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What are the Common Core State Standards?

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1 What are the Common Core State Standards?
English Language Arts Mathematics

2 English Language Arts Standards
College and Career Readiness (CCR) Anchor Standards Broad set of Standards that list the skills needed to be college and career ready Grade level Standards Grade specific standards that provide what students should know and be able to do by the end of each grade level

3 English Language Arts Standards Unpacked

4 English Language Arts Standards K – 5
Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects K–5 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading Reading Standards for Literature K–5 Reading Standards for Informational Text K–5 Reading Standards: Foundational Skills K–5 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing Writing Standards K–5 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening Speaking and Listening Standards K–5 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language Language Standards K–5 Language Progressive Skills, by Grade Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading K-5 Staying on Topic Within a Grade and Across Grades

5 English Language Arts Standards 6 – 12
Reading Standards for Literature 6–12 Reading Standards for Informational Text 6–12 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing 41 Writing Standards 6–12 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Speaking and Listening Speaking and Listening Standards 6–12 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Language Language Standards 6–12 Language Progressive Skills, by Grade Standard 10: Range, Quality, and Complexity of Student Reading 6–12

6 Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects
College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6–12 Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6–12 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects 6–12

7 Shift #1: Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Nonfiction and Informational Texts
The first of the three shifts in ELA/Literacy is building knowledge through content-rich nonfiction. The standards have followed the NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress) guidelines in establishing how much informational text students should read in school.

8 Content Shift #1 Content-Rich Nonfiction 50/50 balance K-5
70/30 in grades 9-12 Students learning to read should exercise their ability to comprehend complex text through read-aloud texts. In grades 2+, students begin reading more complex texts, consolidating the foundational skills with reading comprehension. Reading aloud texts that are well-above grade level should be done throughout K-5 and beyond. In K-5 this means that we should have a balance in what students read of 50/50. So about half of instructional material is stories, poetry and drama, and the other half is nonfiction. In middle school, the recommendation shifts to a 45/55 split between literary texts and informational. By high school, the standards call for a 30/70 split between literary texts and informational texts.

9 Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Nonfiction: Why?
Students are required to read very little informational text in elementary and middle school. Non-fiction makes up the vast majority of required reading in college/workplace. Informational text is harder for students to comprehend than narrative text. Supports students learning how to read different types of informational text literacy plays a role in science and technology, history and social studies and in classes focused on the Arts – and in English Language Arts. Background knowledge has long been connected to comprehension. Reading informational text is essential in building background knowledge. The standards demand that students work on literacy in all the content areas, not as a distraction or as an addition to their study of content, but to build their understanding of the content being studied. This is displayed most prominently in two ways. 1) At every grade level, there are a set of standards for informational text and a set for literary standards. 2) Reading Standard 10 calls for students to read a wide range of informational text. It is actually a standard to read informational text.

10 Content Shift #1 Sequencing Texts to Build Knowledge
Not random reading Literacy in social studies/history, science, technical subjects, and the arts is embedded Resources Page 33 in the CCSS for ELA/Literacy – The Human Body Much of what students read in English classes will be literature, but English teachers should also expose their students to high quality literary non-fiction: speeches and essays and literary criticism for example. In content classes, teachers engage students in reading of the texts that are the sources of knowledge and communication in their fields i.e.: the textbook, trade journal articles, experimental results, and primary source documents. It is important that students see that text as a source of knowledge – that you always read about something. As they read a series of texts on a particular topic, they are building their knowledge and understanding of that area. The better they get at reading, the more able they are to learn independently and efficiently through text.

11 Shift #2: Reading, Writing and Speaking Grounded in Evidence From Text, Both Literary and Informational The second of the three shifts in ELA/Literacy concerns evidence - the obligation of students to pay close attention to what they read and to support what they say or write about it by providing evidence. Grounding reading, writing and speaking in evidence from the text is not only applicable to informational text, but to stories as well. The demand for evidence can be thought of as “reading like a detective and writing like a reporter”

