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Vocabulary Instruction for EL’s By Carla Carrizosa M. Ed. National Board Certified Teacher Anita Archer Explicit Instruction Trainer Tier III Project G.L.A.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Vocabulary Instruction for EL’s By Carla Carrizosa M. Ed. National Board Certified Teacher Anita Archer Explicit Instruction Trainer Tier III Project G.L.A.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vocabulary Instruction for EL’s By Carla Carrizosa M. Ed. National Board Certified Teacher Anita Archer Explicit Instruction Trainer Tier III Project G.L.A.D. Trainer Carla Carrizosa 2013

2 Purpose of Session Participants will be able to: Understand how the brain learns -by Dr. David Sousa Understand how the ELL brain learns specifically in regards to vocabulary- by Dr. David Sousa Learn Margarita Calderon Strategies for Vocabulary Instruction Learn Anita Archer Strategies for Vocabulary Instruction No handouts. Imprinting. Carla Carrizosa 2013

3 Writing Research by Jean-Luc Velay and Anne Mangen at the University of Stavanger’s Reading Centre in Norway – The act of handwriting activates the brain regions that help boost recall.- Emanuel Medical Center-Health Day, 2011 – Different parts of the brain are activated when we read letters we have learned by handwriting. – When writing by hand, the movements involved leave a motor memory in the sensorimotor part of the brain, which helps us recognize letters. areas/school-and-learning/learning-environment/better-learning- through-handwriting-article html areas/school-and-learning/learning-environment/better-learning- through-handwriting-article html Jean-Luc Velay & Anne Mangen, Health Day

4 How the Brain Learns by Dr. David A. Sousa Learning is emotional = Long term memory (examples) An individual will remember curriculum content in which they have made an emotional investment. David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns, Chapter 3, 2006

5 Brain Research Emotions The Learning Environment (Classroom) Positive climate lends to endorphins in blood, which give a feeling of euphoria and stimulate frontal lobes (planning, high level thinking and focus occur) Negative climate leads to Cortisol in blood, which raises anxiety level and refocuses frontal lobe to flight or fight Learning Content Instructional activities which get students emotionally connected to the content of the learning David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns, Chapter 3, 2006

6 Brain Research Learning and retention are different we can learn something for just a few minutes and then lose it forever. Practice/Rehearsal is critical for long term storage. David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns, Chapter 3, 2006

7 Brain Research Prime Time 1 Prime Time 2 Teach New Material First David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns, Chapter 3, 2006

8 Brain Research Optimal Learning occurs between 7 a.m. to around 12 p.m. for pre/postadolescents and 8 a.m. to 1 p.m. for adolescents. Time when teaching and learning require more effort 12 p.m. to 2 p.m. for pre/postadolescents and 1 p.m. to 4 p.m. for adolescents. David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, Chapter 3, 2006

9 Brain Research Past Learning Helps in Present Learning – Link something from the learner’s past that helps add sense and meaning to the new learning. – Select an experience which is clear, unambiguous, and closely relevant not just related to the learning. (Romeo & Juliet/West Side Story-US Civil War/Vietnam War) – Sousa suggests journal writing as a closure strategy because process helps Ss make connections to previous knowledge and organize concepts for long term storage. David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, Chapter 4, 2006

10 Brain Research Readers must possess a word in their mental dictionary to recognize the print. Children learn vocabulary words when they are explicitly taught individual words and word-learning strategies. Direct instruction is effective for teaching difficult words representing complex concepts which are not part of the child’s everyday experience David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns, Chapter 5, 2006

11 Brain Research Thinking Skills and Learning – Model Thinking Skills in the Classroom – Positive Learning Climate Exhibit genuine interest Analyze own thinking process Change position if evidence warrants Admit mistakes Allow students to set rules, make decisions related to learning and assessment. Encourage students to follow their own thinking not repeat teacher’s view Prepare lessons that require higher order thinking to achieve learning objectives David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, Chapter 7, 2006

