Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Instructiona Common Core State Standards: 6-12 ELA Overview Kim St. Martin January 7, 2011.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Instructiona Common Core State Standards: 6-12 ELA Overview Kim St. Martin January 7, 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 Instructiona Common Core State Standards: 6-12 ELA Overview Kim St. Martin January 7, 2011

2 Instructiona Getting Ready for Today Active participation –Partner Work Come back together signal Materials overview

3 Instructiona Purpose of Day Today is about: –Overview of the CCSS for ELA Organization of the standards Text Complexity and the Growth of Comprehension Changing emphasis in reading from K-3 to 4+ Literacy Vocabulary Acquisition and Use Writing and Writing to Read Putting the Pieces Together: CCSS, RtI, School Improvement, Assessments

4 Instructiona Purpose of Today Today is NOT about: –Unpacking all the CCSS –Reviewing the HSCE –Effective and efficient instructional techniques necessary to students to master the CCSS –Assessments for the CCSS

5 Instructiona Goals for the Session Increase familiarity with how the CCSS for ELA are organized, progression of skills, and supplemental documents (e.g. appendixes) accompanying the standards Observe and example of explicit instruction of for Vocabulary CCSS Review supplemental documents outlining research to support the CCSS

6 Instructiona Goals for the Session Identify possible next steps to provide teaching staff and administrators training and implementation support in: –CCSS-ELA –Instructional strategies to effectively and efficiently teach the standards –Assessment audit

7 Instructiona High Priority Goal: Breathe & Relax

8 Instructiona Transitioning to the CCSS Takes time Incremental Focus Understanding Collective Purpose Chocolate or another guilty pleasure!

9 Instructiona Background State-led effort coordinated by the National Governor's Association (NGA) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) Commitment obtained from 48 states, 2 territories and the District of Columbia to develop CCSS for ELA and math

10 Instructiona Common Core State Standards Website:

11 Instructiona CurriculumInstruction Assessment CCSS and the materials for teachers to use to teach the curriculum Instructional strategies necessary to effectively teach the students the skills that will lead to their mastery of the CCSS Use of assessments for different purposes to determine mastery of skills and effectiveness of instruction

12 Instructiona Unintended Consequences New standards = assessment committee to develop many new assessments Assumptions about the alignment between the HSCE and CCSS –Assumption: “If we are aligned to the HSCE then nothing more needs to happen to align to the CCSS”

13 Instructiona Unintended Consequences Clearer standards = less guidance and support for teaching staff to feel comfortable in their understanding and teaching of the standards

14 Instructiona Question: Why the need for CCSS?

15 Instructiona Independently read the document entitled, “Adolescent Literacy Fact Sheet” Circle 3 facts that were of interest to you When both you and your partner are finished: –2s begin sharing your circled facts and reasons –1s share after your partner is finished Your Turn

16 Instructiona Why Common Standards Now? Disparate standards across states highlight lack of coherence, focus, and clarity (specificity) Student mobility affects equity Global competition increases expectations Jobs in the 21 st century require more advanced skills

17 Instructiona CCSS are… Aligned with college and career expectations Internationally benchmarked so all students are prepared to succeed in a global economy (see pg. 41 of Appendix A) Build upon strengths and lessons of current standards

18 Instructiona CCSS are… Based on research Robust and relevant to the real world Fewer, focused, coherent, and specific

19 Instructiona Defining “Focused, Coherent, Specific” Focused: –Critical concepts, understandings and skills are identified –Deep learning of concepts is stressed Coherent: –Topics are sequential and connected –Procedural skills are equally stressed

20 Instructiona Defining “Focused, Coherent, Specific” Specificity: –Skills and concepts are more clearly defined –Application of concepts and skills to new situations is expected

21 Instructiona Defining College and Career Readiness “College ready”: –Prepared to enter and succeed in entry-level credit bearing courses without remediation “Career ready”: –Prepared to enter the workforce in a career that provides a family-sustaining wage and has pathways to advancement

22 Instructiona Design & Organization of CCSS

23 Instructiona Key Design Considerations College Career Readiness Standards (CCR) are cross-disciplinary expectations The CCR provide a broad view of what the standard category expects students to do Students are expected to meet each year’s grade-specific standards; retain or further develop previous grade level skills

24 Instructiona Key Design Considerations Standards are outcomes. The resources and instructional strategies necessary for students to learn the standards are district- level decisions Although standards are divided into strands, they are closely connected and reflected throughout the document You will notice overlap in standards

