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ABCs of Reading & Reading Instruction SAALED, Thursday March 30 th 2011 (12:05 – 13:05) Rosemary Tannock University of Toronto & The Hospital for Sick.

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Presentation on theme: "ABCs of Reading & Reading Instruction SAALED, Thursday March 30 th 2011 (12:05 – 13:05) Rosemary Tannock University of Toronto & The Hospital for Sick."— Presentation transcript:

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2 ABCs of Reading & Reading Instruction SAALED, Thursday March 30 th 2011 (12:05 – 13:05) Rosemary Tannock University of Toronto & The Hospital for Sick Children Canada

3 Plan for this presentation Why do many youngsters have difficulty learning to read? What are the key component skills How can we help youngsters who are struggling with reading?

4 Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain

5 Pyramid of Reading Behaviours Unlike language, reading has no specific genes to set up its circuitry or to dictate its development. “We were never born to read.”

6 Development of Reading It took the human species 2000 years of insights from first logographic scripts to first alphabet ( s ystem of symbols for each sound ) No Genes specific to reading; no “Reading Center” To read, each child must create a new reading circuit from older structures & their connections Children are given just 2000 days to gain the same insights!

7 Neuronal Recycling” for Numeracy & Literacy Existing circuits of neurons - originally designed for vision, language, & cognition – must forge new connections & pathways Neural circuits & pathways are created through hundreds of exposures (or thousands in the case of dyslexia) to letters, letter patterns, & words - to provide automatized & efficient processing of print What are the implications for education?

8 What must be bolted on…? “ Children are wired for sound, but print is an optional accessory that must be painstakingly bolted on.” - Steven Pinker

9 Automatic Recognition of: Smallest Sounds ◦Phonemes/phonemic awareness) Letters & Letter Patterns ◦Grapheme/orthographic awareness Morphology ◦Structure & form of words Meanings & Word Knowledge ◦semantics Pragmatic Knowledge ◦Language in use These skills must be bolted on!

10 from Maryanne Wolf: Proust & the Squid, 2007, p.145 Timeline of Fluent Reading: role of attention from Maryanne Wolf: Proust & the Squid, 2007, p.145 letter recognition ms “Every word has 500 ms of fame” (P&S p.145) Connecting letters-sounds; orthography-phonology ms ms Word knowledge; ~ 200 ms onwards processing Syntax/morphology

11 The Heart of Expert Reading At the heart of reading, 200 milliseconds allow us “time to think new thoughts”. Slow decoding, inattention, & poor oral language, all have negative impact on reading comprehension

12 Normal Readers Dyslexic Readers Visual Recognition MSEC Word Specific Activation 150 MSEC Phonological Processing MSEC Semantic Processing MSEC Delay Delay Delay Delay

13 What are the 5 critical domains for reading assessment & instruction? 1.Phonemic/phonological awareness 2.Alphabet principle 3.Fluency 4.Vocabulary 5.Text comprehension National Reading Panel (2000): Teaching Children to Read. Washington, DC: NICHHD Clearing House

14 1. What is phonological awareness? An oral language skill that allows us to detect and manipulate sounds at the phoneme, syllable, or word level ◦Includes phonemic awareness (the ability to identify & manipulate individual sounds in spoken words) ◦Does not involve written letters Phoneme: smallest unit of speech that signifies a differences in word meaning. English has 40 – 44 phonemes

15 2. Alphabet principle Understanding the relationships between phonemes & graphemes ◦Lack of phonemic awareness impedes development of alphabetic principle ◦Mastery of the alphabetic principle is required to read words Grapheme: part of the system of marks that make up printed language, which is called ‘orthography’ English speech sounds are represented by letters & groups of letters, called graphemes English has phonemes but 220 graphemes The problem: 1 phoneme can be spelled with different graphemes; I grapheme can represent more than 1 phonem e

16 Self-test How many phonemes are there in the word “box”? What are 2 most important phonological awareness abilities for reading? 4 phonemes: the single letter ‘x’ is comprised of 2 sounds (phonemes: /k/ /s/) Blending (pushing the sounds together) Segmenting (pulling the sounds apart)

