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Module 2 Planning lessons and units. TED 367 Methods in Sec. Ed.

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1 Module 2 Planning lessons and units. TED 367 Methods in Sec. Ed.

2 Module 2 Within the framework of developmentally appropriate practice, use curriculum and an understanding of the developmental levels of students to plan units and lessons for students, including atypical learners, in secondary level programs. Review of Standards Aligned System (SAS). Review of writing objectives. 3 domains of objectives. Review of Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model. Dealing with controversial topics.

3 Standards Aligned System (SAS)

4 Review of Objectives Instructional objectives: Learning targets for content learning. –Also called behavioral or performance objectives.

5 Goals vs. Objectives Goals –Ideals that a teacher would like to accomplish in a course. These are the intentions of a teacher in a course. –General statements beginning with To... Objectives –Actual behaviors teachers intend to cause students to display. –Specific statements containing the student will… –Quantifiable. –Basis for assessment.

6 Process in School Districts 1.Educational goals are established as learning targets (competencies that students are expected to achieve). 2.Goals are clarified into performance objectives (also referred to as goal indicators).

7 Process in School Districts When students perform competencies called for by the objectives, education is considered successful. Known as: –Criterion-referenced education –Competency-based –Performance-based –Outcome-based

8 Overt vs. Covert Overt performance: Directly observable behavior. Easy to assess. Covert performance: Not directly observable behavior. Occurs within a person. Not easy to assess. –Examples: Appreciate, discover, understand.  Observe behavior indicative of that achievement.

9 Verbs to Avoid in Objectives Appreciate Believe Comprehend Enjoy Familiarize Grasp Indicate Know Learn Like Realize Understand

10 Verbs to Use in Objectives Identify Speak List Select Choose Compute Add Draw Analyze Predict Locate Explain Isolate Divide Separate Infer

11 Objectives Must Be… Student-oriented. Descriptive of an appropriate learning outcome (operationalized). –We base assessment on objectives. Clear and understandable. Observable.

12 Ways Objectives Can Help in Instructional Planning 1.Objectives can help focus your planning. 2.Objectives can help plan effective instructional events. 3.Objectives can help plan valid evaluation procedures.

13 3 Domains of Objectives Realize that not all objectives are cognitive! 3 domains: a)Cognitive: Taxonomy by Bloom (1957, 1984) b)Affective: Taxonomy by Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia (1964) c)Psychomotor: Taxonomy by Harrow (1977)

14 Affective Domain Receiving Responding Valuing Organizing Internalizing (Krathwohl, Bloom, & Masia, 1964)

15 Psychomotor Domain Moving Manipulating Communicating Creating (Harrow, 1977)

16 Writing Measurable Objectives in the Affective Domain Students will become interested in finding out more about the specific aspects of human behavior that have been studied by psychologists. Operationalized: In an open discussion about the value of psychology, students will ask questions that would help them discover what aspects of human behavior psychologists have studied.

17 Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge –Ability to recognize and recall information. Memory. Comprehension –Ability to translate, explain, or interpret knowledge. Comprehension. Application –Apply knowledge to address new situations. Analysis –Scrutinize information knowledge and explain its significance. Synthesis –Form new ideas. Evaluation –Offer opinions and make value judgments

18 Bloom’s Taxonomy Knowledge Define Recall Recognize Recite Name Identify Comprehension Describe Compare Contrast Rephrase Put in your own words Explain the main idea

19 Bloom’s Taxonomy Application Apply Classify Use Choose Employ Solve Write an example Chart Analysis Analyze Summarize Compare Order/sequence Categorize Classify Draw conclusions Justify

20 Bloom’s Taxonomy Synthesis Predict Produce Write Design Develop Solve Estimate Construct Evaluation Judge Argue Decide Evaluate/assess Give your opinion Do you agree Select Recommend

21 Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model

22 Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction 1.Gain Attention: Focus learners. 2.Inform Learner of Objectives: Provide an advanced organizer: tell learners what will be learned. Get learners’ brains prepared for learning new material. 3.Help Learner Recall Prerequisites: Link previous instruction to new learning. Do this as often as necessary.

23 Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction 4.Present Instruction: Present new material to be learned. Teach. 5.Guided Practice: Help students learn material through examples and clarification. (Examples or seatwork.) 6.Independent Practice: Exercise student learning in order to improve it. (Seatwork and/or homework.) 7.Provide Feedback: Help students see what is right and wrong and why.

