Presentation on theme: "What’s New in Social Studies?"— Presentation transcript:
1 What’s New in Social Studies? August 15, 2013Darlington County SchoolsKathy Hogan
2 IntroductionsFormer SS Coordinator for Lexington/Richland School District 5 in IrmoTeacher – Dutch Fork HSMember of the SS Standards development (2005) and revision (2011) committeesMember of the Standard Support Document writing teams (2008 and 2011).*Member of assessment item review committees.Does everyone have a printed copy of the SSD for the courses that you teach? SSD mat not make me popular but it does make me knowledgeable about state expectations for SS. You can only influence the outcome if you have a seat at the table.
3 Welcome!Introduce new members of the Social Studies Teams at each school. Darlington HS Darlington MS Hartsville HS Hartsville MS Lamar HS Mayo HS for Science/Math Rosenwald MS Spaulding MSWhere are the 6th grade teachers?7th grade?8th grade?
4 What will we do today?Review the 2011 changes to the Standards and the SSDsReview the role of SS in the CCSS and share resourcesBreakLook at the dataShare methods for improving dataDiscuss ways to improve data in DarlingtonBegin to work on these projects
5 Thomas B Fordham Institute A national, conservative think tankLet’s start with a celebration!!! SCD’s SS standards are ”best in the nation” ELA CCSS rated an B+, CCSS Math and A- and Science got an A-. SC’s 2005 standards and revised 2011 standards are history driven .
6 SSD: What’s New!!! http://ed.sc.gov/ changes to the SCDE website Turn to your neighbor and talk about the 2 changes to the format of the Support Documents and why these changes are important.Share out.Demo how to get to the SSD and other info
8 Why include the “Enduring Understanding?” Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe Understanding by Designknowledge which can be transferredthe “Big Idea”Three questions to ask before you teach…What do students need to know for the state test? (“Essentials to Know”)What do students need to know to be successful at the next grade level? (“Previous/Future Knowledge”)What do students need to know to be successful in the real world? (skills and Common Core State Standards)Example of Daniel Boone? Lewis and Clarke?
9 Enduring Understanding: USHC The student will demonstrate an understanding of…Enduring Understanding…the conflicts between regional and national interest in the development of democracy.Contemporary democratic ideals originated in England, were transplanted to North American by English settlers, and have evolved in the US as a result of regional experiences. To understand this evolution of democracy and the conflict between local and national interests, the student will…… how economic developments and the westward movement impacted regional differences and democracy in the early 19th centuryPolitical conflict is often the result of competing social values and economic interests. Different perspectives based on differing interests and background led to political conflict in the antebellum US.…how regional and ideological differences led to the Civil War and an understanding of the impact of the Civil War and Reconstruction on democracy in America.Democracy is based on the balance between majority rule and the protection of minority rights. To understand the impact of conflicting interests on the rights of minority groups, the student will..the industrial development and the consequences of that development on society and politics during the second half of the 19th and the early 20th centuries.Political democracy depends upon the active participation of individual working through political and economic interest groups to protect their welfare. To understand how groups in the past have protected their rights, the student will…
11 Social Studies Literacy Skills for the Twenty-First Century Grades K-3Grades 4-5Grades 6-8High SchoolDistinguish between past, present and future time.Establish the chronological order in reconstructing a historical narrative.Explain changes and continuity over time and across cultures.Examine the relationship of the present to the past and use a knowledge of the past to make informed decisions in the present and to extrapolate into the future.Measure and calculate calendar time.Create and interpret data in time lines.Interpret parallel time lines from different places and cultures.Trace and describe continuity and change across cultures.This is a closer look at two of the literacy elements. Please emphasize to teachers that it is essential that they teach skills as well as content. Also point out that developmental nature of the skills. Suggested skills for each standards are at the bottom of each standards page.
