Learning Objectives Develop… …an awareness of the unique qualities inherent in discipline-specific text, and …learn to communicate these qualities effectively to students. Learn Strategies… …to use in class that will help all students – regardless of general reading skill-level - consume and comprehend discipline-specific text.
Shared Goal: Student Success Shared Intention: To be clear To lead students in their development of knowledge To provide necessary information on which students can build We do not intend to… Confuse Be unclear Be mysterious or misleading
The Rosetta Stone….the Code Book The process of reading in any language [read “any discipline”] includes decoding and knowing how the symbols of the language are used together, plus knowing other [discipline-specific] language rules. Davidson, 2006, p. 14
The Rosetta Stone….the Code Book Break the Code Dihydrogen monoxide Water
Shared Goal: Student Success Shared Intention: To be clear To lead students in their development of knowledge To provide necessary information on which students can build We do not intent to… Confuse Be unclear Be mysterious or misleading Lexicon The vocabulary of a language, an individual speaker or group of speakers, or a subject. Nomenclature Name designation A system or set of terms or symbols especially in a particular science, discipline, or art.
The Rosetta Stone….the Code Book Even good readers who are trying to read about a new or difficult subject go through a complex and often difficult process to learn the new content. Davidson, 2006, p. 16
The Problem… 메리 있었다 작은 어린 양, 그의 양 털은 눈 처럼 하얀, 마리아 갔다 그 양고기는 가 르. Мэри была маленькой баранины, его шерсть была белой, как снег, что Маша пошла, что ягненок был сюр идти. Mary hatte ein kleines Lamm, seine Vlies war weiß wie Schnee, dass Mary ging, das Lamm war Sur zu gehen. Maria tenia un corderito Corderito, corderito Maria tenia un corderito Que vellon blanco de nieve tenia. Y por todas partes donde Maria iba Mary had a little lamb, His fleece was white as snow, Everywhere that Mary went, That lamb was sure to go. Korean RussianDutchSpanish English
Your students may be handcuffed by the complexity of your discipline’s text. You hold the key to the content-area aspects of reading…
Reading in Academic Disciplines Your academic identity has developed over years of schooling. Your discipline is your disciplinary preference. You approach discipline-specific text with confidence. You have internalized how to read your discipline-specific text. You read these text through the lens of your discipline. AND… Buehl, 2011, p. 9 You are the best because….
Reading in Academic Disciplines Students face the sometime daunting challenge of being competent readers, writers, and thinkers in all of the academic disciplines they are studying. Buehl, 2011, p. 9 AND…
What you can do for your students… Action Steps
Know your students! Know your textbook! Frontload knowledge! Model! Know the purpose! Discuss the text! Personal Work!
Action Steps - Know your students! Success as readers may be stymied by lack of academic knowledge. Authors assume that readers will already know part of what they need to comprehend the message communicated. Many students have low access to academic knowledge in their out-of-school lives. It is unlikely that individual students will be uniformly proficient or struggling readers across the curriculum. Students need to become increasingly comfortable with the insider language of academic text; They need to talk-the-talk. Building academic knowledge + sharing relevant prior knowledge are essential for comprehension of complex text. Buehl, 2011, p. 119
Action Steps - Know your textbook! Textbook Structure: What your textbook has AND how you use it: 1. Preface 2. Table of Contents 3. Index 4. Glossary 5. Appendices 6. Chapters Format and Features If you are using OERs, know the structure and layout and facilitate students’ orientation to the structure, the connections, the links, and your expectations.
Action Steps – Frontload Knowledge! 1. Review previous learning 2. Do not assume they remember 3. Use Quick Writes 4. Make meaningful associations Buehl, 2011, pp 122-126
Action Steps - Model! Teacher Modeling: Actively demonstrate how to: 1. Read the text 2. Question the text 3. Connect the text to other facets of your discipline “ Effective teachers were more likely to teach a range of literacy skills and knowledge at the word, sentence, and text level through the context of a shared text.” Fisher, Frey, & Lapp, 2009, p 5
Action Steps – Know the Purpose! Know – and explicitly communicate - the purpose for reading assignments - Students should be able to answer: 1. Why am I reading this? 2. What am I supposed to get out of it? 3. What do I need to do when I am done?
Action Steps – Discuss the Text! Discussion of the text enables you to: 1. Assess for understanding. 2. Ask reading-dependent questions. 3. Encourage the use of textual evidence to support and answer questions. 3. Deepen student comprehension through the use of analytical processes.
Action Steps – Personal Work! 1. Reflect 2. Review your language Colleague speak Classroom speak Conversational speak 3. Identify Key phrases Key words Key names
References Buehl, D. (2011). Developing Readers in the Academic Disciplines, Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Davidson, C.L. (2006). Solving the Mystery of Reading, New York, NY: Pearson Longman. Fang, Z. & Coatoan, S. (May 2013). Disciplinary Literacy – What You Want to Know About It, Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 56(8), May 2013. pp. 627- 632. Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2009). In a Reading State of Mind – Brain Research, Teacher Modeling, and Comprehension Instruction, Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Fisher, D., Frey, N., & Lapp, D. (2012). Text Complexity – Raising Rigor in Reading, Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Gallagher, K. (2004). Deeper Reading – Comprehending Challenging Text, Portland, ME: Stenhouse Publishers. Kendeou, P. & Van den Broeck, P. (2007). The Effects of Prior Knowledge and Text Structure on Comprehension Processes During Reading of Scientific Text, Memory and Cognition, 35(7), 2007. pp 1567-1577. Van den Broeck, P. & Kremer, K. (2000). The Mind in Action: What It Means to Comprehend During Reading, Newark, DE: International Reading Association.