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One More Peek at the Smarter Balanced Assessment System 2

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2 One More Peek at the Smarter Balanced Assessment System 2

3 Ripe Figs Read through the passage. Then use what you know to answer the questions. Find the others with the same book cover as you and discuss your responses.

4 Text Complexity Defining Rigor through Research and the Common Core Standards

5 Outcomes Define text complexity and describe why it matters Practice reading complex text and using text- based evidence in discussion Evaluate text complexity of a non-fiction passage Identify implications for our work as school and district leaders

6 Myths about CCSS Myth #3 The Common Core standards represent a modest change from current practice. “…several states conducted analyses that found considerable alignment between them and their current standards. Yet while the content of the two sets of standards is similar, the level of knowledge and skills the Common Core calls for is in many respects quite different from what current standards expect and what schools currently practice.” Five Myths About the Common Core State Standards By Robert Rothman

7 Protocol – part 1 Read Appendix A, pages 2, 3 and top half of 4 Identify a passage that you feel has implications for your work Identify a back up passage

8 Three Levels of Text Protocol 1. Form a group of three people 2. Identify a time keeper and a facilitator 3. One person has up to three minutes to: Level 1- read aloud the passage they selected Level 2 – tell about what he/she thinks about the passage Level 3 – Tell about the implications for their work 4. The group responds for up to two minutes 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until everyone has shared their passage.

9 Hunt Institute Video Segment 1 Literary Non-fiction in the ELA Classroom Turn to an elbow partner and discuss what literary non-fiction in the ELA Classroom might look like at your grade level/at different grade levels.

10 Break

11 Text Complexity “The Common Core Standards hinge on students encountering appropriately complex texts at each grade level in order to develop the mature language skills and the conceptual knowledge they need for success in school and life.”

12 “A survey by the National Association of Manufacturers, Anderson, and the Center for Workforce Success (2001) found that 80 percent of businesses had a moderate to serious shortage of qualified candidates, citing poor reading as a key concern.” “Another survey, published in 2000, found that 38 percent of job applicants taking employer-administered tests lacked the reading skills needed for the jobs for which they applied; this percentage had doubled in four years, not just because applicants lacked basic skills but also because the reading requirements for these jobs had increased so rapidly (Center for Workforce Prevention, 2002).” Career Readiness

13 “Based on 2005 ACT-tested high school graduates, it appears that only about half of our nation’s ACT-tested high school students are ready for college-level reading. Unfortunately, the percentage…is substantially smaller in some groups.” “Since 1999, readiness has declined – the current figure of 51 percent is the lowest of the past 12 years.” College Readiness

14 All students must be able to comprehend texts of steadily increasing complexity as they progress through school. What are the current realities in college and career readiness? ACT, INC. Report (2006) Key requirement for college and career readiness

15 As performance on one level increases, so does the performance on the other and to the same degree. Comprehension Level

16 As performance on one level increases, so does the performance on the other and to the same degree. Textual Elements

17 “Performance on complex texts is the clearest differentiator in reading between students who are more likely to be ready for college and those who are less likely to be ready.” Text Complexity

18 Summary of Findings: Literal and inferential questionsNo clear differentiator of readiness for college Textual elementsNo clear differentiator of readiness for college Performance with complex textClear differentiator of readiness for college

19 Hunt Institute Video Segment 2 The balance between Informational and Literary Texts in K-5 The balance between Informational and Literary Texts in K-5 Turn to your elbow partner and discuss what the implications might be. What new things might be required of students?

20 Overview of Text Complexity Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative 2.Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader. Quantitative 1.Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software. Reader and Task 3.Reader and Task considerations – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their professional judgment.

21 Where do we find texts in the appropriate text complexity band? Choose an excerpt of text from Appendix B: We could... or… Use available resources to determine the text complexity of other materials on our own.

22 A Four-step Process: Determining Text Complexity 22 Quantitative Qualitative Reader and Task 4.Recommend placement in the appropriate text complexity band. 3.Reflect upon the reader and task considerations. 2.Analyze the qualitative measures of the text. 1.Determine the quantitative measures of the text.

23 23 Measures such as: Word length Word frequency Word difficulty Sentence length Text length Text cohesion Step 1: Quantitative Measures

24 Lexiles 24 The Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Gr. BandOld LexileLexile Rangle Aligned to the CC Standards K - 1N/A 2 – – – – – 8860 – – – – CCR1070 –

25 Step 1: Quantitative Measures 25 Let’s imagine we want to see where a text falls on the quantitative measures “leg” of the text complexity triangle, using the Lexile text measures. For illustrative purposes, let’s choose Harper Lee’s 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird.