13 (adapted from Common Core State Standards) LITERACY IN HISTORY/SOCIAL STUDIES, SCIENCE, AND OTHER TECHNICAL SUBJECTS(adapted from Common Core State Standards)Grades K–3Grades 4–5Grades 6–8High SchoolAsk and answerquestions to demonstratehis or her understandingof a text, using the text asthe basis for the answers.Cite details from a text tosupport conclusionsmade from that text.Cite specific textualevidence to support theanalysis of primary andsecondary sources.Utilize contextualinformation to supportthe analysis of primaryand secondary sources.Use visual elements as aids to under-stand where,when, why, and how.Interpret visualinformation to deepen hisor her understandingIntegrate informationfrom a variety of mediasources with print ordigital text in anappropriate manner.Synthesize ideas and datato determine theirvalidity and authenticityAn abbreviated version of the CCSS were included in the SS Literacy Skills for the 21st century
14 What does this mean for Social Studies? What is the Common Core?Practice TestsWhat are the shifts in reading that the CCSS requires? *Generate some input on what teachers have already learned about the CCSS. *Turn to your neighbor and identify those 6 shiftsWhat does this mean for Social Studies?
15 Common Core State Standards 5 Shifts for ELA GradeLiteraryInformational450%845%55%1230%70%Shift 1: Informational TextShift 2: Increasing Text ComplexityShift 3: Academic Vocabulary** SS has more academic vocabulary than any other disciplineGradeOpinion/ArgumentInformational/ExpositoryNarrative430%35%81240%20%Shift 4: Text-Based AnswersShift 5: Writing from SourcesShift 6: Shift 6: Literacy Instruction in all Contents
16 Text Complexity of History Reading Often adheres to one or more structures:DescriptionSequenceCause/EffectProblem/SolutionCompare/ContrastListingNarrativeArgumentText Patterns & GO’sTeaching students to recognize these texts structures will help them to comprehend the text. History teachers are the expert in reading like a historian!
17 How can Social Studies teachers support the CCSS? as alwaysUse multiple texts and other SS sources (maps, charts, political cartoons etc.)Focus on critical thinking: analysis, synthesis, evaluationwith the addition ofTeach discipline specific approaches to textTeach discipline specific strategies
18 Teaching students to learn to read and read to learn simultaneously With all informational text (including the textbook)Demonstrate (think aloud) how comprehending strategies such as determining importance, summarizing, synthesizing, gathering information are important to the comprehending of informational text.Teach students to summarize and take notes; don’t do it for them!Demonstrate the use of text features and text structures and their importance to comprehending the text.Establish tasks that support explicit practice of using text structures and features in connection with comprehension.I used to require students to use their text to develop a chronology of events but never really taught them how to do it. These will come in one by one to facilitate discussion.
19 Argumentative Writing Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.Introduce claim(s), acknowledge alternate or opposing claims, and organize the reasons and evidence logically.Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.Use words, phrases, and clauses to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among claim(s), reasons, and evidence.Establish and maintain a formal style.Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the argument presented.
20 Common Core Literacy in History/ Social Studies Cite textual evidenceComprehend complex texts independently.Summarize central idea.Evaluate author’s point of view.Evaluate multiple sources.Integrate info from diverse sources.Write using evidence.What resources are available that will help teachers to provide classroom experiences that meet these CCSS.
21 Common Core Literacy in History/ Social Studies Cite textual evidenceComprehend complex texts independently.Summarize central idea.Evaluate author’s point of view.Evaluate multiple sources.Integrate info from diverse sources.Write using evidence.Document Based Questions!!Florida data from a TAH evaluation shows a significant impact of DBQs on elementary student achievement in both reading and writing. The DBQ Project provides great PD. But you don’t need the project to use documents. There are other on line sources that are free.
22 Reading Like A Historian Identify text structures.Be aware of the source of the text.Look for corroboration of the text.Use/cite evidence from the text.Be able to put the text into a time and place (contextualize)Use background knowledge to evaluate the text.Reading Like a Historian from Stanford UniversityBeyond the Bubble: A New Generation of History AssessmentsHistorical Thinking MattersAP Central (USHC, World History, European History Government, Economics, Human Geography) use only some of the docsUSC Digital AcademyGo to the Stanford site and emphasize World History lessons as well as USHC… can be used for 6th and 7th grade students as well (5th grade teachers in Lex 5 reviewed lessons and thought them applicable for their students)
23 Directions: Look at the painting below and evaluate the claim that follows. Source: The First Thanksgiving 1621, was created in 1932 by J. L. G. Ferris.Common Core: #1 (Gr. 6-12), #6 (Gr. 6-8), #7 (Gr. 6-8)
24 Question:The painting The First Thanksgiving 1621 is a useful resource for historians who wish to understand the relationship between the Wampanoag Indians and the Puritan settlers in 1621. Do you agree or disagree? (Circle one.)Turn to your neighbor and explain your thinking.
