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What’s Happening?  

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Presentation on theme: "What’s Happening?  "— Presentation transcript:

1 What’s Happening?    edible-chocolate-billboard-in-covent- garden/zRWo9zP0nH3uB117rW9uUg edible-chocolate-billboard-in-covent- garden/zRWo9zP0nH3uB117rW9uUg  hocolate-billboard-helps-Thorntons.html hocolate-billboard-helps-Thorntons.html

2 Evaluating an Integrated Marketing Program. Chapter 15

3 What should be evaluated?  Short-term outcomes (sales, redemption rates)  Long-term results (brand awareness, brand loyalty)  Product specific awareness (new product or extension, company)  Awareness of the overall company  Affective responses (liking the company, and positive brand image)

4 Evaluation  Pretest measures  Concurrent measures  Post test measures

5  Concept testing  Copytesting  Readability tests  Recall tests  Recognition tests  Inquiry Tests  Attitude and opinion tests  Emotional reaction tests  Physiological arousal tests  Persuasion analysis F I G U R E 1 5. 1 + two Message Evaluation Techniques

6 Concept Testing  Aimed at content of a marketing piece.  What is evaluated? Verbal messages Message and meaning Translations for international copy Product placement in ads Value of a sales promotional efforts  Focus groups may be used  Concept testing instruments: Comprehension and readability tests Reaction tests

7 Copytesting  Used when marketing piece is finished or in final stages  Portfolio test – print communication  Theater test – television/mass media communication  Methods used: Focus groups Can be mall intercept

8 Copytesting Copytesting can be used to determine if viewers comprehend this ad and what their reaction to it is.

9 Copytesting  Criticisms of copytesting Some agencies do not use them Can stifle creativity Focus groups may not be a good judge  Support of copytesting Issue of accountability - ek ek Majority support copytesting because clients want support for ad decision

10  Testing procedure should be relevant to objectives.  Researchers should agree on how the results will be used in advance.  Multiple measures should be used.  The test should be based on some model or theory of human response to communication.  Testing procedure should allow for more than one exposure.  In selecting alternate ads to include in the test, they should be at the same stage in the process as the test ad  The test should provide controls to avoid biases.  Sample used for the test should be representative of the target sample.  Testing procedure should demonstrate reliability and validity. Source: Based on PACT document published in the Journal of Marketing, (1982),Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 4-29. F I G U R E 1 5. 6 Copytesting principles of Positioning Advertising Copytesting (PACT)

11  Product name or brand  Firm name  Company location  Theme music  Spokesperson  Tagline  Incentive being offered  Product attributes  Primary selling point of communication piece F I G U R E 1 5. 3 Recall Tests - Items tested

12 Recall Tests  Day-after recall (DAR)  Unaided recall  Aided recall Factors affecting recall:  Respondent’s age affects recall scores – Table 15.1, p.416.  Medium used also plays a factor

13 Sample Recall Test 30-Second TV Advertisement for Pet Food

14 Recall Decay Magazine Ad vs. Television Ad Source: Magazines Canada’s Research Archive

15 Recognition Tests  Respondents shown marketing piece and are asked if they recognize it (if they have seen it before, where, when, how many times, etc.).  Good for measuring reaction, comprehension and likability.  Often used with recall tests, but different then recall tests

16 Inquiry Tests  When an advertiser runs a certain amount of ads and offers some inducement to reply to them in order to check media, the individual ad, the offering, or general campaign.

17 Emotional Reaction Tests  Used for material designed to solicit emotions.  Difficult to measure emotions with questions.  Warmth Monitor  Physiological arousal tests Psychogalvanometer Pupillometric test

18 Sample Graph from a Warmth Meter 30-Second TV Advertisement Ad section that elicited negative emotions

19  Sales  Redemption rates  Response rates to offers  Test markets  Purchase Simulation tests F I G U R E 1 5. 7 Behavioral Measures

20  Changes in sales  Telephone inquiries.  Response cards.  Internet inquiries.  Direct marketing responses.  Redemption rate of sales promotion offers. Coupons, premiums, contests, sweepstakes F I G U R E 1 5. 9 Responses to Marketing Messages that can be Tracked

21 Test Markets  Used to assess: Advertisements (different versions in different markets) Consumer and trade promotions Pricing tactics New products  Cost effective method of evaluation prior to large-scale launch.  Resembles actual situation.  Design test market to model full marketing plan.  Length of test market is a concern.  Competitive actions must be considered

22 Evaluating Public Relations  Number of clippings  Number of exposures/impressions  Advertising equivalence  Comparison to PR objectives – good v. bad, i.e., BP, Toyota  Changes in awareness, comprehension, or attitude (organization, products, employees, etc.)

23 Difficulties in Evaluating Advertising  Influence of other factors on behaviour  Delayed impact of advertising  Consumers change their mind in the store  Whether or not the brand is in evoked set  Goal of ad may be to build brand equity, not increase sales so what you intend to measure is important to clarify.

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