12 Reading, Writing and Speaking Grounded in Evidence from Text: Why?
Ability to cite evidence differentiates strong from weak student performance on NAEP Most college and workplace writing requires evidence. Evidence is a major emphasis of the ELA Standards: Reading Standard 1, Writing Standard 9, Speaking and Listening standards 2, 3 and 4, all focus on the gathering, evaluating and presenting of evidence from text. Being able to locate and deploy evidence are hallmarks of strong readers and writers Most college and career writing requires students to take a position or inform others citing evidence from the text, not provide a personal opinion. Across the grades, and even across the content areas, students need to develop the skill of grounding their responses in evidence from the text. Requiring students to use evidence can and should occur during oral discussions with read aloud in the youngest grades and continue across all grades and content areas. This is a sharp departure from much current practice where the focus is commonly to relate the text to yourself in narrative expressive pieces where students share their views on various topics. Even when students are reading grade-level texts, they have too often been encouraged to write or discuss without having to use evidence from the text. it is easier to talk about personal responses than to analyze what the text has to say, hence students - and teachers - are likely to engage in this type of dialogue before a text is fully analyzed. The unintended consequence of all of this is less time in the text more outside the text; problematic in any case but far more so with complex text. This is does not mean banishing personal response to a text. Though not called for in the standards, there are times these responses and discussion are essential. They are best done however AFTER the text is fully analyzed. At this point students' personal responses will be enhanced by what the text has to offer.

13 One hot summer's day a famished fox was strolling through an orchard until he came to clusters of grapes just ripening on a trellised vine. "Just the thing to quench my thirst," quoth he. Drawing back a few paces, he took a run and a jump, and just missed the bunch. His mouth was watering and he could feel gnawing hunger pains. Again and again he tried after the tempting morsel, but at last had to give up. Complex Once a fox walked through the woods. He came upon a grape orchard. There he found beautiful grapes hanging from a high branch. “Boy those sure would be tasty,” he thought to himself. He backed up and took a running start and jumped. He did not get high enough. Simple

14 What is right with “simplified” text?
Provides for scaffolding for ELL students, students with disabilities. They can become a foundation for understanding complex text as long as students have the opportunity to read complex texts as well. Gradated Text Collection – a collection of texts on a topic that advance in degrees of complexity. Some students may read simpler texts first, then move on to complex text (a form of instructional support).

15 What’s wrong with the simplified text approach?
Simplified usually means limited, restricted, and thin in meaning. Academic vocabulary can only be learned from complex texts––by noticing how it works in texts, engaging with, thinking about, and discussing their more complex meanings with others. Mature language skills needed for success in school and life can only be gained by working with demanding materials. No evidence that struggling readers—especially at middle and high school--catch up by gradually increasing the complexity of simpler texts. All students, including students who are behind, have extensive opportunities to encounter and comprehend grade level text.  Text must provide extensive opportunities for all students to engage in sufficiently complex text, although some will need more scaffolding to do so. In responding to the needs of students who are farthest behind, materials should reduce the complexity of the text as a last resort. In addition to classroom instruction using texts at their own grade level, some students may also need additional instruction, which could include approaches such as:  guided reading instruction; fluency practice; and vocabulary building.   However, this additional work should not replace extensive classroom use with texts at or above grade level, and all intervention programs should be designed to accelerate students rapidly towards independent reading of grade level text. 

16 Sample Informational Text Assessment Question: Pre-Common Core Standards
High school students read an excerpt of James D. Watson’s The Double Helix and respond to the following: James Watson used time away from his laboratory and a set of models similar to preschool toys to help him solve the puzzle of DNA. In an essay discuss how play and relaxation help promote clear thinking and problem solving. {The next few slides have examples of prompts that are meant to show the contrast between text-dependent questions and questions which students are often asked to answer that do not require the text at all. Ask participants to discuss the questions. In professional development settings, teachers can examine some of their own questions or questions found in the resources used in class.} Let’s look at the contrast between non text dependent questions that require no careful reading of the text vs. those that require "reading like a detective”. This example comes from a high school biology textbook. The text itself is excellent. The problem is that students are not “rewarded” for the work of careful reading of the text. Again the prompt requires no comprehension of the excerpt.

