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Analytical Thinking and Writing In All Subject Areas Expository Text Structure: Compare-Contrast.

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Presentation on theme: "Analytical Thinking and Writing In All Subject Areas Expository Text Structure: Compare-Contrast."— Presentation transcript:

1 Analytical Thinking and Writing In All Subject Areas Expository Text Structure: Compare-Contrast

2 Expository Text Structures (how authors organize nonfiction texts) Students need to be taught these text structures so that they can successfully read and write nonfiction. Compare-Contrast Cause-Effect Goal-Action-Outcome (procedure/process, sequential/chronological order, order of importance) Problem-Solution Proposition-Support (persuasive, position) Concept-Definition (descriptive)

3 Why should we encourage compare- contrast thinking and writing?

4 “Marzano’s 9” ( Robert Marzano’s research-based strategies for increasing student achievement) 1.identifying similarities and differences 2. summarizing and note taking 3. reinforcing effort and providing recognition 4. homework and practice 5. nonlinguistic representations 6. cooperative learning 7. setting objectives and providing feedback 8. generating and testing hypotheses 9. cues, questioning, and advance organizers Comparing and contrasting are high-level thinking skills!

5 Brainstorm topics in your content area that can be compared and contrasted.

6 “Understanding the expository text structures gives readers a better shot at determining important information when reading nonfiction…The text in standardized tests and traditional textbooks frequently falls into one or another of these text structures. If students know what to look for in terms of text structure, they grasp the meaning more easily.” from Nonfiction Matters, by Stephanie Harvey

7 “When students understand how a text is organized, they are more likely to identify the relationship of ideas, comprehend, and retain the information read. Also, students who develop an understanding of text structure are more likely to transfer this knowledge to their writing.”

8 Students’ awareness of text structures improves reading comprehension. Use Think-Alouds to show your students how smart readers think as they read.

9 Why should our students be doing analytical writing in all subject areas? Due to the rigor of state testing, our students are required to think at higher levels. Writing is thinking! Students cannot write without thinking. If students are not writing clearly, they are not thinking clearly. Writing is thinking made visible. Students need to write (and think!) in all subject areas to explain what they know and how they know it.

10 What does a compare-contrast text look like? A compare-contrast essay focuses on the similarities and differences between things. The purpose is to develop the relationship between them and in the process explain them in detail to the reader.

11 Tool for Compare & Contrast Thinking and Writing Double Bubble Map

12 Order of Operations for Essay Writing Begin with your topic. Brainstorm on a Thinking Map, jot list, etc. Analyze and summarize information on the Thinking Map, etc. to determine your thesis statement. Use information on Thinking Map, etc. to determine supporting ideas and write topic sentence for each idea. Find supporting evidence to explain supporting ideas in detail in the body paragraphs. Incorporate transitions to combine and explain your ideas. Write your hook (tells why we care, states thesis). Write your conclusion (rewrite the thesis, revisit main points from body paragraphs and hook).

13 Using the Writing Order of Operations in Science 1. Begin with a topic: Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonding.

14 2. Brainstorm on a Double Bubble Map. Between metals/ nonmetals Conduct elec. Chem. bonds covalent bonding High melting pts. ionic bonding nonmetals Share valence elec Produce ions Bond to get stable Use valence elec. Transfers valence electrons Low melting pts No +/- Don’t conduct elec Definite crystal shape No definite shape

15 3. Analyze the Double Bubble Map to determine a thesis statement. Between metals/ nonmetals Conduct elec. Chem. bonds covalent bonding High melting pts. ionic bonding nonmetals Share valence elec Produce ions Bond to get stable Use valence elec. Transfers valence electrons Low melting pts No +/- Don’t conduct elec Definite crystal shape No definite shape Summary of differences: How they get stable and join Summary of similarities: Both have common goal to bring compounds together and be stable

16 4. Create a thesis statement based on the analysis of the Double Bubble Map. THESIS: Although both ionic and covalent bonding bring compounds together, they do so in different ways. (2 subjects + summary of comparison/contrast = thesis statement)

17 It is an arguable opinion, based on evidence. The writer MUST develop the thesis statement before doing anything else because it drives everything else in the essay. The writer cannot figure out the supporting evidence unless he knows what he is supporting! A thesis statement CANNOT be wishy-washy. The writer has to choose a side. The thesis must be specific. After doing research to support the thesis, the writer may change his mind. That is okay! The thesis statement … the most important element of an essay!

18 Caution! Thinking Maps are simply a bridge to more organized thinking/writing. The critical element of teaching them to students is how to use them to develop a thesis statement and how to transfer the information to one of the six expository text structures. Simply filling out a Thinking Map will not give a student the thesis statement! Students must analyze the Thinking Map!

19 Now it’s your turn…… 1.Choose a topic from your previously created list of topics which can be compared and contrasted. 2.Compare and contrast the topics using a Double Bubble Map. 3.Analyze the Double Bubble Map and summarize the similarities and differences. 4.Create a thesis statement for a compare- contrast essay.

20 Tips for Writing a Comparison/Contrast Essay Introduction Hook (How will this compare/contrast help someone better understand this topic? Why is this topic important in the big picture?) Thesis statement (summarizes the major similarities and differences in the topic)

21 The Body Two Organizational formats: Item-by-item: One idea about the first topic is presented and then the similar information about the second topic is presented. Subject-by-subject: All features of first topic are discussed before the features of the second are presented.

22 The Body Writers need solid supporting ideas to develop an argument. Each paragraph should be focused on a single idea that supports the thesis. HOWEVER, write as many paragraphs as needed to support the thesis.

23 Students should use transition words in their writing. Transition words tell a reader that the writer is changing from talking about one item to the other. Transition words and phrases help make writing smoother and more coherent. Recognizing these “signal” words will also help students better comprehend non-fiction texts because they will read like writers. Students who read like writers typically have good comprehension. They are part of our state framework and are tested on the MCT2.

24 Compare-Contrast Transitions Use transition words to help the reader follow the flow of ideas. Transition words for similarities: in a similar way, in the same manner, similarly, equally, equally important, in the same fashion, likewise, in like manner, as well as, not only….but also, similar to, compared to Transition words for differences: but, on the other hand, instead of, still, yet, although, in contrast to, whereas, nevertheless, rather, on the contrary, however, while, unlike

25 The Conclusion of the Essay Rewrite the thesis statement using different wording and/or; Revisit the main points from the body paragraphs and/or; End on some memorable thought, such as a relevant quotation, interesting twist of logic, or some call to action that is related to the hook.

26 Remember! Content-area teachers are not responsible for GUM (grammar, usage, mechanics, and spelling). Teachers of all subjects are responsible for: Thesis statements Organization Transitional language Content

27 Back in the Classroom Post the compare-contrast transition words in your classroom. Model how smart readers think by doing the Think-Aloud activity and encourage your students to practice the strategy while they read. Use the annotated compare-contrast essays to help your students become analytical readers and writers. Have your students write a compare-contrast essay using the Writing Order of Operations on the essay planning page. Model each part of the essay planning page and provide feedback during the drafting stage.

28 Back in the Classroom Post the compare-contrast transition words in your classroom. Model how smart readers think by doing the Think-Aloud activity and encourage your students to practice the strategy while they read. Use the annotated compare-contrast essays to help your students become analytical readers and writers. Have your students write a compare-contrast essay using the Writing Order of Operations on the essay planning page. Model each part of the essay planning page and provide feedback during the drafting stage.


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