25 The painting The First Thanksgiving 1621 is a useful resource for historians who wish to understand the relationship between the Wampanoag Indians and the Puritan settlers in 1621. Do you agree or disagree?Source: The First Thanksgiving 1621, was created in 1932 by J. L. G. Ferris.Common Core: #1 (Gr. 6-12), #6 (Gr. 6-8), #7 (Gr. 6-8)
26 Proficient Student Response Can you think of a painting that would be appropriate for your grade level? Insert some paintings for other grade levels… School of Athens, Declaration of Independence signing, Louis XIV etcThis is an example of sourcing a document.
27 Directions: Use the letter below to answer the questions that follow. "Well we are trying to get a long the best we can and I tell you that is poor a nough. The troops all Seem to be discouraged Since the last battle at Fredericksburgh. I tell you that they hadent better ever take this army back to Alexandria or they will all [desert] and go home. I dont see what our government is doing."Source: Letter from Joseph F. Green, a soldier in the Union Army, to his friend Julia Reynolds on January 2, 1863.Question 1: Explain why a historian might not think that Joseph F. Green’s letter reflects the morale of the entire Union Army. Common Core: #1 (Gr. 6-12), #8 (Gr. 9-10), #9 (Gr )
29 CorroborateQuestion 2: Three documents are described below. Explain whether each document could be used to support Joseph F. Green’s claims about the morale of the Union Army. a. An 1863 public speech by President Lincoln that describes the Union soldiers as brave.b. An 1863 document from the US government that shows that many Union soldiers had recently deserted. c. An 1861 letter from a Confederate soldier to his mother that describes how two of his friends had deserted.Turn to your neighbor and explain your answer.
31 Using Documents as Evidence Document A: The following is an excerpt from sworn testimony given before the U.S. Senate by Corporal Richard O’Brien in 1902. O’Brien was called to testify in a Senate investigation of alleged war crimes committed by American soldiers in the Philippine-American War. “The first thing we saw was a boy ... and the first sergeant shot at the boy. Everybody fired at him. That brought the people in the houses out [and] the town was fired on ... Two old men came out, hand in hand ... they had a white flag, they were shot down. At the other end of the town we heard screams, and there was a woman there; she was burned up, and in her arms was a baby, and on the floor was another child ... The fighting was continued until everybody had fled or everybody was killed ... There was not a shot fired on the part of the Filipinos.”Common Core: #1 (Gr. 6-12), #4 (Gr. 6-12), #6 (Gr. 6-12), #8 (Gr ), #9 (Gr. 9-12)
32 Document B: The following is an excerpt from a letter to the editor of the Kansas City Journal by Colonel Frederick Funston on April 22, 1899. Funston, who was a war hero for his extensive service in the Philippine-American War, wrote and spoke often about the Philippine-American War in order to increase public support for American involvement in the conflict.“I am afraid that some people at home will lie awake [at] night worrying about the ethics of this war, thinking that our enemy is fighting for the right to self-government ... [The Filipinos] have a certain number of educated leaders – educated, however, about the same way a parrot is. They are, as a rule, an illiterate, semi-savage people who are waging war not against tyranny, but against Anglo-Saxon order and decency . . I, for one, hope that Uncle Sam will apply the chastening rod good, hard and plenty, and lay it on until they come in to the reservation and promise to be good ‘Injuns.’”
33 Question 1: Many Americans opposed the war in the Philippines Question 1: Many Americans opposed the war in the Philippines. How does Document A provide evidence that many Americans opposed the war?Question 2: How does Document B also provide evidence that many Americans opposed the war in the Philippines?Turn to your neighbor and explain your thinking.
