Presentation on theme: "Analytical Thinking and Writing In All Subject Areas"— Presentation transcript:
1Analytical Thinking and Writing In All Subject Areas Expository Text Structure:Compare-Contrast
2Expository Text Structures (how authors organize nonfiction texts) Students need to be taught these text structures sothat they can successfully read and write nonfiction.Compare-ContrastCause-EffectGoal-Action-Outcome (procedure/process, sequential/chronological order, order of importance)Problem-SolutionProposition-Support (persuasive, position)Concept-Definition (descriptive)“Let’s review the six text structures introduced in our professional development meeting in August.” Get feedback from participants on their introduction of the text structures to their students as suggested in the August professional development session. “Today we will focus on compare-contrast.”MCT2 assessment terms are in parentheses. Teachers should use both terms during instruction, and teachers and students should use the terms interchangeably.
3Why should we encourage compare-contrast thinking and writing? Model good classroom instructional practice by giving “wait time.” Then allow volunteers to answer.
4“Marzano’s 9” Comparing and contrasting are ( Robert Marzano’s research-based strategiesfor increasing student achievement)identifying similarities and differences2. summarizing and note taking3. reinforcing effort and providing recognition4. homework and practice5. nonlinguistic representations6. cooperative learning7. setting objectives and providing feedback8. generating and testing hypotheses9. cues, questioning, and advance organizersComparing and contrasting arehigh-level thinking skills!
5Brainstorm topics in your content area that can be compared and contrasted. Provide butcher paper and markers. Have participants sit by departments and brainstorm as a group using their framework. Have them write their ideas on chart paper and post in the room. These will be used later in today’s session.
6“Understanding the expository text structures gives readers a better shot at determining important information when reading nonfiction…The text in standardized tests and traditional textbooks frequently falls into one or another of these text structures. If students know what to look for in terms of text structure, they grasp the meaning more easily.” from Nonfiction Matters, by Stephanie Harvey
7“When students understand how a text is organized, they are more likely to identify the relationship of ideas, comprehend, and retain the information read. Also, students who develop an understanding of text structure are more likely to transfer this knowledge to their writing.”
8Students’ awareness of text structures improves reading comprehension. Use Think-Alouds to show your students how smart readers think as they read.The presenter should model Think-Alouds for the participants using the instructions in the presenter’s binder. After presenter has modeled, have participants practice with a partner using a compare-contrast passage marked in their textbook teacher’s editions during the introductory session in August.
9Why should our students be doing analytical writing in all subject areas? Due to the rigor of state testing, our students are required to think at higher levels.Writing is thinking! Students cannot write without thinking.If students are not writing clearly, they are not thinking clearly.Writing is thinking made visible.Students need to write (and think!) in all subject areas to explain what they know and how they know it.Ask participants to provide possible answers. Then show the answers.
10What does a compare-contrast text look like? A compare-contrast essay focuses on the similarities and differences between things. The purpose is to develop the relationship between them and in the process explain them in detail to the reader.Distribute sample compare-contrast essays (included in Presenter’s binder).
11Tool for Compare & Contrast Thinking and Writing Double Bubble Map
12Order of Operations for Essay Writing Begin with your topic.Brainstorm on a Thinking Map, jot list, etc.Analyze and summarize information on the Thinking Map, etc. to determine your thesis statement.Use information on Thinking Map, etc. to determine supporting ideas and write topic sentence for each idea.Find supporting evidence to explain supporting ideas in detail in the body paragraphs.Incorporate transitions to combine and explain your ideas.Teachers should use this order as they model essay writing. Students should use this order as they draft their essays using the essay planning page. (The last few steps may be done in a different order, still making the final product acceptable.)Write your conclusion (rewrite the thesis, revisit main points from body paragraphs and hook).Write your hook (tells why we care, states thesis).
13Using the Writing Order of Operations in Science 1. Begin with a topic: Compare and contrast ionic and covalent bonding.Walk participants through a an example of how to use the writing order of operations in their classrooms.
142. Brainstorm on a Double Bubble Map. Transfers valence electronsShare valence elecBetween metals/nonmetalsChem. bondsnonmetalsionicbondingUse valence elec.covalentbondingLow melting ptsProduce ionsNo+/-High melting pts.Bond to get stableConduct elec.Don’t conduct elecNo definite shapeDefinite crystal shape
153. Analyze the Double Bubble Map to determine a thesis statement . Between metals/nonmetalsConduct elec.Chem. bondscovalentbondingHigh melting pts.ionicShare valence elecProduce ionsBond to get stableUse valence elec.Transfers valence electronsLow melting ptsNo+/-Don’t conduct elecDefinite crystal shapeNo definite shapeEven though it is usually skipped, this step of analysis is the most critical step. Students should be required to analyze and summarize every Thinking Map they create.Summary of differences:How they get stable and joinSummary of similarities:Both have common goal to bring compoundstogether and be stable
164. Create a thesis statement based on the analysis of the Double Bubble Map. THESIS: Although both ionic and covalent bonding bring compounds together, they do so in different ways.(2 subjects + summary of comparison/contrast = thesis statement)The writing of the thesis statement is dependent on the previous step of analysis.