17 Content Shift #2 Text-Dependent Questions Not Text-Dependent
In “Casey at the Bat,” Casey strikes out. Describe a time when you failed at something. In “Letter from a Birmingham Jail,” Dr. King discusses nonviolent protest. Discuss, in writing, a time when you wanted to fight against something that you felt was unfair. In “The Gettysburg Address” Lincoln says the nation is dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. Why is equality an important value to promote? What makes Casey’s experiences at bat humorous? What can you infer from King’s letter about the letter that he received? “The Gettysburg Address” mentions the year According to Lincoln’s speech, why is this year significant to the events described in the speech? Examples of questions that take students outside and inside the text. Text-dependent questions require students to pay attention to the text at hand and to draw evidence from that text. What does this look like in the classroom? Teachers insist that classroom experiences stay deeply connected to the text on the page and that students develop habits for making evidentiary argument both in conversation, as well as in writing to assess comprehension of a text. Students have rich and rigorous conversations and develop writing that are dependent on a common text.

18 Sample Literary Question: Pre-Common Core Standards
From The Adventures of Tom Sawyer Have the students identify the different methods of removing warts that Tom and Huckleberry talk about. Discuss the charms that they say and the items (i.e. dead cats) they use. Ask students to devise their own charm to remove warts. Students could develop a method that would fit in the time of Tom Sawyer and a method that would incorporate items and words from current time. Boys played with dead cats and frogs, during Tom’s time. Are there cultural ideas or artifacts from the current time that could be used in the charm? This prompt in response to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer includes a few elements. First students identify methods included in the text. Is this text-dependent? Yes. However it is a pretty low-level text-dependent question. Very little analysis is required. The most energy intensive piece of this begins with students devising their own charms and writing about that. Could a student respond without reading the text?

19 Sample Text Dependent Question: Common Core Standards
Why does Tom hesitate to allow Ben to paint the fence? How does Twain construct his sentences to reflect that hesitation? What effect do Tom’s hesitations have on Ben? In contrast, consider this prompt in response to The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. A student who is able to answer this certainly has a grasp of the text and Twain’s subtle use of syntax and nuance to create effects. To evaluate a question to see if it is CCSS aligned, think whether students have to have read the text in order to accurately respond (vs. drawing on background knowledge or offering an unsupported opinion or connection). {For more on this, refer to the Text Dependent Questions module on Emphasizing the use to text dependent questions in the classroom in a effective first step in the shift toward the CCSS.}

20 Shift #3:Regular Practice with Complex Text and Its Academic Vocabulary
The third shift requires that ALL students have regular practice with grade level appropriate complex text and its academic language (vocabulary and syntax) Just as evidence appears all over the ELA standards, so does complex text. It is the first half of Standard Ten, the same standard that calls for a range of text types. It is a standard for students to read grade appropriate complex text at every point in school. Vocabulary is central to the standards as well. It is what Reading Standard 4 is about, and is also the focus of Language Standards 4,5, and 6.

21 Regular Practice With Complex text and Its Academic Vocabulary: Why?
Gap between complexity of college and high school texts is huge. What students can read, in terms of complexity is greatest predictor of success in college (ACT study). Too many students are reading at too low a level. (<50% of graduates can read sufficiently complex texts). Standards include a staircase of increasing text complexity from elementary through high school. Standards also focus on building general academic vocabulary so critical to comprehension. Research that informed the development of the Standards revealed that there is a significant gap in the complexity of what students read by the end of high school and what they are required to read in both college and careers – 4 years! In a study done by ACT in 2006, it was found that the complexity level of what students read at each grade level has dropped 4 years in the last half of the 20th century (and has remained the same in the last decade.) The academic language of informational text is different than narrative literature. Exposing students to this enhances the breadth of their academic language, lack of this exposure narrows it. For too long, proficiency in reading has been defined as skill in using reading strategies, even to the point of separating those strategies from the context or challenge that might call for a given strategy. The Common Core puts the text in the center of the equation and demands that students activate strategies in service of understanding the text. Mastering the strategies in isolation only take students so far. A successful reader possesses the ability to activate strategies skillfully in response to challenges most frequently encountered in complex text. Like every other complex set of skills, this takes lots of practice. Increasing complexity of text is the path to CCR, not increasing complicated reading strategies.

