Presentation on theme: "Strategies to Enhance Technical Reading Skills"— Presentation transcript:
1 Strategies to Enhance Technical Reading Skills Teresa RogersButler County ATCSummer 2010
2 Objectives Participants will: Review characteristics of good readers Discuss a variety of instructional strategies for teaching reading skills including:ModelingReading aloudThink – AloudsGraphic OrganizersSticky NotesHighlightingJigsawsReview fix-up strategies
3 Technical ReadingMany students struggle when confronted with technical or informational materials.They do not know how to:Use questions before, during, and after readingMonitor their reading for comprehensionUse fix-up strategiesCommunicate learning through personal response, text connections, or new understandings.
5 Organize TextRecall important details that relate to the author’s purpose and main idea (the big picture)Recall the sequenceDifferentiate between main ideas and less important ideas during and after readingUse textual aids and visual cuesConsider purposes – author’s, reader’s, teacher’s
6 Connecting to Background Knowledge Text-to-self – connections that readers make between the text and their past experiencesText-to-text – connections that readers make between what they are reading and another textText-to-world – connections that readers make between what they are reading to the real world
7 Making Inferences and Predictions Ability to read between the lines to grasp the deeper, often hidden, meaning of the textUse all aspects of text (e.g., visuals, headings) to create inferencesReflect on previous texts or experiences to make a connection or assumptionRelate text to current events and classroom themesUse cause and effect and fact and opinion to infer and predictGenerate relevant predictions with logical evidence that related to main idea and/or author’s purposeRevise predictions based on new evidence in text
8 Visualizing Creating mental pictures from the words in the text. Allows the words on the page to become real and concrete.
9 Generating and Answering Questions Generate relevant implicit and explicit questions to interact with textGenerate questions that the author wants the reader to askUse questions before, during and after readingActively seek to answer questions during reading
10 Determining Word Meanings Use sentence structure and semantic clues to predict word meaningUse context to figure out the meanings of multiple-meaning wordsUse knowledge of key vocabulary, prefixes, suffixes, and roots
11 Monitoring One’s Own Comprehension Use fix-up strategies when comprehension breaks downAdapt reading and thinking to fit the type of text (narrative/poetry, technical, expository/social science, science, math)
13 Model ComprehensionTeachers are the best qualified people to show students how good readers think.We should model our thinking when reading challenging content texts and performing tasks such as filling in graphic organizers, drawing mental pictures from texts, and creating written responses.
14 Reading aloud is vital for building fluency and language. Think-alouds are effective ways to show students how proficient readers think while reading.We can showthe many complex habits that help us comprehendhow much mental work it is to read for meaninghow we also get stuck, figure out words, ask silly questions, make predictions, infer, etc.
15 Scaffolding Student’s Comprehension Students need to be given opportunities to do what the teacher has modeled.Teacher assistance gradually diminishes as students master the skill.We want to do more than help students succeed at specific tasks such as answering questions about a text or filling in charts.Instead, we want to develop into mental habits that kick in automatically when students read any type of text in the future: SAT tests, DVD machine instructions, newspaper article, project reports, business letters, etc.
16 Giving Mini-lessonsShort and targeted lessons that teach a particular aspect of reading when the need arises.Introduce skill – let students know what they are about to learnTeacher modeling – show students the strategy, teacher think alouds are effectiveStudent modeling and guided practice – have students gradually take charge of the strategy and begin to require less support from you.