17 Teaching sound blending & segmentation Sound Blending Segmentation Start with speech sounds that can be sustained (/s/ /m/) Progress from words with 2 speech sounds to 3, then 4 Demonstrate, model, practice Progress to practice with words with regular phoneme-grapheme correspondence Start with compound words (e.g. raincoat) Progress to words with 2 syllables Then onset-rimes Finally to phonemes (words with 2 speech sounds, 3, then 4) Progress to practice with words with regular phoneme-grapheme correspondence

18 Sounding out (phonological awareness) Reading Mastery is a direct instruction program that aims to provide students in kindergarten through grade 6 with explicit and systematic instruction in English language reading. The program offers fast-paced and interactive lessons and includes placement assessment and a continuous monitoring system. Know the sounds Blend the sounds (slowly without stopping) Read the word (say the blended sounds fast) Lovett: LRDP/HSC: Derived from Reading Mastery Classic I/II/Fast Cycle 2003 mmaaann man

19 Vowel Alert glow cow Adapted from Lovett et al: Empower™ Reading (The Hospital for Sick Children 2006

20 Teaching sound blending & segmentation Sound Blending Segmentation Start with speech sounds that can be sustained (/s/ /m/) Progress from words with 2 speech sounds to 3, then 4 Demonstrate, model, practice Progress to practice with words with regular phoneme-grapheme correspondence Start with compound words (e.g. raincoat) Progress to words with 2 syllables Then onset-rimes Finally to phonemes (words with 2 speech sounds, 3, then 4) Progress to practice with words with regular phoneme-grapheme correspondence

21 Onset-rime self-test What is the rime of ‘swim’ ? And “birthday”? Parts of an English syllable: An ‘onset’ is the beginning consonant letters A ‘rime’ is the part of a syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it

22 Onset-rimes: set of 37 rimes from which 500 primary words can be taught ackainakealeallamean ankapashatateaway eatellesticeickideight illinineinginkipir ockokeopororeuck ump ug unk Wylie & Durrell 1970: cited in Wendling & Mather (Eds), Essentials of evidence-based academic interventions (2009) NY: Wiley & sons

23 Line separates onset-rime

24 Morphemes Matter Periventricular nodular heterotopia Volunteer needed to read a word! What does this word mean? Periventricular nodular heterotopia is a common malformation of cortical development in which the migration of developing neurons destined for the cerebral cortex is abbreviated. Associated with seizures & reading deficits

25 What is a morpheme? How many morphemes in the word: “replacement ” ? Morpheme: the smallest unit of meaning in a language The word ‘reddened’ has 3 morphemes, which signal: its root = red; its verb class = - en; past tense = - ed Self-test

26 Peeling-off tree un mis re de ing tion less able ed Adapted from Lovett et al: Empower™ Reading (The Hospital for Sick Children 2006

27 3. Reading Fluency Fluency: “the ability to read connected text rapidly, smoothly, effortlessly, & automatically with little conscious attention to the mechanics of reading (e.g., decoding)” Fluency requires an appropriate rate, high accuracy, and appropriate expression Signs of poor reading fluency Reads word-by-word with limited expression or prosody, ignores punctuation, does not divide sentences into meaningful phrases

28 Effects of slow reading on reading performance Slow readers… Expend more energy than peers on trying to identify individual words Read less text & have less time to remember, review, or comprehend the text Have trouble retaining parts of the text in memory & so less likely to integrate those segments with other parts

29 When to focus on Reading Fluency Student should have accuracy of 90-94% on the material used for reading fluency instruction

30 Effective instruction for reading fluency Help develop automatic word recognition ◦1-minute speed drills for reading word list Provide an explicit model of fluent reading ◦Model reading, echo reading, choral reading Multiple readings (3 to 4) of text with corrective feedback on missed words Explicit instruction & practice in recognizing larger orthographic units Establish performance criteria for reading fluency & monitor progress ◦e.g., 40% higher than current reading rate

