2One More Peek at the Smarter Balanced Assessment System Washington is one of 31 state members of the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium.
3Ripe FigsRead through the passage. Then use what you know to answer the questions.Find the others with the same book cover as you and discuss your responses.Dan1:00 to 1:15[HO] Ripe FigsThe purpose of the exercise is to tap into prior knowledge and to emphasize the need for criteria and tools for analyzing text complexity.
4Defining Rigor through Research and the Common Core Standards Text ComplexityDefining Rigor through Research and the Common Core StandardsDanSlides 3 thru 5, 1:15 – 1:20Audience should have had a general overview of the ELA standards.
5Outcomes Define text complexity and describe why it matters Practice reading complex text and using text-based evidence in discussionEvaluate text complexity of a non-fiction passageIdentify implications for our work as school and district leadersDanBy the time you leave today, you will know and be able toDefine text complexity and describe why it mattersPractice reading complex text and using text-based evidence in discussionEvaluate text complexity of a non-fiction passageIdentify implications for our work as school and district leadersDevelop a plan for next steps in your district
6Myths about CCSSMyth #3 The Common Core standards represent a modest change from current practice. “…several states conducted analyses that found considerable alignment between them and their current standards. Yet while the content of the two sets of standards is similar, the level of knowledge and skills the Common Core calls for is in many respects quite different from what current standards expect and what schools currently practice.” Five Myths About the Common Core State Standards By Robert RothmanDanOne of the major shifts represented in the CCSS is that of increased text complexity.
7Protocol – part 1 Read Appendix A, pages 2, 3 and top half of 4 Identify a passage that you feel has implications for your workIdentify a back up passageDan1:30 – 2:00The purpose of the next activity we are about to launch is to examine why text complexity matters and to give you a chance to experience using text based evidence in discussions about reading, one of the six major shifts which are called for in the CCSS. I’d like for your to read Appendix A, pages 2, 3 and the top half of page four. As you read, select one passage and a back up passage in case someone else in your groups comes up with the same idea, that you think has implications for your work.
8Three Levels of Text Protocol Form a group of three peopleIdentify a time keeper and a facilitatorOne person has up to three minutes to:Level 1- read aloud the passage they selected Level 2 – tell about what he/she thinks about the passageLevel 3 – Tell about the implications for their workThe group responds for up to two minutesRepeat steps 3 and 4 until everyone has shared their passage.DanThe structure that we will use to help facilitate a discussion based on evidence from the text is the Three Levels of text protocol. Given the short amount of time we have, it will be important to work in groups of three. I have found that this protocol is most successful when there is a time keeper who helps the group work within the suggested timeframe and a facilitator to ensure that everyone has a chance to speak. We will have 15 minutes for this protocol. 3 minutes for each person to talk about their passage, and 2 minutes for group members to respond. So if there are three people in each group, this will take us 15 minutes.
9Hunt Institute Video Segment 1 Literary Non-fiction in the ELA ClassroomTurn to an elbow partner and discuss what literary non-fiction in the ELA Classroom might look like at your grade level/at different grade levels.Dan1:20-1:30[HO] Introduction to Bearing Witness: Portraits of Americans Dreaming.Literary non-fiction in the ELA classroom includes providing students opportunities to delve more deeply into more varied texts. • Addresses student engagement with many sources: e.g. the Preamble to the Constitution, Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, and King's Letter from a Birmingham Jail.
11Text Complexity“The Common Core Standards hinge on students encountering appropriately complex texts at each grade level in order to develop the mature language skills and the conceptual knowledge they need for success in school and life.”KathleenSlides 10 thru 17, 2:00 – 2:10Page 3 Publisher’s Criteria
12Career Readiness“A survey by the National Association of Manufacturers, Anderson, and the Center for Workforce Success (2001) found that 80 percent of businesses had a moderate to serious shortage of qualified candidates, citing poor reading as a key concern.” “Another survey, published in 2000, found that 38 percent of job applicants taking employer-administered tests lacked the reading skills needed for the jobs for which they applied; this percentage had doubled in four years, not just because applicants lacked basic skills but also because the reading requirements for these jobs had increased so rapidly (Center for Workforce Prevention, 2002).”KathleenWhy students who are to be considered career ready must be able to read complex texts.
