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California Office to Reform Education Organization and Structure Strand (Focus Topic) College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard Grade- Specific Standard.

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Presentation on theme: "California Office to Reform Education Organization and Structure Strand (Focus Topic) College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard Grade- Specific Standard."— Presentation transcript:

1 California Office to Reform Education Organization and Structure Strand (Focus Topic) College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard Grade- Specific Standard (Focus Topic) College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard Grade- Specific Standard (Focus Topic) College and Career Readiness Anchor Standard Grade- Specific Standard

2 California Office to Reform Education Organization and Structure 2 Sample ELA/Literacy Standards Focus Topics from College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards RL.K.3

3 California Office to Reform Education Organization and Structure 3 RI StrandGrade Standard Number Coding Scheme

4 California Office to Reform Education Organization and Structure 4 L. K. 2b StrandGrade Standard Number Coding Scheme

5 California Office to Reform Education Horizontal and Vertical Alignment Writing Standard 7 Conduct research Writing Standard 9 Draw evidence from reading Speaking and Listening Standard 4 Share findings from research Reading Standards Read and understand what read, including for research Horizontal Alignment a.k.a Integration

6 California Office to Reform Education Horizontal and Vertical Alignment “ While the standards delineate specific expectations in reading, writing, speaking, listening, and language, each standard need not be a separate focus for instruction and assessment. Often, several standards can be addressed by a single rich task” (p. 5, CCSS).

7 California Office to Reform Education Horizontal and Vertical Alignment Pair literary texts with informational texts Locate evidence from texts to support written answers in questions and tasks Present information researched in tasks Study language conventions in reading texts Include questions and tasks that address standards many times in varied ways with multiple texts Integration Examples 7

8 California Office to Reform Education Horizontal and Vertical Alignment RI.4.5 Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text. Vertical Alignment a.k.a. Progression RI.5.5 Compare and contrast the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in two or more texts.

9 California Office to Reform Education Horizontal and Vertical Alignment RF.1.4a, b, c Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. c. Use context to confirm or self- correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary. Vertical Alignment a.k.a. Progression RF.2.4a, b, c Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. a. Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding. b. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings. c. Use context to confirm or self- correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

10 Content Shifts English Language Arts and Literacy

11 California Office to Reform Education Content Shifts Students will read and understand grade-level complex text independently and proficiently and express that understanding clearly through writing and speaking about text. Main Goal of the CCSS for ELA/Literacy

12 California Office to Reform Education Content Shifts 3 Shifts6 Shifts Regular practice with complex text and its academic vocabulary 3.Appropriately complex text 6.Academic vocabulary Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction and informational text 1.Balance literature and informational text (K-5) 2.Literacy as part of science and social studies/history; informational text as part of ELA (6-12) Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text 4.Questions regarding text are text-dependent 5.Writing to inform or argue using evidence

13 California Office to Reform Education ELA/Literacy: 3 shifts 1.Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction and informational text 2.Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text 3.Regular practice with complex text and its academic vocabulary

14 Content Shift #1: Regular practice with complex text and its academic vocabulary English Language Arts and Literacy

15 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 What is the appropriate text to teach at each grade level? Defined by… –Reading Standard 10 –Reading Foundational Skills Standard 4 (K-5) –Text Complexity and Text Types (Page 31) –Page 32 –Appendix A and Appendix B The Publishers’ Criteria further refines that criteria. Regular practice with complex text

16 California Office to Reform Education Reading Standard 10

17 California Office to Reform Education Reading Standards for Text Complexity KindergartenGrade 1 (Literary Texts) Grade 2 (Informational Texts) (Reading Foundational Skills)

18 California Office to Reform Education Reading Standards for Text Complexity Grade 3Grade 4 (Literary Texts) Grade 5 (Informational Texts) (Reading Foundational Skills)

19 California Office to Reform Education Children at the kindergarten and grade 1 levels should be expected to read texts independently that have been specifically written to correlate to their reading level and their word knowledge. Many of the titles listed above are meant to supplement carefully structured independent reading with books to read along with a teacher or that are read aloud to students to build knowledge and cultivate a joy in reading.