22 What are the Features of Complex Text?
Complex sentences Uncommon vocabulary Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student Longer paragraphs Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures Subtle and/or frequent transitions Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes Density of information Unfamiliar settings, topics or events Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences Complex text contains any and all combinations of these features in many combinations. The complexity level is determined by both quantitative and qualitative measures. The details of text complexity are well described in Appendix A of the Standards, one of the supplemental readings offered with this module. New tools have been developed since the Standards were developed to help determine qualitative text complexity. Those materials are available on Students who struggle with reading almost always have gaps in their vocabulary and their ability to deal with more complex sentence structures. This too is well documented in research. Too often, less proficient students are given texts at their level where they do not see these features, where the demands of vocabulary and sentence structure are lowered. Though this is done for the kindest of reasons, it has disastrous consequences. Day by day, differentiating by level of text during instructional time increases the achievement gap between high performers and those who struggle. Students cannot address gaps in their vocabulary and develop skill with unpacking complex syntax text when they are not given the opportunity to work with material that provides these opportunities. With that said, there is a place for providing students with text more appropriately matched to their individual reading abilities to build fluency and provide opportunity for increasing the volume of reading. But those texts cannot be the primary texts for instruction.

23 Overview of Text Complexity
Text complexity is defined by: Qualitative Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands often best measured by an attentive human reader. Quantitative Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity often best measured by computer software. Reader and Task Reader and Task considerations – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned often best made by educators employing their professional judgment.

24 Close Analytic Reading
Requires prompting students with questions to unpack unique complexity of any text so students learn to read complex text independently and proficiently. Not teacher "think aloud“. Virtually every standard is activated during the course of every close analytic reading exemplar through the use of text dependent questions. Text dependent questions require text-based answers – evidence. close reading hones in on difficult portions of text, and provides students an opportunity to work with those sections; as opposed to "think aloud" where teacher explains these difficult portions before students have had a chance to learn from them on their own Not only is virtually every standard evident – the 3 shifts required by the standards are evident as well! Read appropriately complex non-fiction or literature, and ask students to respond the text dependent questions about the text.


26 Anchor Standards

27 Key Ideas and Details Evidence Standard Main Idea Standard
Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text. 2. Determine central idea or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. 3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text. Evidence Standard Main Idea Standard Interaction Standard

28 Interpretation Standard
Craft and Structure 4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone. 5. Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole. Interpretation Standard Structure Standard

29 Point of View/Purpose Standard
Craft and Structure 6. Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text. Point of View/Purpose Standard

30 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
7. Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words. 8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence. 9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take. Multimedia Standard Argument Standard Multi-text standard

31 Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. Complexity Standard

32 Unpacking the Standards
Cognitive Demand and Rigor

33 Webb’s Depth of Knowledge and Bloom’s Taxonomy
The CCSS standards incorporate Webb’s Depth of Knowledge and Bloom’s Taxonomy. The cognitive demand of the standards rises across the grades.


35 The “Demands” of the Standards
The cognitive demand of the standards incorporates Bloom’s Taxonomy and Webb’s Depth of Knowledge. How is this accomplished? The standards “ramp up” the demands made on student thinking.

36 How is the demand of the standard rising across the grades?
Activity How is the demand of the standard rising across the grades? In your group, sequence the standards by grade level. Prepare to share out.

37 How is the demand of this standard rising across the grades?
Kindergarten 1st Grade 2nd Grade 3rd Grade READING STANDARDS FOR LITERATURE, Key Ideas and Details 2. With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details. 2. Retell stories, including key details, and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson. 2. Recount stories, including fables and folktales from diverse cultures, and determine their central message, lesson, or moral. 2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. From “with prompting and support” to RETELL (Kdg to 1st) From retelling with key details in kdg. to and demonstrate understanding of their central message or lesson in first grade. From retelling in kindergarten and first grade to recounting in 2nd. RETELL Retelling is orally restating what is remembered from the text. Source: Summarizing, Paraphrasing, and Retelling by Emily Kissner, Heinemann RECOUNT A sequential and detailed account of an incident, a series of incidents; the purpose of a recount is to list and describe past experiences by retelling events in the order in which they happened (chronological order). Recounts are written to retell events with the purpose of either informing or entertaining their audience (or both). From the CCSS Glossary in Appendix A: With prompting and support- with (some) guidance and support – See scaffolding Scaffolding – Temporary guidance or assistance provided to a student by a teacher, another adult, or a more capable peer, enabling the student to perform a task he or she otherwise would not be able to do alone, with the goal of fostering the student’s capacity to perform the task on his or her own later on* How is the demand of this standard rising across the grades?