13College Readiness“Based on 2005 ACT-tested high school graduates, it appears that only about half of our nation’s ACT-tested high school students are ready for college-level reading. Unfortunately, the percentage…is substantially smaller in some groups.”“Since 1999, readiness has declined – the current figure of 51 percent is the lowest of the past 12 years.”KathleenFrom 2006 ACT Report: Reading Between the Lines page 7Table illustrates the number of students by ethnic and socio economic groups meeting college readiness benchmark for reading.
14What are the current realities in college and career readiness? Key requirement for college and career readinessAll students must be able to comprehend texts of steadily increasing complexity as they progress through school.What are the current realities in college and career readiness?ACT, INC. Report (2006)Kathleen
15Comprehension LevelKathleenFrom 2006 ACT Report: Reading Between the Lines (p. 13)As performance on one level increases, so does the performance on the other and to the same degree.
16Textual ElementsKathleenFrom 2006 ACT Report: Reading Between the Lines (p. 15)As performance on one level increases, so does the performance on the other and to the same degree.
17Text ComplexityKathleenFrom 2006 ACT Report: Reading Between the Lines (p. 15)“Performance on complex texts is the clearest differentiator in reading between students who are more likely to be ready for college and those who are less likely to be ready.”
18Summary of Findings: Literal and inferential questions No clear differentiator of readiness for collegeTextual elementsPerformance with complex textClear differentiator of readiness for collegeKathleenSmall groups or partners discuss the implications of this information for instruction at their level.
19Hunt Institute Video Segment 2 The balance between Informational and Literary Texts in K-5Turn to your elbow partner and discuss what the implications might be. What new things might be required of students?Kathleen2:20 – 2:30[HO]Beginner’s Guide to Text ComplexityArticle: A Discussion of Increasing Text Complexity by Hess & BiggamArticle: A Guide for Working with Difficult Texts by McMillanACT Reading Test Report Summary
20Overview of Text Complexity Text complexity is defined by:QuantitativeQuantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software.QualitativeQualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader.Reader and TaskReader and Task considerations – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their professional judgment.KathleenSlides 19 thru 29, 2:30 – 2:40There are three equally important considerations when measuring text complexity. The qualitative, the quantitative, and the reader and task considerations. We will look at each of these considerations individually
21Where do we find texts in the appropriate text complexity band? We could...Choose an excerpt of text from Appendix B:Use available resources to determine the text complexity of other materials on our own.or…KathleenTo determine text complexity we might consider the exemplar texts from Appendix B of the standards. Of course, excerpts from Appendix B which of course consider the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the equation but not the reader and task considerations from the equation or alternatively, we might use a few of the tools and make a determination ourselves.Take a moment to check out Appendix B. Select a grade level that you are familiar with. What texts do you see that you currently use, which texts represent a different level of rigor?This texts are not an exhaustive list, simply a few examples to give us an understanding of the levels of complexity for the grade level.
22Determining Text Complexity A Four-step Process:Determine the quantitative measures of the text.QualitativeQuantitativeAnalyze the qualitative measures of the text.Reflect upon the reader and task considerations.Reader and TaskKathleenOverview of the protocol. Determining text complexity is a four step process. We will go through each of these steps with an example.Recommend placement in the appropriate text complexity band.
23Step 1: Quantitative Measures Measures such as:Word lengthWord frequencyWord difficultySentence lengthText lengthText cohesionKathleenLet’s look first at the quantitative measure. We are familiar with a number of quantitative measures such as lexiles, AR levels and others. Quantitative measures consider things such as word length, frequency of word use, difficult of words, sentence length, text length.
24Lexile Rangle Aligned to the CC Standards LexilesThe Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text ComplexityGr. BandOld LexileLexile Rangle Aligned to the CC StandardsK - 1N/A2 – 3450 – 7904 – 5770 – 9806 – 8860 – 1010955 – 11559 – 101080 – 130511 - CCR1070 – 1220KathleenOne important note is that the Common Core Standards have called for higher levels of rigor. You will see slight upward changes in the ranges for each grade level. Where do we see the greatest upward shift?
25Step 1: Quantitative Measures Let’s imagine we want to see where a text falls on the quantitative measures “leg” of the text complexity triangle, using the Lexile text measures.For illustrative purposes, let’s choose Harper Lee’s 1960 novel To Kill a Mockingbird.KathleenAs we consider text complexity, we will use a popular novel used in many ELA courses as an example.