20 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Staircase of text complexity –Read-aloud texts well above grade-level band; read-along texts in grade-level band; independent reading at reading level of student –Extensive opportunities to encounter complex text Through read aloud and read along 50/50 balance between literature and informational text High-quality texts, worth reading and rereading, richly illustrated, when appropriate, and well written Reading foundations key to success with complex text (learn to read and read to learn simultaneously) Additional Text Selection Criteria

21 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Qualitative Reader and Task Quantitative Text Complexity Definition (page 31 and Appendix A)

22 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Resources for Determining Text Complexity (Appendix A, Page 32 and Appendix B, and Other Tools)

23 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Resources for Determining Text Complexity (Appendix A, Page 32 and Appendix B, and Other Tools)

24 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 24

25 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Text Complexity Grade-Band Level Chart Text Complexity Qualitative Rubrics Text Complexity Questions for Reader and Task Resources for Determining Text Complexity (Appendix A, Page 32 and Appendix B, and Other Tools)

26 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Text Complexity Process –Quantitative – place in grade-level band Lexile, ATOS, Flesch-Kincaid, etc. Text complexity chart (updated) –Qualitative – further define where to use within band Rubrics Professional judgment –Reader and Task – further define how best to teach text Is the content appropriate for age level? What areas are potentially difficult for students? What vocabulary should be taught? What is the big idea and key student understandings? What questions/tasks will get at those understandings and what standards align with those understandings? Determining Text Complexity – Appendix A

27 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Read “Insect Olympics” Quantitative Measures –ATOS: 4.4 –Flesch-Kincaid (FK): 4.5 –In what grade-level band does this article fit? Qualitative Measures –Use the appropriate rubric to analyze the article Reader and Task –What should be taught with this text? Text Complexity Analysis Practice

28 Content Shift #1 Domain-Specific (Tier III) hyperbole metaphor cell wall amoeba equation GDP Academic (Tier II) consequence criteria substantial justify persist (words essential for meaning, but not often easily defined in the text) Vocabulary Tiers

29 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Role in complex text One of two features of text most predictive of student difficulty (Chall 1996, Stanovich 1986, Nelson et al 2012) There is in fact a great deal of powerful academic vocabulary in these texts. From, “Officer Buckle” third grade (department, attention, speech, applauded, frowned, onstage, swivel, frowned, afterward, announced, discovered, grinned, roared, enormous, bowed) Vocabulary is difficult to catch up Academic vocabulary is essential.

30 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Which words should be taught? –Essential to text –Likely to appear in future text Which words should get more time and attention? –More abstract words (persist vs. checkpoint noticed vs. accident) –Words which are part of semantic word family (secure, securely, security, secured) Academic Vocabulary

31 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 When should you provide the meaning; when should students determine from context? How should words be taught? –Distributed practice –Use the text --Differences (applaud vs. clap; isolated vs. alone) Academic Vocabulary

32 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #1 Explicit and systematic instruction (focus on sequenced and structured teaching of phonological awareness) Need lots of distributed practice Need ongoing diagnostic support (assessment) Should be happening simultaneously with read alouds of complex text Reading Foundations

33 Content Shift #2: Building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction and informational text English Language Arts and Literacy

34 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #2 50/50 balance As students are learning to read in K-1, they should also exercise their ability to comprehend complex text through listening and responding to read-aloud texts In grades 2+, students begin reading more complex texts through read alongs, thus consolidating the foundational skills with reading comprehension. Reading aloud texts that are well-above grade level should be done throughout K-5 and beyond. Read-Alouds with Informational Text

35 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #2 Literacy in social studies/history, science, and technical subjects embedded in K-5; connections to content areas Additional resources referenced on Evaluation Tool l #2 –Page 33 in the CCSS for ELA/Literacy –PARCC Model Content Frameworks Sequencing Texts to Build Knowledge

