4,1 A forced choice between two equally bad alternatives. What is a Dilemma?
4,2 In this stage of problem solving, we set aside criticism until we reach our quota. (This is a part of brainstorming.) What is solution generation?
4,3 This test balances two kinds of projection, an empathic pro- jection where we lose ourselves in the perspective of the other and an advisory test where we occupy the other’s standpoint but maintain awareness of our own values and principles. What is the Reversibility Test?
4,4 These enable and constrain the activities of a business organization or firm What are Environments of the Organization?
5,1 Those of you who rejected the dilemma frame given with the Mountain Terrorist Exercise fit into this category. What is “Funny Business”?
5,2 In this class or type of problem key values clash with one another and it appears difficult or im- possible to realize both at the same time. What is a conflict or value conflict?
5,3 This test encapsulates or summarizes the consequentialist or utilitarian ethical perspective. What is the Harm Test?
5,4 When blocked by a value or structured embodied in physical surroundings, we develop a strategy that allows us to continue acting What is a “Work Around”?
More on Consequentialism In consequentialism, the moral worth of an action is determined by its results. In Utilitarianism (a form of consequentialism) we try to design actions that maximize good results and minimize bad results. This is called a “utility-maximizing” action.
Problem Specification You can begin specification by classifying your problem as a disagreement (factual or conceptual), a conflict (between two or more values), or an impending harm. You can also specify your problem by identifying the values at risk in a given situation. For example, David Jackson must act to preserve his integrity as a professional engineer.
Reversibility In an advisory projection, we enter into the standpoint of another but we retain our values and view the other’s perspective from a detached standpoint. In an empathic projection, we completely immerse and lose ourselves in the perspective of the other. Consider “reversing with Hitler” –In empathically reversing with Hitler, I take on all his immoral beliefs and attitudes. –In an advisory projection with Hitler, I retain my understanding that these are immoral. I maintain a critical distance.
Informed Consent We will study this right in four contexts this semester: –Students can exit from a course if they fail to find the exchange goods and burdens of mutual benefit –Subjects of experiments should be informed of, comprehend, and consent to the benefits and risks attending participation –Patients should be informed of, comprehend, and consent to the risks attendant upon medical procedures. This includes risk assessment information communicated effectively and coupled with the manner in which patient perceive risks –The right to opt in to—and not merely opt out of—the transfer to third parties of their personal identifying information.
Deontology In Non-consequentialism, the moral worth of an action lies in its formal characteristics, not in its consequences. –Deontology, a form of non-consequentialism, evaluates an action by seeing whether it conforms to a rule of right or duty. –Rights and duties hold regardless of consequences –These protect individuals and minorities because rights and duties can overrule or trump welfare.
Feasibility Test A feasibility test provides a list of situation constraints that could possibly oppose the realization of a solution The goal here is to anticipate these possible obstacles and work quickly to deflate them Constraint checklist: –Resources—Is there enough time, resource, and money to realize the solution? If not, can these constraints be pushed back through negotiation? –Interests—Are their vested interests (supervisor, organization, government) that could oppose your solution. Can these be pushed back through negotiation? –Technical—Are there affordable technologies or manufacturing techniques to facilitate the realization of your solution or are these lacking?
Harm Test The harm test “incapsulates” consequentialism because it focuses solution design and solution evaluation on the results, this time results that are risky or harmful. This test works best when you are comparing solutions –The question, “Which is the least harmful solution, A, B, or C?” is more useful than the question, “Is A a harm-minimizing solution?”
Virtue Ethics A virtue is an “active exercise of the faculties of the soul, in conformity with excellence or virtue, during a complete lifetime.” (Barbara Jancar, The Philosophy of Aristotle, Monarch Notes, 143) –The Greek word for virtue, arete, is better translated as excellence. –The excellence targeted by a virtue is best found by aiming for the mean between two extremes, one of excess, the other of defect –Courage is the mean between the extremes of cowardice and recklessness –Responsibility is the mean between too much responsibility (taking responsibility for more than one can handle) and too little repsonsibility (irresponsibility) –Virtue ethics focuses on the character of the agent rather than the characteristics of the action performed by the agent
Alternatives for Publicity Test Values Test: What values are realized or preserved by the solution under consideration? Moral Exemplar or Mentor Test: What would my mentor or someone I admire as an exemplar do in this situation Virtue Test: What virtues does this solution realize or what would a person with X virtue do in this situation?
Dilemma Dilemma comes from two Greek words. Di means two Lemma means solution or alternatives A dilemma is literally a forced choice between two equally bad alternatives When confronted with a dilemma, the best strategy is to dissolve rather than solve.