31 Word reading rate for 1-minute speed drills 30 correct wpm Grades 1 & 2: 30 correct wpm 40 correct wpm Start-Grade 3: 40 correct wpm 60 correct wpm Mid-Grade 3: 60 correct wpm 80 correct wpm Grade 4 onwards: 80 correct wpm Expected reading rate for connected text in Grade 4: 135 words per minute

32 Effective instruction for reading fluency Help develop automatic word recognition Provide an explicit model of fluent reading ◦Model reading, echo reading, choral reading Multiple readings (3 to 4) of text with corrective feedback on missed words Explicit instruction & practice in recognizing larger orthographic units Establish performance criteria for reading fluency & monitor progress ◦e.g., 40% higher than current reading rate

33 5. Text Comprehension A process by which readers construct meaning by interacting with the text through the combination of: Prior knowledge & previous experience Information in the text The stance readers take in relationship to the ideas presented in the text

34 Text comprehension Characteristics of Good Readers Poor Comprehenders Reads actively Reads for a purpose Previews text Uses a variety of strategies when reading ◦Predicting ◦Questioning ◦Summarizing ◦Visualizing Uses prior knowledge Monitors understanding Adjusts reading rate Limited vocabulary Poor attention Poor working memory Lack persistence Poor or fluent decoding Do not use strategies when reading Do not use prior knowledge Do not monitor their understanding

35 Effective instruction in text comprehension A.Vocabulary instruction B.Seven effective comprehension strategies: 1.Comprehension monitoring 2.Question answering 3.Question generating 4.Summarization 5.Cooperative learning 6.Graphic & semantic organizers 7.Story structures

36 Comprehension monitoring strategy INSERT “I knew that” confirms what you already know “I thought differently” Contradicts what you thought “I don’t understand this” Confuses you “I didn’t know that” Something new

37 Reading comprehension strategies

38 Effective reading comprehension strategies

39 Think-aloud reading comprehension strategies Visualize “I can see it clearly…” Visualize “I can see it clearly…” Prediction “I think I know what will happen…” Prediction “I think I know what will happen…” Vocabulary “What does ____ mean?” Vocabulary “What does ____ mean?” I nference “I figured it out!” I nference “I figured it out!” Purpose “I want to find out…” Purpose “I want to find out…” Connect “That reminds me of when…” Connect “That reminds me of when…” Explicitly teach “think-aloud” reading comprehension strategies, Create posters as classroom prompts. Promote ongoing use of these strategies across the curriculum, At any time that you engage the students in a reading task, the students may raise their hand and voice a “think-aloud”. - Explicitly teach “think-aloud” reading comprehension strategies, Create posters as classroom prompts. Promote ongoing use of these strategies across the curriculum, At any time that you engage the students in a reading task, the students may raise their hand and voice a “think-aloud”. -

40 Collaborative Strategic Reading

41 Summarization Get the Gist (Klingner, Vaughn, Schumm 1998) ◦To help students understand the concept of the ‘main idea’ Teach the strategy using a picture or cartoon first, then progress to a paragraph 1.who or what the paragraph is about? 2.what is the most important information about the ‘who’ or the ‘what’ in the paragraph? 3.Say it in a statement of 10 words or less

42 Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR)  The collaborative strategic reading strategy has been shown to improve reading comprehension for all students outcomes in general education classrooms (Klingner, et al, 1998, 2004; Hitchcock, et al, 2009; Vaughn et al, 2001). CSR components - combines modified reciprocal teaching and cooperative learning Teacher led component - teacher explicitly teaches and models the following 4 comprehension strategies for students

43 CSR Cooperative Learning Group Component Student led component - Students will work together in groups of 4 taking turns in roles of Leader, Clunk Expert, Gist Expert and Announcer. In roles, the students discuss and apply strategies while reading sections of the text aloud to group. A number of materials may be used including: Clunk cards, Cue cards, Learning log, Timers, & Score cards. To support a student’s reading comprehension needs this strategy will be implemented with a small group of students for one school term.