38 How is the demand of this standard rising across the grades?
3rd Grade 4th Grade 5th Grade 6th Grade 2. Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text. 2. Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. from details in the text, including how characters in a story or drama respond to challenges or how the speaker in a poem reflects upon a topic; summarize the text. 2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and how it is conveyed through particular details; provide a summary of the text distinct from personal opinions or judgments. How is the demand of this standard rising across the grades?

39 How is the demand of this standard rising across the grades?
7th Grade 8th Grade 2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text; provide an objective summary of the text. 2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text. How is the demand of this standard rising across the grades?

40 How is the demand of this standard rising across the grades?
9th -10th Grade 11th -12th Grade 2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze in detail its development over the course of the text, including how it emerges and is shaped and refined by specific details; provide an objective summary of the text. 2. Determine two or more central ideas of a text and analyze their development over the course of the text, including how they interact and build on one another to provide a complex analysis; provide an objective summary of the text. How is the demand of this standard rising across the grades?

41 Structure of the Standards
Four Strands: Reading, Writing, Speaking and Listening, Language Each strand has Science/technology and social studies standards for literacy Text complexity standards are listed by grade “bands”: K-1, 2- 3, 4-5, 6-8, 9-10, 11-12, CCR – College and Career Ready) Strand Anchor Standard Grade- Specific Standard {THE NEXT FEW SLIDES ARE INCLUDED TO PROVIDE PARTICIPANTS WITH AN OVERVIEW OF THE OVERALL STRUCTURE AND CONTENT OF THE STANDARDS} There are four strands within the ELA standards (K-5 also have an additional strand - reading foundational standards) The grade level standards were created after the anchor standards and were built from them. (If we agree that every graduate should be able to do those anchor standards , then what will it take to get students CCR over the course of the K-12 journey?) There are content literacy standards for reading and writing as well. Every field (biology, history, fine arts, etc.) has its own knowledge base, and every subject area teacher needs to teach the written record of that field. The standards for text complexity are listed by grade bands.

42 RI . 4 . 2 Identify the Standard Strand Grade Standard Number
Ask participants to identify the specific standard noted on the slide. Reading for Informational Texts, 4th grade, standard 2

43 W. 11-12. 1b Identify the Standard Strand Grades Standard Number
Ask participants to identify the specific standard noted on the slide. Writing, 11th and 12th grade, standard 1, sub-item B *Note - After this slide, participants may complete the Hands on Activity – Name the Standards

44 Activity Name the

45 Scaffolding Complex Text
The standards require that students read appropriately complex text at each grade level – independently (Standard 10). However there are many ways to scaffold student learning as they meet the standard: Multiple readings Read Aloud Chunking text (a little at a time) Provide support while reading, rather than before. This does not mean students do this without any support! It is essential that teachers and instructional material provide scaffolds to support ALL students in comprehending complex text. These scaffolding types will reliably support many students and a has a strong research base: Multiple readings. Complex text takes multiple reads to fully understand the layers of meaning provided by the author. Because of this, the text selected for close reading should be excellent or they will not be worthy of the time commitment they require to read fully. Re-reading assists fluency and is the primary way readers make sense of challenges encountered when reading. Reading the text aloud while students follow along . Fluency challenges are rampant when students encounter grade level appropriate text. All teachers must be aware of this and reach in to help. The two best ways to help are having the students follow along while the text is read aloud and by reading text multiple times. These two methods are systematically built into the close reading model. Read aloud is especially important for early readers K-2 because the standards are too complex to master with the texts students can read on their own and students cannot develop academic language through what students read on their own at these grades (levels); for all practical purposes it provides students who come to kindergarten with less developed academic language with a way to catch up “Chunking” longer text into smaller and logical sections makes the text more manageable and helps demonstrate how the author structured the text. Careful, text-specific questions point readers to challenging sentences and ask for special attention to be paid to them. They direct students to what matters most and asks them to examine those parts. They also pay particularly close attention to vocabulary that can be figured out in the context of the text. Because they require text evidence, they demand re-reading. Pointing out text structures or features that will either provide comprehension support (like section headers) or challenges (like long paragraphs or sentences). Supports that do not promote improved reading incomes and do not have research support behind them: Previewing the topic of the reading in a text-free way (just “teacher talk”). A careful examination of the text is solid practice. But telling students what they will be reading will remove any motivation for discovering that for themselves and teach students that learning from reading is not a central activity in that classroom. Providing simple text to weak readers and complex texts to strong readers. Differentiation by text type, as opposed to providing a variety of supports for the same complex text leads to the “Matthew Effect” – “to those who have, more will be given. To those who have little, even that little will be taken away” a well-researched finding. This is particularly true because of the differences in vocabulary that students will see from simpler to more complex text. Words create much of the differences in texts. The goal is growing independence with increasingly complex text. The strategies implemented should all aim at getting students stronger and more skilled – like exercises and scrimmages in a sports practice.