25 Instructiona Key Design Considerations Each standard need not be a separate focus. Several standards can be addressed in a single task* Research and media skills are blended into the Standards as a whole There is shared responsibility for students’ literacy development* (See page 4 of the CCSS)

26 Instructiona Organization of CCSS Three main sections: –K-5 –6-12 ELA –6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, Technical Subjects Three appendixes

27 Instructiona Organization of CCSS Each section is organized into strands and key features of each strand: –Reading: text complexity and growth of comprehension (includes Foundational Reading Skills) –Writing: text types, responding to reading, and research –Speaking and Listening: flexible communication and collaboration –Language: conventions, effective use, and vocabulary

28 Instructiona Organization of CCSS Each section is organized into strands: –6-12 History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects: focuses on Reading and Writing. Each strand is headed by a strand-specific set of College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards –Big umbrella; broad outcome; expected to “anchor” the “grade-specific standards”

29 Instructiona Organization of CCSS Coding/identification of the CCR standards and CCSS: –College Career Readiness = CCR Strands: –Reading = R Reading Standards for Literature = RL Reading Standards for Informational Text = RI –Writing = W –Speaking and Listening = SL

30 Instructiona Organization of CCSS Strands: –Language = L –Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies = RH –Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects = RST –Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects = WHST

31 Instructiona Organization of CCSS Appendixes: –Appendix A: Research Supporting Key Elements of the Standards and Glossary of Key Terms –Appendix B: Text Exemplars and Sample Performance Tasks –Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing

32 Instructiona Independently Read page 6, “What is Not Covered by the Standards.” How will this information help answer some of the questions you have either already been asked or anticipate being asked by staff? Did this section answer some lingering questions you possibly had about the CCSS? If so, elaborate with your partner. Your Turn

33 Instructiona Text Complexity and the Growth of Comprehension

34 Instructiona Comprehension Growth Begins with Foundational Skills (FS) –Necessary components of an effective and comprehensive reading program –Designed to develop proficient readers who have the capacity to comprehend texts across a range of types and disciplines

35 Instructiona Foundational Skills* Categories –Print Concepts –Phonemic Awareness –Phonics and Word Recognition –Fluency Three of the four Foundational Skills categories are commonly referred to as the “Big Ideas” of reading *Refer to Appendix A, pages for further explanation and examples of the skills

36 Instructiona What is a “big idea?”

37 Instructiona Big Ideas of Reading A big idea is something we can do about (We can teach it) A big idea is something that if taught, will improve students’ ability to read Bottom line: there are five critical elements (big ideas) that need to be a part of a comprehensive reading program in order for students to successfully learn HOW to read

38 Instructiona Big Ideas of Reading The Five Big Ideas of Reading: –Phonemic Awareness –Alphabetic Principle (Phonics) –Fluency –Vocabulary –Comprehension

39 Instructiona Simmons, Kame'enui, Harn, & Coyne © Changing Emphasis of Big Ideas Comprehension Vocabulary Automaticity and Fluency with the Code Alphabetic Principle Phonological Awareness 3-621K Listening Reading Listening Reading Multisyllables Letter Sounds & Combinations

40 Instructiona Can students be “inoculated” early-on from literacy challenges?

41 Instructiona Why not “inoculation?” Instilling basic literacy skills is necessary because the gap between good readers and struggling readers only widens Teaching students early literacy skills prepares them to master more complex tasks that occur in grades 4-12 as well as more complex text Learning to read reading to learn Carnegie Corporation of New York’s Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy (2010)

42 Instructiona Why not “inoculation?” BUT: Adolescents need continuous support and instruction in how to read their content text in order to understand the information Assumption: if students can read the grade level text, they will automatically understand what they are reading Student are not typically taught how to successfully read and extract information from their text in middle and high school Carnegie Corporation of New York’s Council on Advancing Adolescent Literacy (2010)

43 Instructiona Adolescent Literacy: Changing Emphasis

44 Instructiona Adolescent Literacy Distinctions Instructional recommendations for older readers differ slightly from the recommendations for younger readers Five general areas: –Word study: more advanced decoding –Fluency –Vocabulary –Comprehension –Motivation

45 Instructiona Adolescent Literacy Distinctions Adolescent Literacy (4 th -12 th grade) –Emphasis is on “academic literacy” defined as: “the kind of reading skills students need to be successful in most content area classrooms”