34 Many Americans opposed the war in the Philippines Many Americans opposed the war in the Philippines. How does Document A provide evidence that many Americans opposed the war?Document A: The following is an excerpt from sworn testimony given before the U.S. Senate by Corporal Richard O’Brien in 1902. O’Brien was called to testify in a Senate investigation of alleged war crimes committed by American soldiers in the Philippine-American War. “The first thing we saw was a boy ... and the first sergeant shot at the boy. Everybody fired at him. That brought the people in the houses out [and] the town was fired on ... Two old men came out, hand in hand ... they had a white flag, they were shot down. At the other end of the town we heard screams, and there was a woman there; she was burned up, and in her arms was a baby, and on the floor was another child ... The fighting was continued until everybody had fled or everybody was killed ... There was not a shot fired on the part of the Filipinos.”Common Core: #1 (Gr. 6-12), #4 (Gr. 6-12), #6 (Gr. 6-12), #8 (Gr ), #9 (Gr. 9-12)
35 How does Document B also provide evidence that many Americans opposed the war in the Philippines? Document B: The following is an excerpt from a letter to the editor of the Kansas City Journal by Colonel Frederick Funston on April 22, 1899. Funston, who was a war hero for his extensive service in the Philippine-American War, wrote and spoke often about the Philippine-American War in order to increase public support for American involvement in the conflict.“I am afraid that some people at home will lie awake [at] night worrying about the ethics of this war, thinking that our enemy is fighting for the right to self-government ... [The Filipinos] have a certain number of educated leaders – educated, however, about the same way a parrot is. They are, as a rule, an illiterate, semi-savage people who are waging war not against tyranny, but against Anglo-Saxon order and decency . . I, for one, hope that Uncle Sam will apply the chastening rod good, hard and plenty, and lay it on until they come in to the reservation and promise to be good ‘Injuns.’”
37 Putting a Source into the Context of Time and/or Place Directions: Use the source information, your knowledge of history, and the poster to answer the questions below.Source: This is a poster for a play written in 1936 that celebrates the abolitionist John Brown, who tried to start a slave revolt in Harpers Ferry, Virginia, in 1859.Common Core: #1 (Gr. 6-12), #4 (Gr. 6-12), #6 (Gr. 6-8), #7 (Gr. 6-8)
38 Question 1: When was the play written? Question 2: Which two of the facts below might help explain why the authors wrote this play?1. Slaves made up nearly 40% of Virginia’s population in 1859.2. One of the play’s authors, Michael Gold, was a member of the Communist Party, which protested against lynching in the 1930s.3. After taking power in 1933, Adolf Hitler enacted racist policies in Germany.4. After seceding from the Union in 1861, Virginia became the largest state in the Confederacy and the home of its capital, Richmond.Turn to your neighbor and explain your thinking about these questions.This assessment gauges students' ability to source and contextualize a document. Students must first situate a playbill in time. Students then select facts that might provide relevant historical context for determining the authors' motivation and explain how the facts might shed light on why the authors wrote the play.
40 Using Background Knowledge and Periodization Directions: The following two letters are both from the archives of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and were written over twenty years apart. Read the letters and determine which was written first. Then explain your answers using evidence from the letters and your knowledge of history.Common Core: #1 (Gr. 6-12), #4 (Gr. 6-12), #5 (Gr ), #9 (Gr. 9-12)
41 Source: Letter A: First Lady of the United States to Walter White, Executive Secretary of the NAACP, addressing the lynching situation.Letter B: Daisy Bates to Roy Wilkins, Executive Secretary of the NAACP, describing the conditions of black children in a previously all-white school.
47 Lets’ take a closer look at the changes to the SSD… Focus on the “Enduring Understanding” and the Literacy ElementsAvoid just naming a bit of info in order to promote understanding of the underlying concept such as “subsidies in the form of land grants” [Pacific Railway Act]; “Tribal lands were divided into farm parcels” [Dawes Severalty Act]Many details moved to the “Non-Essentials” such as names of labor organizations (4.4)Improved connections between content of the indicator and previous indicators; referenced ( ) to emphasize the themes implicit in the standards.
48 Talk to your grade level team and share the content changes that you noticed in the SSD for your grade level.How can these changes be reconciled with the CCSS?Be prepared to report out.