46 Common Core State Standards for Mathematics: Key Shifts

47 Common Core State Standards for Mathematics
CCSSM stands for Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

48 Math Standards Standards Clusters Domains
Define what students should understand and be able to do Clusters Summarize groups of related standards. Note: Standards from different clusters may sometimes be closely related, because mathematics is a connected subject Domains Larger groups of related standards. Standards from different domains may sometimes be closely related

49 Standards for Mathematical Practice
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them 1 Use appropriate tools strategically 5 Reason abstractly and quantitatively 2 Attend to precision 6 Presenter Directions Say: These are the main headings for the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practice. A description of each practice is included in the Common Core document beginning on page 6. Stress that the Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practices do not stand alone and that they are not intended to be taught as stand alone lessons. The Common Core Standards for Mathematical Practices are an integral part of learning and doing mathematics and need to be taught with the same intention and attention as mathematical content. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others 3 Look for and make sense of structure 7 Model with mathematics 4 Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning 8

50 Common Core Format Domains are large groups of related standards. Standards from different domains may sometimes be closely related. Look for the name with the code number on it for a Domain. These definitions are directly from the CCSSM. All parts of the CCSSM use these three parts

51 Clusters appear inside domains.
Common Core Format Clusters are groups of related standards. Standards from different clusters may sometimes be closely related, because mathematics is a connected subject. Clusters appear inside domains. These definitions are directly from the CCSSM. All parts of the CCSSM use these three parts

52 Common Core Format Standards define what students should be able to understand and be able to do – part of a cluster. These definitions are directly from the CCSSM. All parts of the CCSSM use these three parts

53 Common Core Format K-8 High School Conceptual Category Grade Domain
Cluster Standards K-8 Grade Domain Cluster Standards (There are no preK Common Core Standards) However, the format is different for grades K-8 and for For K-8, the CCSSM uses grade levels, then domains which are split into domains, etc. These will be defined in the following slides. The 9-12 CCSSM does not use grade bands, but instead has broad conceptual categories that are then split in a manner similar to the earlier grade levels.

54 Grade Level Overview This is an example from grade 3 from the CCSSM document. Let’s look a bit more closely at two different levels.

55 Critical Areas – similar to NCTM’s Curriculum Focal Points
Grade Level Overview Critical Areas – similar to NCTM’s Curriculum Focal Points

56 Format of K-8 Standards Grade Level Domain
The letters 1.0A separate domains

57 Format of K-8 Standards Standard Cluster Standard Cluster

58 Format of High School Domain Standard Cluster
Note no grade level, different way of labeling domain in the gray box. Cluster

59 Common Core - Domain Domains are overarching big ideas that connect topics across the grades Descriptions of the mathematical content to be learned elaborated through clusters and standards Examples of domains from different levels: Operations and Algebra, Numbers and Operations in Base 10, and Expressions and Equations

60 Common Core - Standards
Standards are content statements. An example content statement is: “Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.” Progressions of increasing complexity from grade to grade

61 Common Core - Clusters May appear in multiple grade levels in the K-8 Common Core. There is increasing development as the grade levels progress What students should know and be able to do at each grade level Reflect both mathematical understandings and skills, which are equally important