12 Brain Research Putting it All Together – Learning engages the entire person (cognitive, affective, and psychological) – Human brains seek patterns – Emotions affect all learning, retention, and recall – Past experience affect new learning – Brain’s working memory is limited – Lecture = lowest degree of retention – Brain is unique – Practice does not make perfect David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, Chapter 8, 2006

13 Quote “Learning, as a language based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. Learners must have access to the meanings of words that teachers, or their surrogates use (to learn something new).” Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui

14 Brain Research What did you learn about the brain? David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, 2006

15 ELL Brain Research Left Hemisphere- – Broca’s area reponsible for processing vocabulary, syntax, rules of grammar – Wernicke’s areas processes the sense and meaning of language Right Hemisphere – Emotional meaning of language Cerebellum = control and movement, now known to be responsible for language. David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, Chapter 1, 2006

16 How the ELL Brain Learns- by Dr. David A Sousa English Vocabulary Size at Three Years of Age in Various Economic Groups Social Economic GroupAverage Number of Words in Vocabulary Upper1,116 Middle-Lower749 Welfare525 David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns, Chapter 1, 2011

17 The ELL Brain Lexicon – The lexicon of a person is all the words they commonly use David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns, Chapter 1, 2011

18 The ELL Brain Size of mental lexicon will be determined by the richness and breadth of the exposure to vocabulary word in their native language. – The most reliable predictor of how well youngsters will learn to read is the size of their mental lexicons. Impacting how well they learn English because their brain will attempt to match a new English word with its counterpart stored in the child’s native language lexicon. David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns, Chapter 1, 2011

19 ELL Brain Research Acquiring vocabulary is not enough – EL’s must also know what the words means. – English is a contextual language - a word can have a different meaning depending on context (Ex. run has a 120 definitions context is critical to the definition)-Knowing the word in context in which it is used is critical to full understanding David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns, Chapter 3, 2006

20 The ELL Brain Tool and Guidance. Students need guidance about which vocabulary items to learn as well as help developing effective learning techniques. Lists. Use frequency lists adapted for age level David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns, Chapter 3, 2011

21 The ELL Brain – Use cognates to explain the meaning of English words as an effective strategy. – Using the L1 to facilitate the English form-to meaning linkage allows more of the brain’s cognitive resources to be focused on the English form itself free-up the brain to focus on learning the more contextualized types of word knowledge. David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns, Chapter 3, 2011

22 The ELL Brain Research done by Carlo et al – vocabulary words a week for 15 weeks In the context of a thematic unit Teachers used: – Word association tasks – Analysis of word roots – Cloze –Ss provided words omitted using contextual cues demonstrating knowledge and comprehension of text. David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns, Chapter 5, 2011

23 The ELL Brain Research (Jimenez, 1997;Jimenez & Gamez, 1996) – showed that when students are taught how to deal with unknown vocabulary to recognize Spanish cognates in English and to use their background knowledge and to ask questions Students developed more awareness of their own cognitive behavior (metacognitive) as well as a positive attitude (emotional) towards reading both of which are characteristics of skilled readers. David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learns, Chapter 5, 2011

24 The ELL Brain Himmele and Himmele (2009) – Mind-Set. Make an intentional effort to speak using academic language – Synonymous Tags. Use academic language and make the meaning of words clear by using non-content-specific words- Tier II words – Meaningful Contexts. Use academic language whereby the meaning of the words are obvious to the ELLs due to the context. – Visual Cues-select important words in the passage write them down on board or wall and rehearse them. Seeing the words repeatedly adds visual information in addition to saying them aloud. – Emotions. Create language rich lessons in which ELLs can hear the language in contexts that are comprehensible and engage their emotions through activities that are relevant and authentic. Ss can celebrate their emotional attachment to the learning. David A. Sousa, How the ELL Brain Learn, Chapter 5, Teaching Tip 5.2, 2011

25 The ELL Brain Metacognition-Wang, Spencer, & Xing, 2009 – Critical for learning another language Skill used by highly proficient readers of any language Skills include – Prereading – Prewriting – Word Analysis – Methods for monitoring their reading comprehension David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, Chapter 5, 2006