46 Instructiona What is the struggle? Shifting purposes for reading: Textbook demands shift & vary Word complexity changes Sentence complexity increases Structural complexity of text increases Tables and graphic representations become more critical to understanding Comprehension demands require more higher- level thinking Concepts become increasingly complex

47 Instructiona Reading in the Disciplines

48 Instructiona Purpose of the Report To illustrate what is involved in comprehending texts within and across academic disciplines Examine the empirical research base about reading comprehension in general and specifically in the disciplines Briefly discuss the implications of the research on instruction and assessment

49 Instructiona “The ability to comprehend written texts is not a static or fixed ability, but rather one that involves a dynamic relationship between the demands of texts and the prior knowledge and goals of readers.”

50 Instructiona Strategies Good Readers Use Asking questions Making predictions Testing hypotheses Summarizing Monitoring understanding and deploying fix-it strategies as needed BUT: disciplinary literacy also requires knowledge of topics in a particular field

51 Instructiona There are four disciplines represented in the document: –Science (pg 4) –History/Social Studies (pg 6) –Literature (pg 9) –Math (pg 12) Each person at your table will select one to read Take turns discussing: What is needed to comprehend text in the discipline you selected? Your Turn

52 Instructiona What is needed to comprehend disciplinary text? ScienceHistoryLiteratureMath

53 Instructiona Framing Our Analysis In light of what you just read and the table your group populated, as we review the CCSS for literature and informational text, identify ways the standards try to address the challenges disciplinary text pose for our students We will discuss the 6-12 Literacy in History/SS, Science and Technical Subjects a bit later

54 Instructiona CCSS Reading Standards for Literature and Informational Text

55 Instructiona CCSS Comprehension Focus and Areas Literature –Key Ideas and Details –Craft and Structure –Integration of Knowledge and Ideas –Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity Informational Text –Same areas as listed above

56 Instructiona Reading Strand Key Feature of the Strand: Text complexity and growth of comprehension Key Ideas and Details: –Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly, cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from text –Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas CCR

57 Instructiona Reading Strand Key Ideas and Details: –Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text CCR

58 Instructiona Reading Strand Craft and Structure: –Interpret words and phrases as they are used in text and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone –Analyze the structure of texts relate to one another and the whole –Asses how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text CCR

59 Instructiona Reading Strand Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: –Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats and in words –Delineate and evaluate the arguments and specific claims in a text –Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the author’s take CCR

60 Instructiona Reading Strand Range of Reading Level and Text Complexity: –Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently –Refer to Appendix A (pages 3-10) CCR

61 Instructiona You will be working with your partner to analyze the progression of skill for the four the categories in the Informational Text standards listed on pages Areas: (1) Key Ideas and Details, (2)Craft and Structure, (3) Integration of Knowledge and Ideas; (4) Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity Your Turn

62 Instructiona Skill Progression Key Ideas and Details (1): –6 th : cite text evidence to support analysis of what text explicitly says and inferences drawn –7 th : cite several pieces of text (rest is same as 6 th ) –8 th : cite text evidence that most strongly supports analysis and inferences –9 th -10 th : cite strong and thorough text evidence –Same as 9 th -10 th except students must also determine where the text leaves matters uncertain

63 Instructiona Reading Informational Text Strand Activity: Identify (underlining or making a note) of the differences in skill from one grade to another. Summarize the differences. Refer to Appendix B to review the informational text exemplars and sample performance tasks. Compare the text examples to the standards for a grade level. Your Turn

64 Instructiona Reading Literature Strand Activity (pp 36-38) : Identify (underlining or making a note) of the differences in skill from one grade to another. Summarize the differences. Refer to Appendix B to review the literature text exemplars and sample performance tasks. Compare the text examples to the standards for a grade level. Your Turn

65 Instructiona Vocabulary Acquisition and Use and Improved Comprehension

66 Instructiona CCSS Sections Remember: each area is organized into strands: –Reading: text complexity and growth of comprehension –Writing: text types, responding to reading, and research –Speaking and Listening: flexible communication and collaboration –Language: conventions, effective use, and vocabulary

67 Instructiona Vocabulary Refers to the words we must know in order to communicate effectively in listening, speaking, reading, and writing Ability to understand words and to use words to understand text The ability to use words to express meaning What:

68 Instructiona Importance Vocabulary Acquisition Initial vocabulary acquisition is from oral conversation Children enter school with different levels of vocabulary (Hart & Risley, 1995) Empirically connected to comprehension Children’s vocabulary in the early grades is related to reading comprehension in the upper grades