26Step 1: Quantitative Measures Finding a Lexile Measure for Text:KathleenOne tool that is available at Lexile.com is a look up feature where you can search a database for texts.
27Step 1: Quantitative Measures KathleenAfter entering the title, we see that To Kill A Mockingbird is at a 870 lexile level.
28Quantitative Measures Ranges for Text Complexity Grade Bands Kansas Common Core StandardsQuantitative Measures Ranges forText Complexity Grade BandsText ComplexityGrade BandsSuggestedLexile RangeSuggested ATOSBook Level Range**K-1100L – 500L*1.0 – 2.52-3450L – 790L2.0 – 4.04-5770L – 980L3.0 – 5.76-8955L – 1155L4.0 – 8.09-101080L – 1305L4.6 – 10.011-CCR1215L – 1355L4.8 – 12.0KathleenIn which grade band does the 870 lexile for To Kill A Mockingbird Fall?* The K-1 suggested Lexile range was not identified by the Common Core State Standards and was added by Kansas.** Taken from Accelerated Reader and the Common Core State Standards, available at the following URL:
29Step 1: Quantitative Measures 870LLexile Text Measure:ATOS Book Level5.6KathleenLooking at another quantitative metric, AR, we see that the level is 5.6. Do continue to use the tool that you are familiar with or your district uses. A recent study found there was no one tool that was superior.
30Step 1: Quantitative Measures For texts not in the Lexile database, consider using the Lexile Analyzer:Registration is required (free)Allows user to receive an “estimated” Lexile scoreAccommodates texts up to 1000 words in lengthTexts of any length can be evaluated using the Professional Lexile Analyzer—educators can upgrade to this tool for free by requesting accessKathleenFor texts that are not in the Lexile Database, there is a text analyzer tool in which you can take any document saved in .txt format and determine the lexile level. This is a free application and is available online.
31Step 2: Qualitative Measures Measures such as:Levels of meaningLevels of purposeStructureOrganizationLanguage conventionalityLanguage clarityPrior knowledge demandsKathleenSlides 30 thru 34, 2:40 – 2:50Now that we have looked at the quantitative considerations, let’s turn to the qualitative measures. In the past, we have attended to this, but not necessarily in the structured manner in which the CCSS suggest.
32Step 2: Qualitative Measures The Qualitative Measures Rubricsfor Literary and Informational Text:The rubric for literary text and the rubric for informational text allow educators to evaluate the important elements of text that are often missed by computer software that tends to focus on more easily measured factors.Kathleen[HO]Literary and Informational Qualitative Analysis RubricsGradients in Complexity Rubrics for Literary and Informational TextsQualitative measures look at important elements of the tests that are often missed by computer software which focus on the sorts of things that are quantifiable such as levels of meaning or purpose, the structure, language, prior knowledge, experiences, references to other cultures or texts, and content. We have included for you a rubric for both literary and informational texts that helps us to analyze the qualitative measures. Take a moment to peruse these tools.Because the factors for literary texts are different from information texts, these two rubrics contain different content. However, the formatting of each document is exactly the same.And because these factors represent continua rather than discrete stages or levels, numeric values are not associated with these rubrics. Instead, four points along each continuum are identified: high, middle high, middle low, and low.
33Partner ShareHow do the demands for text complexity increase from low to high?KathleenTake a moment to peruse these tools. What are some of the key differences from low to high text complexity?
34Step 2: Qualitative Measures KathleenUsers read across the four columns for each row of checkboxes on the rubric, identifying which descriptors best match the text by marking a particular checkbox.As Appendix A states, “Few, if any, authentic texts will be low or high on all of these measures.” The goal is not for all of the checkmarks to be in a single column; the goal is to accurately reflect these factors of the text.The marked rubric can then serve as a guide as educators re-evaluate the initial placement of the work into a text complexity band. Such reflection may validate the text’s placement or may suggest that the placement needs to be changed.In fact, this marked rubric represents the evaluation of To Kill a Mockingbird completed by a committee of teachers.
35Step 2: Qualitative Measures From examining the quantitative measures, we knew:870LLexile Text Measure:5.6ATOS Book Level:But after reflecting upon the qualitative measures, we believed:KathleenAfter reflecting on qualitative measures, we find that the 9th and 10th grade band is probably where To Kill a Mockingbird falls. Our initial placement of To Kill a Mockingbird into a text complexity band changed when we examined the qualitative measures. Remember, however, that we have completed only the first two legs of the text complexity triangle.The reader and task considerations still remain.