62 High School Conceptual Categories
The big ideas that connect mathematics across high school – such as Functions or Probability and Statistics A progression of increasing complexity Description of mathematical content to be learned elaborated through domains, clusters, and standards

63 High School Pathways The CCSSM Model Pathways are two models that organize the CCSSM into coherent, rigorous courses The CCSSM Model Pathways are NOT required. The two sequences are examples, not mandates

64 High School Pathways Four years of mathematics: Course descriptions
One course in each of the first two years Followed by two options for year three and a variety of relevant courses for year four Course descriptions Define what is covered in a course Are not prescriptions for the curriculum or pedagogy

65 High School Pathways Pathway A: Consists of two algebra courses and a geometry course, with some data, probability and statistics infused throughout each (traditional) Pathway B: Typically seen internationally that consists of a sequence of 3 courses each of which treats aspects of algebra, geometry and data, probability, and statistics. At this point the word Integrated should probably be avoided as some people have a negative connotation for it.

66 Mathematics: 3 Shifts Focus: Focus strongly where the standards focus.
The first shift in mathematics is focus. This means that there is, already engineered into the standards, a narrowing of the topics taught in each year, with an increase in depth. Whereas in the shifts for ELA/Literacy one could discuss which shift to begin with, or whether there is in fact an order to the shifts. In mathematics however, there is no question that the first thing that must be attended to in understanding and implementing the shifts is focus. Without first using the “power of the eraser” the potential of the standards in mathematics will be extremely difficult – if not impossible – to fulfill.

67 Shift #1: Focus Strongly where the Standards Focus
Significantly narrow the scope of content and deepen how time and energy is spent in the math classroom. Focus deeply on what is emphasized in the standards, so that students gain strong foundations. This slide captures what is meant by focus in the standards. Not only do we have a more narrow list, but, just as important, we are also deepening expectations. So rather than superficially skating through a lot of topics – covering the curriculum - we are going to have fewer topics on our list, but the expectations in those topics are much deeper. Without focus, deep understanding of core math concepts for all students is just a fantasy. Focus gives us time to go deeper and expect more, of more students. A study of the standards demonstrates that there are areas of emphasis already engineered into the standards at each grade level.

68 Traditional U.S. Approach
K Number and Operations Measurement and Geometry Algebra and Functions Statistics and Probability This picture represents how U.S standards were typically arranged, giving equal importance to all four strands - like “shopping aisles.” Each grade goes up and down the aisles, tossing topics into the cart, losing focus. Each grade K-12 draws from the same four aisles. The CCSS domain structure communicates the changing emphases throughout the elementary years (e.g., Ratios and Proportional Relationships in grades 6 and 7).

69 Focusing Attention Within Number and Operations
Operations and Algebraic Thinking Expressions and Equations Algebra Number and Operations— Base Ten The Number System Number and Operations—Fractions K 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 High School In contrast, the standards in mathematics actually have a shape. The early focus on number and operations actually build to an understanding in middle school of expressions and expanded understanding of the number system. In contrast with the previous diagram of four parallel, disconnected strands. This representation of the Common Core shows how strands develop into more advanced concepts.

70 Key Areas of Focus in Mathematics
Grade Focus Areas in Support of Rich Instruction and Expectations of Fluency and Conceptual Understanding K–2 Addition and subtraction – concepts, skills, and problem solving and place value 3–5 Multiplication and division of whole numbers and fractions – concepts, skills, and problem solving 6 Ratios and proportional reasoning; early expressions and equations 7 Ratios and proportional reasoning; arithmetic of rational numbers 8 Linear algebra Focus in the Common Core Standards means two things. What is in versus being out, but also what the main focus of the standards are for each grade. This chart shows the major priority areas for K-8 math. These are concepts which demand the most time, attention and energy throughout the school year. These are not topics to be checked off a list during an isolated unit of instruction, but rather these priority areas will be present throughout the school year through rich instructional experiences. As indicated these areas will be priorities for conceptual understanding and fluency. By fluency, we mean speed and accuracy. This will be further addressed in subsequent slides. Every teacher needs to be aware of the priority areas of his or her grade level (as well as those preceding and following). Students should know what the priority is for the grade (as well as be proficient in the area). In thinking about supporting teachers in Common Core understanding and implementation, start with understanding these concepts and how to teach them well. Teacher understanding of how to support students in mastering these concepts should be a focus of professional time and energy – great framing for Professional Learning Communities throughout the year, as well as a focus of benchmark assessment strategies.