69 Instructiona Why Not Included in the Foundational Standards? Vocabulary Instruction Improves: Receptive Language –Reading comprehension –Listening comprehension Expressive Language –Writing –Speaking Vocabulary cuts across comprehension, writing, and language standards

70 Instructiona Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Students who receive explicit, engaging vocabulary instruction experience a growth in vocabulary (Tomesen & Aarnoutse, 1998; White, Graves, & Slater, 1990) Students who receive intentional teaching of targeted vocabulary words encountered in text, their comprehension of the text improves (McKeown, Beck, Omanson, & Pople, 1985; Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986) Why:

71 Instructiona Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Teaching vocabulary has been shown to improve students’ ability to comprehend new content by 12 percentile points (Stahl & Fairbanks, 1986) Words taught before they were encountered in print the ability to comprehend the words increased (Jenkins, Stein, Wysocki, 1984) In Sixth grade and below, direct explanation accounted for 80% of words learned (Biemiller, 2001) Why:

72 Instructiona Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Explicit vocabulary instruction is particularly critical for struggling readers who do not read extensively and have more difficulty using contextual cues to determine word meaning (Beck, McKeown, & Kucan, 2002) For English Language Learners, the “achievement gap” is a primarily a vocabulary gap (Carlo, et. al, 2004) Why:

73 Instructiona Preparing for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Select 3-10 words (no more because of students’ limited working memory) Selecting vocabulary words for explicit teaching: –Unknown words –Important to understanding a passage or a unit –Words students will hear, read, write, and could use in conversation –Words that need interpretation and are difficult to learn Archer and Hughes (2010)

74 Instructiona Preparing for Explicit Vocabulary Instruction –Words that need interpretation and are difficult to learn Unknown concepts (many words found in disciplinary text-dynamic friction, thermodynamics, impressionistic art) Not adequately addressed from context clues Refer to abstract concepts (rather than concrete concepts) Complex concepts (variable, ordered pair, branches of government) Difficult for students to pronounce* (students’ inability to pronounce the word with ease is likely to decrease the likelihood they will remember it) Archer and Hughes (2010)

75 Instructiona Video Example 6 th Grade Vocabulary Instruction: –List any good practices you observed: –Locate and identify the CCSS (Informational Text) addressed in this lesson:

76 Instructiona Organization of the Vocabulary Standards Three areas: –Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials as needed –Understanding figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings CCR

77 Instructiona Organization of the Vocabulary Standards Three categories –Acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking, and listening at the college and career readiness level; demonstrate independence in reading, writing, and listening… CCR

78 Instructiona With your partner read through the CCSS for “Vocabulary Acquisition and Use” (pp. 53 & 55) Make note of the progression of skill across grade levels Think back to the video clip. Identify the vocabulary standard that best suited the lesson observed Your Turn

79 Instructiona Reading in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects

80 Instructiona Organization of Strand Same four areas listed in the Literacy and Informational Text Standards: –Key Ideas and Details –Craft and Structure –Integration of Knowledge and Ideas –Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

81 Instructiona Organization of Strand Standards address two grade levels: –6-8 th grade –9-10 th grade –11-12 th grade

82 Instructiona With your partner, review the Reading Standards for History/Social Studies and Science and Technical Subjects Standards 6-12 (pp ) How do the standards align with the information read in “Reading in the Disciplines?” What are the implications for training and implementation support for content area teaching staff? Identify next steps. Your Turn

83 Instructiona Writing Standards (6-12)

84 Instructiona Writing Statistics 70% of students in grades 4-12 are low achieving writers (Persky et al., 2003) Nearly one third of high school graduates are not ready for college-level English composition courses (ACT, 2005) College instructors estimate that 50% of high school graduates are not prepared for college- level writing (Achieve, Inc., 2005)

85 Instructiona Writing Statistics Thirty-five percent of high school graduates in college and 38% of high school graduates in the workforce feel their writing does not meet expectations for quality (Achieve, Inc., 2005) Writing remediation costs American businesses as much as 3.1 billion annually (National Commission on Writing, 2004)

86 Instructiona We’ve got work to do…

87 Instructiona Emphasis on Writing “Reading Next” (2004): 15 elements of an adolescent literacy program –Intensive writing was one of the 15 elements “Writing Next” (2007): meta-analysis found 11 elements of current writing instruction to be effective for helping adolescent students learn to write well