17 Written Responses Coding with sticky notes Making notes in the margins Circling, highlighting, bracketing, and underlining the text
18 Graphic OrganizersA visual representation of knowledge, concepts, or ideasHelp students to see the relationships between facts, terms, ideas, etc.Can be used in all phases of learning from brainstorming to introduce a topic to presentation of information to reviewCan be used as whole group, small group, or individual activity
19 What Type of Materials Do I Use? Content – articles that support and build background knowledge of the content we are teaching or help students make connectionsStrategy practice – short pieces that push our thinking, perhaps demanding that the reader ask questions, infer meaning, or synthesize information to understandFeatures – pieces that contain features that signify importance, such as headings, bold print, italics, and captions
20 Form – select a wide variety of different writing forms, including essays, letters, feature articles, and columns to expose students to the different characteristics of each formText-structure – use different short-text forms to examine different cue words and text structures.Perspective – articles that support different opinionsSurprising information
22 Making Connections - Oral Responses DiscussionSmall or whole group discussion about various types of connections we make when we readVerbal Responses“That reminds me of…”“I have a connection…”“Remember when…”
23 Making Connections - Written Responses Text CodesR – reminds me ofT-S – text-to-self connectionT-T – text-to-text connectionT-W – text-to-world connectionTwo-Column Note FormQuote or Picture from Text / My ConnectionWhat the Text is About / What It Reminds Me OfWords in the Text / My Personal ConnectionWords in the Text / My Connection to Another TextWords in the Text / My Connection to an Issue, Event, or Person
24 Questioning - Oral Responses DiscussionSmall or whole group discussion about various questions we have about a topicVerbal Responses“I wonder…”“How come…”“Why does…”“I’m confuse about…”“I’d don’t get it…”
25 Questioning - Written Responses Text Codes? – I don’t understand thisTwo-Column Note FormQuote or Picture from Text / My ConnectionWhat the Text is About / What It Makes Me Wonder AboutWhat I Know / What I WonderWhat I Learned / What I WonderQuestions / Facts
26 Questioning - Other Responses Question of the Day –Each day, challenge a different student to come up with a sincere question about a unit of study for others to answer.Or, use a question from the unit of study as bell work or an exit responseQuestion WebsThree Column Note form listing questions “Before, During, and After”
27 Visualizing - Oral Responses DiscussionDiscuss how words in text make pictures in the mindVerbal Responses“I get a picture in my mind…”“I can see …”“I visualized…”
28 Visualizing - Written Responses Text CodesV - visualizedTwo-Column Note FormQuote or Picture from Text / My Mental ImageWhat the Text is About / What I SeeWords on the Page / Picture in My MindWords on the Page / My Mental Map of What Happened
29 Visualizing - Other Responses Drawing what is visualized during reading or after hearing something is read“Sketch to Stretch” – have students fold a sheet of paper to desired number of squares. As you read section aloud, students draw the process being described
30 Inferring - Oral Responses DiscussionDiscussion about implied meanings, reading between the lines, using old and new information to understand, evaluate, analyze, predictVerbal Responses“I think…”“Maybe it means…”“I’m guessing that…”“I predict…”
31 Inferring - Written Responses Text CodesI – InferenceP – Prediction+ - Prediction or inference is confirmed by text- - Prediction or inference is contraindicated by textTwo-Column Note FormQuote or Picture from Text / InferenceFacts / InferenceQuestions / InferencePrediction / Confirmed or contraindicated
32 Determining Importance - Oral Responses DiscussionDiscussion about the difference between important facts and interesting factsVerbal Responses“This is really important…”“The main point is…”“The key thing to remember is…”
33 Determining Importance - Written Responses Text CodesI – Important* - One star – two stars depending on importance! - ImportantTwo-Column Note FormTopic / DetailsWords from the Text / Important IdeasWhat’s Interesting / What’s Important
34 Synthesizing - Oral Responses DiscussionDiscussion about what students have learned and how they can apply or use that knowledgeVerbal Responses“I get it…”“Now I can….”“Now I know why…”
35 Synthesizing - Written Responses Text CodesI – Important* - One star – two stars depending on importance! - ImportantTwo-Column Note FormTopic / DetailsWords from the Text / Important IdeasWhat’s Interesting / What’s Important
36 Teaching Fix-Up Strategies Remind students that good readers monitor their understanding by asking, “Do I understand this?”If not they use the following fix-up strategies.Slow your rate of reading, rereadLook back over the text for context cluesRead aheadUse pictures, graphs, etc. for cluesUse a dictionary or glossaryRead aloudAsk for help
37 Whole Group Procedure Jigsaw – Allow students to work in groups Give each group a section of the textProvide time for students to work on the skillAllow each group to share their information with the class
38 Classroom Resources Highlighters of different colors Sticky notes of different colors and sizesIndex cardsA variety of text
39 SummaryTeachers can greatly impact student reading ability by incorporating simple strategies in their everyday lessons.The success of these strategies can be greatly improved through mini-lessons and by teacher modeling.Consistent use can help students learn to use these independently and increase their success now and in the future.
40 Works CitedWilhelm, Jeffery Improving Comprehension with Think-Aloud Strategies. New York: Scholastic.Allen, Janet Yellow Brick Roads: Shared and Guided Paths to Independent Reading Portland, ME: Stenhouse.Harvey, Stephanie Nonfiction Matters. Markham, Ontario. PembrokeGoudvis, Anne. Harvey, Stephanie Strategies That Work. Markham, Ontario. Pembroke