Presentation on theme: "BRAIN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES FOR ADOLESCENTS IN JUVENILE DRUG COURT Joe Lunievicz, BA RYT, Director TI at NDRI www.ndri.org Developmental Issues."— Presentation transcript:
BRAIN RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTAL ISSUES FOR ADOLESCENTS IN JUVENILE DRUG COURT Joe Lunievicz, BA RYT, Director TI at NDRI www.ndri.org Developmental Issues 1
2 “No matter how articulate the practitioner may be, the words may not be comprehended if the speaker lacks understanding of the effects of drug use on adolescent cognitive development and the individual’s ability to comprehend the court proceedings in which he/she is involved, to comply with court orders and conditions of release, and most important, to be motivated to change his/her behavior over the long term.” Cooper, Adolescent Drug Users, 2008
Adolescent Brain Development Developmental Issues 3 What the Research tells us based on MRI research begun in the 1990s Adolescent Brains are under construction Development continues through the mid twenties. A. Rae Simpson, The MIT Young Adult Development Project Mentor Foundation, University of Minnesota
What We’ll Cover: Developmental Issues 4 Developmental changes Brain changes Influences on Development
Developmental Issues 5 “Adolescence is the period of physical and psychological development from the onset of puberty to maturity.” American Heritage Dictionary
Developmental Stages of Adolescence Developmental Issues 6 Early (12-14) Middle (15-17) Late (18-25)
Major Developmental Shifts Developmental Issues 7 Adolescence (Early and Middle teens) Young Adulthood (Late teens and early twenties) Later Adulthood (Mid-twenties and after)
Key Factor Developmental Issues 8 Adolescence is a period of profound brain maturation. Old belief that development was completed by adolescence… Development finishes around 25-6.
Adolescence Developmental Issues 9 Abstract Thinking Increased intensity of emotion Increased sensation-seeking Sensitivity to alcohol & other drugs Changes in sleep cycle
16-17 years old Developmental Issues 11 More likely than adults to be Impulsive Aggressive Emotionally volatile Likely to take risks Reactive to stress Vulnerable to peer pressure
Young Adulthood Developmental Issues 12 Greater complexity of thinking Critical thinking More integration of cognitive & emotional Relationships based on shared values, mutuality Respect for diversity Modified risk taking Decision based on future consequences & impact on others
Limitations Developmental Issues 13 Abstract principles Following vs. shaping rules and roles External vs. internal basis for decisions
Later Adulthood Developmental Issues 14 Greater complexity of thinking Shaping vs. following rules and roles Solving ill-structured problems Big picture thinking Self-correction, self-evaluation Internalized commitment of relationships and work Evaluation of external expectations
Nature vs. Nurture Developmental Issues 22 Developmental stage and vulnerability to environmental influences
Influences on Level of Functioning Developmental Issues 23 Emotional arousal: cold cognition vs. hot cognition Alert vs. Sleepy Familiarity of context Familiarity of content Practice Support
Individual & cultural Variation Developmental Issues 24 Age, education, gender Abuse, neglect, trauma Race, ethnicity, sexual identity Temperament Family background, parenting style Illness Learning disabilities Substance abuse Ares of concentrated interest Cultural background
Implications of Arrested Development Developmental Issues 25 Preference for physical activity over activities that require complex thinking. Less than optimal planning and judgment More risky, impulsive behaviours Minimal consideration of negative consequences
Drugs and the Brain Developmental Issues 26 Impact on the brain’s reward circuit (limbic system) Pleasure = release dopamine Drugs hijack the system and release more over a longer period of time.
Alcohol Developmental Issues 27 Adolescents with a history of alcohol use disorder may show deficits in short-term memory 10% less memory on short term verbal and non-verbal tasks Hippocampus encodes new information into memory Adolescents with history of alcohol abuse have smaller hippocampus volume Most vulnerable parts of the brain associated with memory, attention, sleep, coordination and judgment.
Marijuana and THC Developmental Issues 28 Hippocampus, cerebellum, basal ganglia, cerebralcortex Interferes with learning and memory Impacts on ability to study, learn new things, recalling recent events (short term memory) Long term impact inability to do complex tasks Increased risk of psychosis Increased of depression and anxiety
Positives Influences Developmental Issues 29 Challenging Old thinking Faculty and other adult interactions Diversity of peers Interdisciiplinary and intebratiove apporaches Out of classroom experience Instruction in cognitive skills, eg critical thinking
Positive Influences Developmental Issues 30 Providing support for growth Matching level of challenge with ability Scaffolding, balance of structure and flexibility Safety net, monitoring Tincture of time
Three Tiers of Influence Developmental Issues 31 Support optimal functioning Foster growth toward next steps Set the stage for ongoing development