36 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #2 36

37 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #2

38 Content Shift #3: Reading and writing grounded in evidence from text English Language Arts and Literacy

39 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #3 Students demonstrate understanding of text in writing, speaking, and research. Writing to sources –Text-dependent questions –“Evidence Standards” : Reading Standard 1 and Writing Standard 9 Research tasks –Develop from the text and topics studied –Offer students chance to reflect on a text or topic and connect it to other texts, events, or ideas (compare/contrast, investigate concept or idea, explore real-life connections, etc.) AFTER students fully demonstrate understanding of individual text Reading and Writing Grounded in Evidence

40 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #3 Questions that can only be answered with evidence from the text Can be literal but can also involve analysis, synthesis, evaluation Focus on word, sentence and paragraph as well as larger ideas, themes or events Focus on difficult portions of text in order to enhance reading proficiency Text-Dependent Questions

41 1.In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something. 2.In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. 3.In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote? What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous? What can you infer from King’s letter about the letter that he received? “The Gettysburg Address” mentions the year According to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? 41 Content Shift #3 Text-Dependent Questions

42 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #3 More time outside the text less inside Going outside the text privileges those who have that experience It is easier to talk about our experiences than to analyze the text That being said…. Why use text-dependent questions?

43 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #3 Multiple readings often make this unnecessary Too often provides information students can glean from careful reading of the text- in many cases provide a complete summary Almost impossible to wean students from this Similarly challenging to move teachers away from providing this “smoothing of the road” Research base? Why limit pre-reading?

44 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #3 Be focused around the big ideas and key understandings of a text (allow students to demonstrate understanding of what is most important in the text); not a reading strategy or device that is not important to understanding. Use standards to provide specific wording and expectations for knowledge (standards are not the focus) Focus student attention on difficult sections of text Expect thorough response Text-dependent questions should…

45 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #3 Should relate to big ideas and key understandings These types of culminating assignments will be a significant shift for students and teachers Culminating Activities

46 California Office to Reform Education Content Shift #3 From “Hot and Cold Summer” Trophies 5 th grade: “To avoid someone means to keep away from them so that you don’t have to see them and they don’t have to see you. How did the boys avoid meeting Bolivia at first? (pg. 23)” Re-read the last two paragraphs on page 39. Rory had a “strong suspicion”. What is a suspicion? What details in the story made Rory suspicious of Bolivia? Academic Vocabulary and Text-Dependent Questions

47 California Office to Reform Education Additional Alignment Considerations Possibly as much as vocabulary predicts student performance Questions and tasks addressing syntax Syntax

48 California Office to Reform Education Additional Alignment Considerations We must address fluency. With the arrival of more complex text, more students will struggle to read fluently. How to address this? Fluency

49 Close Reading Exemplar English Language Arts and Literacy

50 California Office to Reform Education Close Reading Exemplar Listen to the read aloud as instructed by the text. Think about the types of questions being asked and alignment to CCSS.

51 California Office to Reform Education Close Reading Exemplar Many questions not text dependent Virtually all culminating assignments not text dependent Focus on comprehension strategies Do not focus as strongly on academic (Tier II) vocabulary Not Aligned to CCSS – Many basal reading programs

52 California Office to Reform Education Close Reading Exemplar Do not typically “within and across grade levels…systematically develop the knowledge base of students” Some number of texts not aligned in terms of complexity Typical lack of balance between narrative and informational texts at each grade level Not Aligned to CCSS – Many basal reading programs

53 California Office to Reform Education Close Reading Exemplar Vocabulary and Leveled Text – 4 th Grade Example Shelter, splattered, fixed, rescue Journal, tremors, traction, interval, volunteered, retrieve Generation, abandoned, languished, terrified, warble, galvanized, debris, hoisted, shuddered Not Aligned to CCSS – Many basal reading programs


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