49 Government and Economics Emphasis on founding documents
50 United States History and Constitution Focus on the Enduring Understanding (democracy)10 standards to 8 standardsEx. New Spain and New France; impact of the DOI on the world at large; development of the ArticlesCombination of some indicatorsEx Analyze how dissatisfaction with the government under the Articles of Confederation were addressed with the writing of the Constitution…Improved the narrative and brought it to more recent times3.5 Evaluate the varied response of African Americans to the restrictions imposed on them in the post-Reconstruction period…Conservatives and liberals
51 World History: the Making of the Modern World Starts at 1300Thematic, not chronological*Have you substituted these for the 2005 Global Studies standards?Greater inclusion of United States historyDo you have a pacing guide that reorders the indicators to follow some chronology?
52 World Geography Completely new standards Thematic, not regional Emphasis on concept not place
53 8th Grade: South Carolina History South Carolina: ONE of the United States8-1.2 Compare the motives, activities and accomplishments of the exploration of South Carolina and North America by the Spanish, French and English.(not just settlements in SC)8-1.3 Summarize the history of English settlement in New England, the mid-Atlantic region, and the South with an emphasis on SC as an example of a distinctly southern colony.8-1.6 Compare the development of representative government in SC to representative government in other colonial regions…Compare migration patterns of SC to such patterns throughout the US
54 7th grade Contemporary Cultures: 1600 to the Present
55 6th Grade Early Cultures to 1600 6-4.4 Explain the contributions, features, and rise and fall of the North American ancestors of the numerous Native American tribes, including the Adena, Hopewell, Pueblo, and Mississippian cultures.
56 A closer look at the EU!Work with your grade level team to read and discuss the “Enduring Understanding” for Standard 1.How well does each indicator support the EU?How might you improve the EU?How might you communicate the EU to your students?Report outThis activity may be skipped if time is running short…
57 So…Focus on the big ideas and enduring concepts, not merely on information. Facts = evidence of the Big IdeaInclude some SS literacy element in each lesson.Text: secondary and primary sourcesMaps, charts, graphs pictures, political cartoons …Emphasize evidence from text or other resources and include reading and writing in your lessons. (CCSS)
58 What does the data tell us? How many of you have read about the letter grades being assigned to schools… it is controversial…This is how we are being measured… so fair or not it’s what we’ve got!
59 Darlington Elementary Schools -2013 Model how to read the data… Turn to your neighbor and comment on what you see on the screen…. Where are strengths? Where are weaknesses?
60 Darlington Elementary Schools- 2013 Strengths in SS… weaknesses in Science.
61 Darlington Middle Schools -2013 Turn to your neighbor an identify the strengths and weaknesses in this MS data.
62 Darlington Schools – 6th Grade Where are the strengths…where are the weaknesses?
65 Darlington High Schools - 2013 Data is similar throughout the state… USHC EOCEP is lower than other EOC scores – it is a hard test. But it is the game we have… so what can we do about it???? Lexington 5 = compared to for Science A overall =91
67 Lexington 5 High Schools -2012 Compare to In 2013 percentage of objectives met fell by 10%. WHY??? How far did Darlington scores fall? – 20% is this accurate??? But this is the game that we have Sp what can we do?
71 How to improve scores…Think of the EOCEP as an EOC in Social Studies not in USHC!
72 How to improve scores…Think of the EOCEP as an EOC in Social Studies not in USHC!Understand and use the standards and the Standard Support Documents.
73 Assessment Guidelines: Appropriate classroom assessments could require students to be able to: Analyze Differentiate Organize Attribute Or any verb from the Understand or Remember cognitive process dimensions.
75 How to improve scores…Think of the EOCEP as an EOC in Social Studies not in USHC!Understand and use the standards and the Standard Support Documents.Develop assessments to prepare students for the EOC in Social Studies and give benchmark tests to measure progress.
76 United States History and Constitution How we did it in Lexington/ Richland 5…YearABCDFHS #108-095%12%30%22%31%HS #24%7%21%27%42%HS #314%55%
77 United States History and Constitution BCDFYearHS #108-095%12%30%22%31%09-1013%32%29%HS #24%7%21%27%42%10%36%HS #314%55%20%24%41%Why do you think it worked?
78 Process Started in 2009-10 with USHC CHS (HS #1)In district started the data team initiative so USHC benchmarks were reduced from 4 per year to 2 per year.