17The thesis statement … the most important element of an essay! It is an arguable opinion, based on evidence.The writer MUST develop the thesis statement before doing anything else because it drives everything else in the essay.The writer cannot figure out the supporting evidence unless he knows what he is supporting!A thesis statement CANNOT be wishy-washy. The writer has to choose a side.The thesis must be specific.After doing research to support the thesis, the writer may change his mind. That is okay!
18Caution!Thinking Maps are simply a bridge to more organized thinking/writing. The critical element of teaching them to students is how to use them to develop a thesis statement and how to transfer the information to one of the six expository text structures.Simply filling out a Thinking Map will not give a student the thesis statement! Students must analyze the Thinking Map!
19Now it’s your turn……Choose a topic from your previously created list of topics which can be compared and contrasted.Compare and contrast the topics using a Double Bubble Map.Analyze the Double Bubble Map and summarize the similarities and differences.Create a thesis statement for a compare-contrast essay.Provide butcher paper and markers. Have participants sit together by departments and work as groups. After a specified amount of time, have groups present their Double Bubble Maps and thesis statements. These can be taken back to their classrooms to be used as models during instruction.
20Tips for Writing a Comparison/Contrast Essay IntroductionHook (How will this compare/contrast help someone better understand this topic? Why is this topic important in the big picture?)Thesis statement (summarizes the major similarities and differences in the topic)
21The Body Two Organizational formats: Item-by-item:One idea about the first topic is presented and then the similar information about the second topic is presented.Subject-by-subject:All features of first topic are discussed before the features of the second are presented.
22The Body Writers need solid supporting ideas to develop an argument. Each paragraph should be focused on a single idea that supports the thesis.HOWEVER, write as many paragraphs as needed to support the thesis.
23Students should use transition words in their writing. Transition words tell a reader that the writer is changing from talking about one item to the other.Transition words and phrases help make writing smoother and more coherent.Recognizing these “signal” words will also help students better comprehend non-fiction texts because they will read like writers. Students who read like writers typically have good comprehension.They are part of our state framework and aretested on the MCT2.
24Compare-Contrast Transitions Use transition words to help the readerfollow the flow of ideas.Transition words for similarities:in a similar way, in the same manner, similarly, equally, equally important, in the same fashion, likewise, in like manner, as well as, not only….but also, similar to, compared toTransition words for differences:but, on the other hand, instead of, still, yet, although, in contrast to, whereas, nevertheless, rather, on the contrary, however, while, unlikeTeachers should have these posted in their classrooms for students to use as a reference in their reading and writing.
25The Conclusion of the Essay Rewrite the thesis statement using different wording and/or;Revisit the main points from the body paragraphs and/or;End on some memorable thought, such as a relevant quotation, interesting twist of logic, or some call to action that is related to the hook.
26Transitional language Content Teachers of all subjects are responsible for:Thesis statementsOrganizationTransitional languageContentRemember! Content-area teachers arenot responsible for GUM (grammar,usage, mechanics, and spelling).
27Back in the ClassroomPost the compare-contrast transition words in your classroom.Model how smart readers think by doing the Think-Aloud activity and encourage your students to practice the strategy while they read.Use the annotated compare-contrast essays to help your students become analytical readers and writers.Have your students write a compare-contrast essay using the Writing Order of Operations on the essay planning page.Model each part of the essay planning page and provide feedback during the drafting stage.Distribute any remaining participants’ handouts. Inform participants of the due date for students’ writing to be turned in. Provide the cover sheet for teachers to complete and attach to the front of their set of student papers. Student papers should be read, and feedback should be given to teachers. Begin the next professional development meeting with discussion about what teachers learned about themselves and their students as a result of this writing assignment.
28Back in the ClassroomPost the compare-contrast transition words in your classroom.Model how smart readers think by doing the Think-Aloud activity and encourage your students to practice the strategy while they read.Use the annotated compare-contrast essays to help your students become analytical readers and writers.Have your students write a compare-contrast essay using the Writing Order of Operations on the essay planning page.Model each part of the essay planning page and provide feedback during the drafting stage.Distribute any remaining participants’ handouts. Inform participants of the due date for students’ writing to be turned in. Provide the cover sheet for teachers to complete and attach to the front of their set of student papers. Student papers should be read, and feedback should be given to teachers. Begin the next professional development meeting with discussion about what teachers learned about themselves and their students as a result of this writing assignment.