26 Finding a Lexile Measure for Text: / / Step 1: Quantitative Measures 26

27 Step 1: Quantitative Measures 27

28 Text Complexity Grade Bands Suggested Lexile Range Suggested ATOS Book Level Range** K-1100L – 500L*1.0 – L – 790L2.0 – L – 980L3.0 – L – 1155L4.0 – L – 1305L4.6 – CCR1215L – 1355L4.8 – 12.0 Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Kansas Common Core Standards * The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas. ** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL:

29 Step 1: Quantitative Measures 29 Lexile Text Measure: ATOS Book Level 870L 5.6

30 Step 1: Quantitative Measures 30 For texts not in the Lexile database, consider using the Lexile Analyzer: Registration is required (free) Allows user to receive an “estimated” Lexile score Accommodates texts up to 1000 words in length Texts of any length can be evaluated using the Professional Lexile Analyzer—educators can upgrade to this tool for free by requesting access s/ s/

31 31 Step 2: Qualitative Measures Measures such as: Levels of meaning Levels of purpose Structure Organization Language conventionality Language clarity Prior knowledge demands

32 Step 2: Qualitative Measures 32 The Qualitative Measures Rubrics for Literary and Informational Text : The rubric for literary text and the rubric for informational text allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software that tends to focus on more easily measured factors.

33 Partner Share How do the demands for text complexity increase from low to high?

34 Step 2: Qualitative Measures 34

35 Step 2: Qualitative Measures Lexile Text Measure: ATOS Book Level: 870L 5.6 From examining the quantitative measures, we knew: But after reflecting upon the qualitative measures, we believed:

36 36 Considerations such as: Motivation Knowledge and experience Purpose for reading Complexity of task assigned regarding text Complexity of questions asked regarding text Step 3:Reader and Task Considerations

37 “Texts can be difficult or easy, depending on factors inherent in the text, on the relationship between the text and the knowledge abilities of the reader, and on the activities in which the reader is engaged…When too many of these factors are not matched to a reader’s knowledge and experience, the text may be too difficult for optimal comprehension to occur.” Reader & Task Step 3:Reader and Task Considerations

38 Step 3:Reader and Task Considerations 38 The questions included here are largely open- ended questions without single, correct answers, but help educators to think through the implications of using a particular text in the classroom.


40 Step 4: Recommended Placement 40 Based upon all the information—all three legs of the model—the final recommendation for To Kill a Mockingbird is….

41 Step 4: Recommended Placement 41 In this instance, Appendix B confirms our evaluation of the novel. To Kill a Mockingbird is placed within the grade 9-10 text complexity band.

42 Tim Shanahan “To succeed, we will need to…strive to identify what makes a book hard and then to provide the scaffolding and motivation that would sustain students’ efforts to learn from such challenging texts.” Common Core Standards: Are We Going to Lower the Fences or Teach Kids to Climb? Thursday, October 13, 2011

43 Step 4: Recommended Placement 43 Template for Text Complexity Analysis and Recommended Placement Form :

44 Appendix B: Text Exemplars Go to pages 4-13 in Appendix B. Locate where to find Informational Text exemplars for your grade level/content area. Then, take a look at those exemplars.

45 Hunt Institute Video Segment 3 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects Peruse through pages of your ELA CCSS. What are your observations? What are the implications for Social Studies and Science Teachers?

46 Break

47 CCSS Implementation Readiness Assessment Essential to statewide implementation is prioritization of instructional support or professional learning systems and the pivotal role of district and building leaders to set a strong course for implementation throughout schools and districts. Use the Assessment Tool and other resources to help in your planning for implementation. Be prepared to share a “Next Step” with the whole group.

48 Wrap Up 1. Exit Slip – Readiness to Implement Survey 2. Clock Hours Feedback Form 3. Clock Hours

49 Research Base  ACT, INC. Report (2006)  Common Core State Standards (2010)  National Reading Panel Report (2000)  Publishers’ Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy Grades K-2 and Grades 3-12 (2011)  RAND Report: Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension (Snow, 2002)  Reading in the Disciplines: The Challenge of Adolescent Literacy (Lee & Spratley, 2010)

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