79 Other factors…HIS (HS #3)In levels were combined.
80 Process continued… 2012-13 expanded to other grades World History 8th Grade7th Grade6th GradeDeveloping test bank for 3-5
81 Developing the test banks… Search internet for released items from other states , especially NY RegentsNAEP Questions toolSorted questions
82 Characteristics of Good MC Questions Written at the appropriate cognitive level of Blooms.Aligned to the standard support document.Framed as a question.There is only one possible right answer. (No “all of the above” or “none of the above” or “a and c” answer choices.)Use positive phrasing (no “not” or “except” questions)Avoid similar language in the stem and in any distractor to avoid giving away the answer.Distractors are feasible to the uninformed.Distractors are of similar length and/or arranged longest to shortest, shortest to longest etc.
83 Social Studies Multiple Choice Questions Include process skills with stimulus (graphs, charts, maps, political cartoons) when appropriate.May use a distractor from an earlier time period.Should include common misunderstandings as distractors.
85 Developing the test banks… Teacher workshops to evaluate and edit questions, highlight the SSDSummer of 2009 USHC; 2012 –other grades, USPD: August, October, 2009 and February 2010, all US History teachersPD: August, November and February, , grades 6-8Test banks posted to intranet for use in classroom instruction, quizzes and unit tests
86 Process of benchmarking Establish the pacing guideCreate the testPost test to Achievement Series, run answer forms and testsGive the testGather (scan answer forms) and analyze the dataMeet with teachers to discuss results
87 What teachers said... These questions are too hard. Students don’t know how to answer these types of questions.Students cannot read the test.Students do not persist.Students do not remember.... “we talked about that!”BUT…The benchmark helped to prepare students for the rigor of the EOCEP.
88 What they say…We have already discussed the data and this is what we are doing next.Students are missing this question because…What strategy can I use to help students to understand this information?I have been teaching that wrong!I have to teach students to reason through the question and the distractors.
89 What did the benchmarks show? Pacing is crucial.Big patterns and enduring understandings must be explicitly taught.Instructional strategies may need to be changedEnduring MIS-understandingsSocial studies vocabularyReading and interpreting maps/ having mental maps.What instructional strategies might address the map issue?
91 What we are learning about student misunderstandings…. Why did democracy develop in the British colonies in North America?(USHC 1.2)A. colonists learned to cooperate to surviveB. colonists developed egalitarian societiesC. colonists brought English political traditions with themD. colonists rejected the political traditions of the mother country
92 USHCWhy did democracy develop in the British colonies in North America? A. colonists learned to cooperate to survive 79 B. colonists developed egalitarian societies 130 C. colonists brought English political traditions with them 397 D. colonists rejected the political traditions of the mother country 531School house rocks version of history is dangerous. Need to address this at 4th and 8th grade.
93 World HistoryHow did the ideas of democracy spread to the American colonies?A. emigrants took their political traditions with them.B. the crown required each colony to have an assembly.C. by example of various Native American tribesD. new colonies developed idea of representative government independently.
94 World History: Enduring MIS-understanding How did the ideas of democracy spread to the American colonies? A. emigrants took their political traditions with them 133 (27%) B. the crown required each colony to have an assembly. 54 C. by the example of various Native American tribes 32 D. new colonies developed idea of representative government independently 276
95 8th GradeWhat did the colonists mean by “no taxation without representation”?Only the Parliament, not the king, could impose taxesColonists wanted representation in ParliamentOnly their colonial assemblies could pass tax lawsColonists were opposed to all taxes.
96 8th GradeWhat did the colonists mean by “no taxation without representation”?Only the Parliament, not the king, could impose taxes. 87Colonists wanted representation in Parliament. 821Only their colonial assemblies could pass tax lawsColonists were opposed to all taxes. 47Talking to 4th grade teachers about this Enduring Misunderstanding.
97 Question #“We hold these truth to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”This quotation reflects beliefs mainly derived from which of the following?A. the Magna CartaB. the divine right of monarchs of EuropeC. John Locke’s theory of natural rightsD. Marxist philosophy.