26 ELL Brain Research Choral reading. In grades 1-6 Key words and pictures to help make connections Examples and non-examples. Enhances understanding Easily Pronounced Words. Initially select words which are easy for EL’s to pronounce correctly. Cognates. Use cognates to help students see the connections between their language and English through the roots, prefixes, and suffixes. Affective Filter -Safe environment to practice without criticism Tools. Teach comprehension monitoring so students can recognize when they do not understand and are able to ask for help. Model (5.1, 5.3) – Think-out-Louds- Teacher or Student – Metacognition Strategies Pair-share- Reciprocal peer teaching (5.4) David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learns, 2006

27 Quote “Words are labels for our knowledge packets; the more words we have, the more packets of knowledge, the more background knowledge.” Marzano 2004 Marzano, 2004

28 The ELL Brain Discuss 3 facts about how the ELL brain learners that are new to you? David A. Sousa, How the Brain Learn, 2006

29 Margarita Calderon In order to comprehend text a student needs to understand percent of the words in a sentence, paragraph, or test question. Levels of word knowledge 1.No knowledge 2.General sense of the word (fastidious vs. fastidioso) 3. Narrow, context-bound knowledge. 4.Forgetting the word- knows the word but cannot recall, cannot apply in a meaningful way. 5.Depth of word knowledge- knows it means two different things in other languages, use of idioms Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K-5, Chapter 6, 2011

30 Margarita Calderon Preteaching Vocabulary through Explicit Instruction – Seven steps: 1.Teacher says, Ss repeat 3xs –Helps with pronunciation and introduces the print version 2.Teacher reads and models word in a sentence (context) from text. Ss is able to remember the word in context. 3.Teacher gives dictionary/glossary meaning-SS is exposed to formal English 4.Teacher explains meaning with student friendly definition gives examples that students can relate to. Teacher uses pictures, props, movement, or gestures to help students comprehend multiple meanings. 5.Teacher highlights aspect which may cause difficulty, spelling, polysemous, synonyms, antonyms, homophones, grammatical variations. Ss do more in depth word study. 6.Pair-share- all student involved orally- EL’s need to produce the word times. 7.Teacher assigns peer reading with oral and written summarization using new vocabulary. Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K-5, Chapter 6, 2011

31 Margarita Calderon Teaching Tier I, II, and III words – Tier I Basic words needed to communicate, read, and write – Tier II Information processing words Complex words Longer phrases Polysemous words –words with multiple meanings, use meaning in the text –(trunk) Transition words, Connectors Sophisticated words used for specificity in descriptions and rich discussions. – Tier III Subject specific, content based, Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K-5, Chapter 5 & 6, 2011

32 Margarita Calderon Tier II Words – Teaching Long Phrases Idioms – break a leg –get your head out of the clouds- he is in heaven- let’s get crack’n-In your dreams (Noun) phrases – odd looking- act out – cut off get rid of Prepositional phrases Taught as a whole or in chunks Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K-5, Chapter 6, 2011

33 Margarita Calderon Solution Table Round Divide Prime Round Trunk State Power Cell Right Radical Leg Tier II Words Polysemous words (homonyms or homographs) across academic content areas Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K-5, Chapter 5 & 6, 2011

34 Margarita Calderon Tier II Words – Sophisticated words and Specificity Long term EL’s use the same simple words over and over because they have been allowed to get by with such vocabularies Providing them with increased vocabularies interventions will move EL’s from one level to another Scrutiny, wholesome, and shuddered Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K-5, Chapter 6, 2011

35 Margarita Calderon Tier II Words – Cognates Literature=literatura Context = contexto Irony = ironia Osmosis = osmosis – False Cognates Library not Libreria/bookstore Story not historia/history Exit not exito/success Using Suffix patterns and Afffixes (ex. alphabeto/ alfabetico alphabetizar/alphabet/alphabetic/alphabetize) Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K