88 Instructiona Emphasis on Writing “Writing to Read” (2010): meta-analysis to review research to identify writing practices found to be effective in helping students increase their reading skills and comprehension

89 Instructiona Writing Practices to Enhance Reading 1.Have students write about the texts they have read Responding to text (i.e. analysis, reaction) Summaries Notes Generating and Answering questions about a text in writing “Writing to Read” (2010)

90 Instructiona Writing Practices to Enhance Reading 2.Teach students writing skills and processes involved in creating text Teach writing process, text structures for writing, paragraph or sentence construction skills (improves reading comprehension) Teach spelling and sentence construction skills (improves reading fluency) Teach spelling skills (improves word reading skills) “Writing to Read” (2010)

91 Instructiona Writing Practices to Enhance Reading 3.Increase the amount of writing students do Reading comprehension is improved by how often students produce their own texts “Writing to Read” (2010)

92 Instructiona Organization of Writing Strand Text Types and Purposes Production and Distribution of Writing Research to Build and Present Knowledge Range of Writing

93 Instructiona Text Types and Purposes Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content CCR

94 Instructiona Text Types and Purposes Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences CCR

95 Instructiona Jigsaw Activity Refer to Appendix A pages Partner One: Read the first section entitled, “Definitions of the Standards’ Three Text Types” Partner Two: Read the second section entitled, “The Special Place of Argument in the Standards” Take turns sharing the key points Your Turn

96 Instructiona Organization of Writing Strand Production and Distribution of Writing: –Produce clear and coherent writing (begins in 3 rd grade) –Develop and strengthen writing by guidance support from adults and peers –Use of technology to produce and publish writing; interact and collaborate with others CCR

97 Instructiona Organization of Writing Strand Research to Build and Present Knowledge: –Conduct short and sustained research projects –Gather information from multiple sources (print, digital) –Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research (begins in 4 th grade) CCR

98 Instructiona Organization of Writing Strand Range of Writing: (begins in 3 rd grade) –Write routinely over short and extended time frames for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes and audiences CCR

99 Instructiona Writing in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects

100 Instructiona Areas Same areas as the writing strand: –Text Types and Purposes –Production and Distribution of Writing –Research to Build and Present Knowledge –Range of Writing

101 Instructiona With your partner, review the Writing Standards 6-12 (pp ) Make note of the progression of skill across grade levels Review Appendix C: Samples of Student Writing to compare the writing samples to the standards for a particular grade level or grade level range Review the Writing Standards for History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects –Implications for training and implementation support? Your Turn

102 Instructiona Integrating Instruction of Conventions of Standard English into Writing Instruction

103 Instructiona CCSS Strands Remember: each strand is organized into strands: –Reading: text complexity and growth of comprehension –Writing: text types, responding to reading, and research –Speaking and Listening: flexible communication and collaboration –Language: conventions, effective use, and vocabulary

104 Instructiona Production and Distribution of Writing: “…Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3 on pages 28 and 29”

105 Instructiona Caution Separate Strand for Grammar does NOT imply isolated grammar instruction “Writing Next” addressed this issue: –“The meta-analysis found an effect for this type of instruction for students across the full range of ability, but surprisingly, this effect was negative. This negative effect was small, but it was statistically significant, indicating that traditional grammar instruction is unlikely to improve the quality of students’ writing”

106 Instructiona Putting the Pieces Together RtI Definition: A comprehensive, multi- tiered framework/system of supports to enable early identification for vulnerable students who are at-risk academically or behaviorally. RtI begins with good quality and effective instruction begins with clearly defined standards

107 Instructiona Putting the Pieces Together RtI CCSS Curriculum Based Measurements Formative Assessments School Improvement

108 Instructiona Putting the Pieces Together Assessments: Look at what your district currently has (curriculum based measurements, NWEA, ITBS, core basal tests) to determine the skills that are being assessed BEFORE assuming many new assessments will need to be developed

109 Instructiona Putting the Pieces Together Providing training and implementation support to teaching staff and administrators in the curriculum (CCSS & materials used to teach the curriculum), instruction, and assessment should be included in the district and building school improvement plans. The Common Core State Standards Initiative IS school improvement

110 Instructiona Contact Information Kim St. Martin, MiBLSi Statewide Technical Assistance Coordinator Kalamazoo RESA


Download ppt "Instructiona Common Core State Standards: 6-12 ELA Overview Kim St. Martin January 7, 2011."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google