98 Question #“We hold these truth to be self evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”This quotation reflects beliefs mainly derived from which of the following?A. the Magna CartaB. the divine right of monarchs of EuropeC. John Locke’s theory of natural rightsD. Marxist philosophy
99 Question #What did John Locke’s theory of the social contract, as developed in the United States Declaration of Independence, say?The people should revolt against a government that did not protect their rights. 655Monarchs could rule autocratically, but they had to grant certain rights to their subjects. 91Legislatures should have more power than kings. 69Government should guarantee equal economic conditions to all people. 323
100 USHC 1.7 Summarize the expansion of the power of the national government as a result of Supreme Court decisions under Chief Justice John Marshall, such as the establishment of judicial review in Marbury v. Madison and the impact of political party affiliation on the court.% correct/ % correct / % correct;Question #34= 66% Question #35 = 61% Question # 36= 41%
101 What was a lasting impact of the decisions of the United States Supreme Court under Chief Justice John Marshall? (USHC 1.7) A. extension of the Bill of Rights to enslaved persons 175 B. expansion of the power of the Federal Government 472(41%) C. restriction of the authority of Congress 431 D. promotion of the views of the President 58If students only know Marbury this is a logical answer. Therefore students must be exposed to other cases even though they do not need to remember the names or specific circumstances of those other cases.
102 USHC Benchmark #2 2009:What was the effect of Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation?Slaves were freed only in states that remained in the UnionSlave owners were given financial compensation for the loss of their slavesSouthern states were persuaded to surrender in order to keep their slavesAny chance that foreign powers would support the Confederacy was ended
103 Which of the following is true of the Emancipation Proclamation. A Which of the following is true of the Emancipation Proclamation? A. It freed all slaves in the South immediately. 233 B. It freed slaves in the north and in the south. 262 C. It freed slaves only in the border states and the western territories. 283 D. It freed slaves only in those areas in which the federal government exercised no control. 489
104 BenefitsCommon assessments provide a common understanding of how to use the Standard Support Document.Conversations around selecting common items serve as staff development for teachers new to the content.Results provide a common measurement of student achievement of the standards prior to summary state assessments, in time for re-teaching. (data team model)Improving assessments will impact students’ achievement.
105 Instructional practices that maximize student achievement* CategoryAve. Effect SizePercentile GainIdentifying similarities and differences1.6145Summarizing and note taking1.0034Reinforcing effort and providing recognition.8029Homework and practice.7728Nonlinguistic representation.7527Cooperative learning.73Setting objectives and providing feedback.6123Generating and testing hypothesesQuestions, cues and advance organizers.5922*Marzano, Robert et al. Classroom Instruction that Works; Research Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
106 49% 28% 34% 13% 50% Teacher skill improvement Student achievement gain Predicted increase in student achievement when teacher’s skill in classroom assessment increases Marzano, Robert J. Classroom Assessment and Grading That Work. Alexandria, Va: ASCD, 2006.Teacher skill improvement49%Student achievement gain28%34%13%Teacher skill in assessment starting %ile50%Student achievementstarting %ile
107 Do teachers need to get better at assessments? What is BUS?When was Charles I beheaded?1608164917761066
108 What did South Carolina colonists call the rice that they grew. A What did South Carolina colonists call the rice that they grew? A. nice rice B. yummy rice C. yellow rice D. Carolina Gold
109 Released Items Aligned for PASS 2012 What should the common assessments look like?Released Items Aligned for PASS 2012
110 Characteristics of Good Multiple Choice Questions Written at the appropriate cognitive levelAligned to the standard support document.Framed as a question.Avoid similar language in the stem and in any distractor.There is only one possible right answer.Distractors are feasible.Distractors are of similar length and/or arranged longest to shortest, shortest to longest etc.
112 Cognitive Process and Knowledge Dimension RememberUnderstandApplyAnalyzeEvaluateCreateFactsConceptsPASSProceduresMetacognitionMost PASS items are written at the understanding/concepts level. Others are at the Apply and Analyze level. We should avoid asking quesitons that are merely recall of facts.
113 And also....Analyze the Assessment Results How well did the class perform on the assessment?Were there particular parts of the assessment on which students did better/worse? (Item analysis) What does this mean for instruction?What if everyone missed a particular question? What does this mean for instruction?What if everyone failed? What does this mean for instruction?How do you avoid these surprises?
115 And the moral of the story is… …include other types of items in your formative assessments and in your tests as well as the multiple choice items in the test bank.