36 Margarita Calderon Tier II Words – Homophones SumSome CellSell WeatherWhether BlewBlue WholeHole (Imagine a whole cake) Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K

37 Margarita Calderon Difficulties for EL’s with simple words – Spelling – Pronunciation – Background knowledge – Unfamiliar word, not previously taught – False cognates Margarita Calderon, Teaching Reading & Comprehension to English Learners, K-5, Chapter 6, 2011

38 Margarita Calderon Which Margarita Calderon strategies will you use? Carla Carrizosa 2013

39 Quote “The limits of my language mean the limits of my world” Ludwig Wittgenstein

40 Anita Archer Characteristics of Effective Vocabulary Instruction 1.Instruction is clear and unambiguous 2.Instruction involves presentation of word meaning and contextual examples 3.Multiple exposures to the word are provided 4.Sufficient instructional time is devoted to vocabulary instruction 5.Students are actively engaged in vocabulary instruction. Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter 3, 2011

41 Anita Archer 1.Select words for explicit instruction 2.Develop or adopt student-friendly explanations 3.Develop examples and non-examples for introducing word or for checking understanding Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter 3, 2011

42 Anita Archer Select a limited number of words for robust, explicit vocabulary instruction Three to ten words per story, portion of story, or section of a chapter Briefly tell students the meaning of other words needed for comprehension Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter 3, 2011

43 Anita Archer Select words that are unknown Select words that are critical to passage understanding Select words that students will encounter in future – Focus on Tier Two words – Academic Vocabulary Select words that are more difficult to obtain Words having abstract versus concrete references Words with unknown concept Words not adequately explained within the text Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter 3, 2011

44 Anita Archer Tier I –Basic words Tier II – Words in general use, but not common- General Academic Vocabulary Tier III – Rare words limited to specific domain Background Vocabulary Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter 3, 2011

45 Anita Archer Student Friendly Definition – Use known words – Easy to understand – Tell students the explanation or – Have them read the explanation with you – Don’t know the pronunciation go to – – Dictionary for English Language Learner (Collins COBUILD School Dictionary of American English) Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes, Chapter 3, 2011

46 Anita Archer Illustrate the word with examples – Visual Examples – Concrete examples Object Act out Examples and Non-Examples- Check student understand using examples Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes 2011

47 Anita Archer 1.Introduce the part of speech 2.Introduce synonyms (same) antonyms (opposite). Homographs (same spelling- different meaning) 3.Tell students when and where the words is often used 4.Introduce the etymology (history and/or orgin) of the word Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes 2011

48 Anita Archer Archerism I do it 1.Introduce word 2.Present a student-friendly explanation 3.Illustrate the word with examples We do it (rehearsal) 4. Guide students in analyzing examples and non- examples using critical attributes You do it 5. Check students’ understanding Anita L. Archer & Charles Hughes 2011

49 Review Participants you can: Understand how the brain learns according to Dr. David Sousa – Emotional – Optimal Engagement Times – Background Knowledge – Direct and explicit instruction Choral Reading Examples and Non-Examples Cognates Affective Filter Tools for Comprehending Text Carla Carrizosa 2013

50 Review Understand how the ELL brain learns according to Dr. David Sousa – Lexicon dependent on Ss rich vocabulary in L1 – Cognates – Tool and Guidance – Frequency Lists – Vocabulary List a Week – Meaningful Contexts-Obvious – Visual Cues – Authentic and Relevant Activities –Emotional – Cloze Carla Carrizosa 2013

51 Review Understand Margarita Calderon’s strategies for Vocabulary Instruction – State the word in context from the text – Say the word and asks students to repeat the word 3xs – Provide student friendly definition – Highlight grammar, spelling, polysemy – Engage Ss in activities to develop word/concept knowledge – Remind students how/when to use the word Carla Carrizosa 2013

52 Review Understand Anita Archer’s strategies for Vocabulary Instruction – Explicit instruction is critical for vocabulary instruction. – I do it, we do it, you do it. – Cognates – Tier I, II and III words Carla Carrizosa 2013


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