44 M M orphological processes S S yntactic processes P P honological processes S emantic processes O O rthographic processes The goal of RAVE-O is to simulate in our teaching what the brain does when it reads a single word, a paragraph, a text. RAVE-O: POSSuM RETRIEVAL, AUTOMATICITY, VOCABULARY, ELABORATION, ORTHOGRAPHY (RAVE-O) Wolf, M. et al (2003) J. Learning Disabilities 33:

45 Major RAVE-O Premise The more you know about a word, the better and faster you can read and comprehend it.

46 FAN “fan” as Noun, Verb

47 Orthographic Component Train the visual system to recognize letter patterns (chunks) and words Connect visual representations to corresponding sounds Develop speed in recognition and retrieval Understand and use the linguistic structure of English words to store and retrieve orthographic forms f an From RAVE-O Reading program (MaryAnne Wolf)

48 Morphological Component  Rapid recognition of morphemes added to words like fan  Automatic access to meanings of morphemes  Contributes to rapid recognition of words and to semantic development  Empower students to attack new and large words.

49 Semantic Component  Continuum of knowledge about every word  Multiplicity of Meanings  Words with richer “semantic neighborhoods” are read more quickly and easily!

50 Syntactic Component Who did what to whom Awareness of syntactic uses of words in text Understanding of grammatical relationships in language Pivotal for comprehension of connected text and semantic development Sam Sleuth tracked the tracks by the track.

51 Key Instructional Features of PHAST Track Programming Using prior knowledge Teaching prerequisite knowledge Preskill mastery Teacher modelling Scaffolded instruction Metacognitive strategy-based approach Metacognitive dialogue training (“self-talk”) Attributional retraining ----Success

52 Word Identification Strategy Training (WIST) Analogy: 1. Analogy: limerick (him)(her)(kick) Seek the Part You Know (SPY): 2.Seek the Part You Know (SPY): dogmatic dog mat ic Vowel Variations: 3.Vowel Variations: headbeadbreak seam? great? breath? Peeling Off: 4.Peeling Off: unrelenting (un)(re)lent(ing)

53 Using the 5 PHAST Strategies Peeling Off Sound It OutRhymingVowel AlertSPY CHECKSCORE C Choose:The best strategy U Use: The strategy correctly C Check: Each step—”How am I doing?” S Score: The result—”I did it!” C Choose:The best strategy U Use: The strategy correctly C Check: Each step—”How am I doing?” S Score: The result—”I did it!” Paired-Activity Try it yourselves! See worksheet Lovett et al: Empower™ Reading (The Hospital for Sick Children 2006

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55 Step 1. CHOOSE: "My Game Plan is to first use Peeling Off. Then I am going to use the Rhyming Strategy and look for spelling patterns I know.” Step 2. USE: "I am Peeling Off un and ing. My next Game Plan is Rhyming. I see the spelling pattern a-c-k. The key word is pack. If I know pack, then I know stack.” Step 3. CHECK: : "I have to stop and think about whether I’m using the strategy(ies) properly. Is it working? Yes, I’ll keep on going. I will put all the parts together—un-stack-ing.” Step 4. SCORE / RE-CHOOSE: "The word is unstacking. I scored! I used Peeling Off and Rhyming to help me figure out this word and they worked." (If the strategy did not result in a real word, the child begins again at Step 1, and chooses another strategy to try.) Step 1. CHOOSE: "My Game Plan is to first use Peeling Off. Then I am going to use the Rhyming Strategy and look for spelling patterns I know.” Step 2. USE: "I am Peeling Off un and ing. My next Game Plan is Rhyming. I see the spelling pattern a-c-k. The key word is pack. If I know pack, then I know stack.” Step 3. CHECK: : "I have to stop and think about whether I’m using the strategy(ies) properly. Is it working? Yes, I’ll keep on going. I will put all the parts together—un-stack-ing.” Step 4. SCORE / RE-CHOOSE: "The word is unstacking. I scored! I used Peeling Off and Rhyming to help me figure out this word and they worked." (If the strategy did not result in a real word, the child begins again at Step 1, and chooses another strategy to try.) Using the Game Plan Lovett et al: Empower™ Reading (The Hospital for Sick Children 2006

56 Key message Learning to read is not a natural act – students need brief but explicit instruction in all of the 5 key domains every day


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