24 Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction 8.Assess Performance: Test: determine if students have learned the material and are ready to go on. 9.Enhance Retention and Transfer: Help students retain material and apply it to new situations.

25 Ways to Address The Nine Events In Instruction 1.Gain attention. a)Create a sense of curiosity. b)Pose a problem. c)Introduce a novel concept or viewpoint. d)Use an attention-getting device. 2.Inform learner of objectives. a)State the objectives in written and/or verbal form. b)Graphically/visually illustrate the objectives. c)Ask the learner to anticipate objectives. d)Create a need for mastering the objectives. Help students prepare for learning.

26 Ways to Address The Nine Events In Instruction 3.Help learner recall prerequisites. a)Ask for responses that stimulate the recall of prerequisites. b)Review prerequisites using oral and written reviews. c)List the prerequisites, or graphically/visually display them. d)Review key vocabulary. e)Relate what is to be studied to what has been studied before. Go deep! Prepare students to scaffold learning and build & fortify neural networks.

27 Ways to Address The Nine Events In Instruction 4.Present instruction. a)Present the new material in a variety of forms. Allow for learner differences. b)Provide active learning as much as possible. c)Do not cognitively overload the learners (7 ± 2). d)Use supplementary materials to make a rich, robust presentation. e)Use many examples, illustrations, and non- examples. f)Ask questions of students to further engage them in learning.

28 Ways to Address The Nine Events In Instruction 5.Provide guided practice. a)Provide an activity as seatwork so students can practice the skill. b)Walk around and help students. Make time available for individual attention. c)Help students clarify any fuzzy understandings of the material. d)Use a student response system to embed questions in instruction to actively engage learners.

29 Ways to Address The Nine Events In Instruction 6.Allow independent practice. a)Ask learners to apply new content to solve problems. b)Use homework and in-class assignments as well as quizzes to encourage learners to demonstrate their understanding of the material.

30 Ways to Address The Nine Events In Instruction 7.Provide feedback. a)Use reinforcing, corrective, and remedial feedback. b)Provide explanations of how answers were derived, what made one response stronger than another, and common misunderstandings. c)Provide class and individual feedback. d)Clarify any areas of confusion. e)Re-teach where necessary.

31 Ways to Address The Nine Events In Instruction 8.Assess performance. a)Utilize assignments, quizzes, tests, and exams. b)Exercise and measure performance frequently to identify thoroughly learner level of understanding of the material.

32 Ways to Address The Nine Events In Instruction 9.Enhance retention and transfer. a)After giving a test, go over it, explaining how answers were derived, and explain areas of confusion. b)Re-teach content not mastered, applying new content to different but related situations. c)Distribute practice over time to ensure deeper learning. d)Relate future learning to this content where appropriate. e)Avoid isolating content. f)Allow learner to “discover” related material. g)Allow learner to apply learning to new situations. h)Provide additional material or resources.

33 Working with MU’s Lesson Plan Format

34 Misericordia University Lesson Plan and Unit Plan Format Lesson Plan Instructions Unit Plan

35 Dealing with Controversial Topics

36 Preparing For and Dealing with Controversy English: –Use of certain books. Social Studies: –Values and moral issues. –“Real” history vs. “traditional” understanding. Science: –Biological evolution.

37 Preparing For and Dealing with Controversy A controversial subject may arise during normal discussion. Students, their values in development, want to know how teachers stand on certain topics.

38 Preparing For and Dealing with Controversy Help students analyze the issue. Help students realize controversial issues are open-ended (no right answers or clear solutions). Help students learn about all sides of an issue. Help them separate fact from opinion. Help students learn the content of an issue so they can make an informed decision.

39 Preparing For and Dealing with Controversy Model: –How people deal with controversy. –How people make wise decisions on the basis of carefully considered information. Teach students how to disagree agreeably. Help students realize that conflict can be healthy and have positive value.

40 Preparing For and Dealing with Controversy Plan in advance! Teachers should think thoroughly through and plan carefully in advance when dealing with a potentially controversial topic.

41 Preparing For and Dealing with Controversy Allow students (and teacher) to express opinions (First Amendment rights). Study an issue. Suspend judgment while collecting data. Form a reasoned opinion. Accept the reasoned opinions of others.

42 Review: MODULE 2 Standards Aligned System (SAS). Goals vs. objectives. 3 domains of objectives: cognitive, affective, psychomotor. Review of Gagne’s Nine Significant Events Model of Instruction. How to practically apply Gagne’s model in instruction. MU’s lesson plan and unit plan formats. Dealing with controversial topics.


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