Evaluating an Integrated Marketing Program. Chapter 15
What should be evaluated? Short-term outcomes (sales, redemption rates) Long-term results (brand awareness, brand loyalty) Product specific awareness (new product or extension, company) Awareness of the overall company Affective responses (liking the company, and positive brand image)
Evaluation Pretest measures Concurrent measures Post test measures
Concept testing Copytesting Readability tests Recall tests Recognition tests Inquiry Tests Attitude and opinion tests Emotional reaction tests Physiological arousal tests Persuasion analysis F I G U R E 1 5. 1 + two Message Evaluation Techniques
Concept Testing Aimed at content of a marketing piece. What is evaluated? Verbal messages Message and meaning Translations for international copy Product placement in ads Value of a sales promotional efforts Focus groups may be used Concept testing instruments: Comprehension and readability tests Reaction tests
Copytesting Used when marketing piece is finished or in final stages Portfolio test – print communication Theater test – television/mass media communication Methods used: Focus groups Can be mall intercept
Copytesting Copytesting can be used to determine if viewers comprehend this ad and what their reaction to it is.
Copytesting Criticisms of copytesting Some agencies do not use them Can stifle creativity Focus groups may not be a good judge Support of copytesting Issue of accountability - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6aXN8qaxP ek http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6aXN8qaxP ek Majority support copytesting because clients want support for ad decision
Testing procedure should be relevant to objectives. Researchers should agree on how the results will be used in advance. Multiple measures should be used. The test should be based on some model or theory of human response to communication. Testing procedure should allow for more than one exposure. In selecting alternate ads to include in the test, they should be at the same stage in the process as the test ad The test should provide controls to avoid biases. Sample used for the test should be representative of the target sample. Testing procedure should demonstrate reliability and validity. Source: Based on PACT document published in the Journal of Marketing, (1982),Vol. 11, No. 4, pp. 4-29. F I G U R E 1 5. 6 Copytesting principles of Positioning Advertising Copytesting (PACT)
Product name or brand Firm name Company location Theme music Spokesperson Tagline Incentive being offered Product attributes Primary selling point of communication piece F I G U R E 1 5. 3 Recall Tests - Items tested
Recall Tests Day-after recall (DAR) Unaided recall Aided recall Factors affecting recall: Respondent’s age affects recall scores – Table 15.1, p.416. Medium used also plays a factor
Sample Recall Test 30-Second TV Advertisement for Pet Food
Recall Decay Magazine Ad vs. Television Ad Source: Magazines Canada’s Research Archive
Recognition Tests Respondents shown marketing piece and are asked if they recognize it (if they have seen it before, where, when, how many times, etc.). Good for measuring reaction, comprehension and likability. Often used with recall tests, but different then recall tests
Inquiry Tests When an advertiser runs a certain amount of ads and offers some inducement to reply to them in order to check media, the individual ad, the offering, or general campaign.
Emotional Reaction Tests Used for material designed to solicit emotions. Difficult to measure emotions with questions. Warmth Monitor Physiological arousal tests Psychogalvanometer Pupillometric test
Sample Graph from a Warmth Meter 30-Second TV Advertisement Ad section that elicited negative emotions
Sales Redemption rates Response rates to offers Test markets Purchase Simulation tests F I G U R E 1 5. 7 Behavioral Measures
Changes in sales Telephone inquiries. Response cards. Internet inquiries. Direct marketing responses. Redemption rate of sales promotion offers. Coupons, premiums, contests, sweepstakes F I G U R E 1 5. 9 Responses to Marketing Messages that can be Tracked
Test Markets Used to assess: Advertisements (different versions in different markets) Consumer and trade promotions Pricing tactics New products Cost effective method of evaluation prior to large-scale launch. Resembles actual situation. Design test market to model full marketing plan. Length of test market is a concern. Competitive actions must be considered
Evaluating Public Relations Number of clippings Number of exposures/impressions Advertising equivalence Comparison to PR objectives – good v. bad, i.e., BP, Toyota Changes in awareness, comprehension, or attitude (organization, products, employees, etc.)
Difficulties in Evaluating Advertising Influence of other factors on behaviour Delayed impact of advertising Consumers change their mind in the store Whether or not the brand is in evoked set Goal of ad may be to build brand equity, not increase sales so what you intend to measure is important to clarify.