116 Extended Response Items Aligned to the standard support document.Assesses procedural skills that have been explicitly taught and practiced in class.Communicates expectations clearly to the student through a detailed rubric as to what constitutes an A, B or C answerIndicates how much each item is weighted.
117 And don’t forget...Engaging classroom learning opportunities that prepare students to understand and remember information and to be successful on the formative and the summative assessmentFrequent classroom formative assessments that gauge extent to which the standard/indicator has been mastered.Frequent, specific feedback to students.Emphasis on MC does not mean we will not be assessing through other means.
118 Our work today... Critique the items that we have available today. Align items to the appropriate standard/indicator using cut and paste.Make corrections/edits to items.Mark the standard support document to identify material tested and materials omitted from the assessment.
119 Practice: Content Alignment 8-2.5 Summarize the role of South Carolinians in the course of the American Revolution, including the use of partisan warfare and the battles of Charleston, Camden, Cowpens, Kings Mountain and Eutaw Springs.Who was the young South Carolinian who delivered a message from Nathanael Greene to Thomas Sumter?A. Julia DraytonB. Emily GeigerC. Rebecca MotteD. Martha PinckneyThese are 8th grade examples but the basic principles are applicable to all grade levels. Too specific. According to the standard, students do not need to know what individual women did during the revolution.
120 Practice: Context Alignment What misunderstanding between the King and the Native Americans, combined with an earlier misconception about land ownership, eventually led to war? A. The colonists promised a vaccine for small pox. B. The colonists continued to make the Native Americans slaves. C. The King believed the Native Americans were his subjects. D. The Spanish promised the Native Americans freedom.Too wordy. Remove the clause “combined with an earlier misconception about land ownership” and put that idea into another question. C includes the term King that is a repeat from the stem and so students are likely to guess and select this answer. They will be right but for the wrong reason. Other distractors are not plausible. B is true but is not between the King and the Native Americans making this a reading question. D is also true but again not with the King. Why would providing a vaccine for small pox lead to war? Native Americans would be glad to get this protection.
121 Does the question align to the standard and indicator? Does the question align to the Support Document?Does the question align to the indicated level of Bloom’s Taxonomy?Does the question align to appropriate literacy elements?
122 Practice: Context Alignment Why did the relationship between the Cherokee and the South Carolinians deteriorate after the death of Governor James Glen ?A. Glen’s successor (Lyttleton) wanted to make slaves of the Cherokee.B. Glen’s successor (Lyttleton) did not want to associate with the Cherokee.C. Glen’s successor (Lyttleton) stopped all trade with the Cherokees and took hostages.D. Glen’s successor (Lyttleton) wanted the Cherokee to pay taxes on the goods they traded.All stems must be closed i.e. in the form of a question. Too wordy and repetitive. Students do not need to know about specific governors.
123 Which is a better question? By the middle of the 18th century most of the people of the Up Country were A. Planters. C. Merchants. B. White Farmers. D. Slaves.Two word answer will pull students to select this answer so you will not know if they are answering correctly or guessing.
124 How did the government of Carolina become more democratic or governed by the people? A. The Anglican Church was made the official church. B. The Commons House of Assembly was created. C. Joseph West was chosen as governor. D. The Goose Creek men lost all of their power.Academic vocabulary is always a big part of what Social Studies is testing.If students don’t know what democracy means by the 8th grade then we have a big problem.
125 What did the southerners believe would bring an end to slavery and their way of life? A. If a Democrat was elected as President. B. The Compromise of 1850 C. If a Republican was elected as President. D. NullificationA and C are opposites so students will select between them. D is too short
126 According to the map, what was the smallest circuit court in area? A. Beaufort DistrictB. Camden DistrictC. Georgetown DistrictD. Orangeburg DistrictMerely a map reading question. It should require some analysis, applying knowledge to interpreting the map.
127 Eliminate questions that do not align to SC standards. Work with your team to evaluate some of the questions that you brought with you today or go to to find questions.Eliminate questions that do not align to SC standards.Turn stems into questions and fix other features to match SC practices.Writing or recognizing good questions is very hard work. So we should do this collaboratively to ease the burden on individual teachers and assure that we have good items that truly test the understanding of our students.
128 In your group, develop a test question that assesses students’ knowledge of some element in Standard 1. Be prepared to share with the group.MC questions can be written on large post-its.
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