36Step 3:Reader and Task Considerations Considerations such as: MotivationKnowledge and experiencePurpose for readingComplexity of task assigned regarding textComplexity of questions asked regarding textKathleenSlides 35 thru 42, 2:50 – 3:00The third consideration is the reader and task. By this we mean, the motivation level, knowledge and experience, purpose for reading, complexity of the task and the questions a student might be required to respond to.
37Step 3:Reader and Task Considerations Reader & Task “Texts can be difficult or easy, depending on factors inherent in the text, on the relationship between the text and the knowledge abilities of the reader, and on the activities in which the reader is engaged…When too many of these factors are not matched to a reader’s knowledge and experience, the text may be too difficult for optimal comprehension to occur.”KathleenFrom the 2002 Rand Report.
38Step 3:Reader and Task Considerations The questions included here are largely open-ended questions without single, correct answers, but help educators to think through the implications of using a particular text in the classroom.Kathleen[HO] Questions for Reflection on Reader and Task ConsiderationsIn your packet is a handout on Reader and Task Considerations. The questions included here are largely open-ended questions without single, correct answers, but help educators to think through the implications of using a particular text in the classroom. Take a moment to read the handout on Reader and Task Considers. I’d like for you to practice Anchor Standard 2 – Summarize key ideas that need to be considered.
39KathleenAn example of a completed template for To Kill a Mockingbird from Kansas. Let’s read what was said about to Kill a Mockingbird.
40Step 4: Recommended Placement Based upon all the information—all three legs of the model—the final recommendation for To Kill a Mockingbird is….KathleenBased upon all three legs of the model, the most appropriate placement for the novel was grades 9-10.
41Step 4: Recommended Placement In this instance, Appendix Bconfirms our evaluation of the novel. To Kill a Mockingbird is placed within the grade 9-10 text complexity band.KathleenValidating our analysis, the Common Core Standards List of Exemplar Texts (Appendix B) came to this same conclusion.
42Tim Shanahan“To succeed, we will need to…strive to identify what makes a book hard and then to provide the scaffolding and motivation that would sustain students’ efforts to learn from such challenging texts.”Common Core Standards: Are We Going to Lower the Fences or Teach Kids to Climb?Thursday, October 13, 2011
43Step 4: Recommended Placement Template for Text Complexity Analysis and Recommended Placement Form:[HO]Blank Text Complexity Analysis TemplateHunger Games and Separate Peace Text Complexity AnalysesThe one-page template provides an opportunity to record the thinking involved in recommending the placement of a specific text into a text complexity band.Keeping a record of such analysis and thinking might be useful documentation in the case that any questions arise in the future.Once the recommended placement has been decided upon, educators might also find it useful to document some the thinking that led them to their conclusion.
44Appendix B: Text Exemplars Go to pages 4-13 in Appendix B. Locate where to find Informational Text exemplars for your grade level/content area.Then, take a look at those exemplars.
45Hunt Institute Video Segment 3 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical SubjectsPeruse through pages of your ELA CCSS.What are your observations?What are the implications for Social Studies and Science Teachers?3:00 to 3:15
47CCSS Implementation Readiness Assessment Essential to statewide implementation is prioritization of instructional support or professional learning systems and the pivotal role of district and building leaders to set a strong course for implementation throughout schools and districts.Use the Assessment Tool and other resources to help in your planning for implementation.Be prepared to share a “Next Step” with the whole group.DanKathleen assists with groups.3:20 to 4:45[HO]Implementation of the CCSS Professional Learning System Readiness AssessmentArticle: Explore the Common Core by Calkins5 Things Every Teacher Should be Doing to Meet the CCSSRevised Publishers Criteria for ELA CCSS (K-2, 3-12)Time for groups to work together and plan using the resources provided and the Readiness Assessment.
48Wrap Up Exit Slip – Readiness to Implement Survey Clock Hours Feedback FormClock HoursDan4:45 – 5:00[HO] Readiness to Implement Survey
49Research Base ACT, INC. Report (2006) Common Core State Standards (2010)National Reading Panel Report (2000)Publishers’ Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy Grades K-2 and Grades 3-12 (2011)RAND Report: Reading for Understanding: Toward an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension (Snow, 2002)Reading in the Disciplines: The Challenge of Adolescent Literacy (Lee & Spratley, 2010)