71 Mathematics: 3 Shifts Focus: Focus strongly where the standards focus.
Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics With focus, comes coherence. Once we focus on fewer concepts, we have the opportunity to build on student understanding and make connections to previous learning and the major work of the grade. When teachers are racing through a long list of math topics - covering the curriculum - students do not have the opportunity to develop conceptual understanding. It takes too long. Coherence follows focus.

72 Shift #2: Coherence: Think Across Grades, and Link to Major Topics Within Grades
Carefully connect the learning within and across grades so that students can build new understanding on foundations built in previous years. Begin to count on solid conceptual understanding of core content and build on it. Each standard is not a new event, but an extension of previous learning. In the second shift of coherence, we take advantage of focus to actually pay attention to sense-making in math. Coherence speaks to the idea that math does not consist of a list of isolated topics. The Standards themselves, and therefore any resulting curriculum and instruction, should build on major concepts within a given school year as well as major concepts from previous grades. Typically, current math curriculum spends as much as 25% of the instructional school year on review and re-teaching of previous grade level expectations – not as an extension – but rather as a re-teaching because many students have very little command of critical concepts. Just as there were two ways to look at focus, there are two elements of coherence: the coherence across grades, and the coherence that links topics to the major work of the grade

73 Coherence: Think Across Grades
Example: Fractions “The coherence and sequential nature of mathematics dictate the foundational skills that are necessary for the learning of algebra. The most important foundational skill not presently developed appears to be proficiency with fractions (including decimals, percents, and negative fractions). The teaching of fractions must be acknowledged as critically important and improved before an increase in student achievement in algebra can be expected.” Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008, p. 18) Many educational reform plans have responded to the evidence that proficiency in algebra is critical to college and career success. The often observed response is that we have pushed algebra down earlier and earlier, with the idea that it would lead to more kids proficient in algebra. Research tells us that carefully laid progressions of conceptual development, not just moving topics earlier in the grade sequence is what supports conceptual understanding and development of foundational skills that lead to proficiency in algebra. Focusing on fractions is a way to think about building coherence across the grades. The Common Core State Standards in Mathematics do not just include expectations for what students “do” with fractions, but are also very deliberate about laying the foundation for understanding upon which proficiency is based.

74 Coherence: Link to Major Topics Within Grades
Example: Data Representation Within grades, coherence requires that we build on the major work rather than treat the study of math as a list of topics. Instead of bar charts being “yet another thing to cover,” detracting from focus, the standard is telling you how to “aim” bar charts back around to the major work of the grade. Standard 3.MD.3

75 Coherence: Link to Major Topics Within Grades
Example: Geometric Measurement Another example: Area is not just another topic to cover in Grade 3. It is explicitly linked to multiplication and division in the standards. Throughout the math standards you see the phrase “apply and extend previous understanding of…” This is a clear indication of the expectation of coherence – make sense of the math by building on what students have learned. Just to reinforce, when our curriculum is crammed with so many topics, as it typically is, we don’t have time to make these connections. Teachers are pressured to just give shortcuts and mnemonics rather than making the connections as required in standards and made possible by focus. 3.MD, third cluster

76 Mathematics: 3 Shifts Focus: Focus strongly where the standards focus.
Coherence: Think across grades, and link to major topics Rigor: In major topics, pursue conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application The first two shifts in mathematics really address the structure of the Standards. The third shift of rigor is the outcome – what can be achieved as a result of focus and coherence. By rigor, we do not simply mean that math is getting harder. Rigor in this sense indicates a degree of validity or believability in math proficiency. There are three elements of rigor within the Standards: conceptual understanding, procedural skill and fluency, and application. The standards do not offer a choice between these three elements of mathematics understanding. Rather, the standards expect curriculum, instructional time, and assessments to attend to all three – with intensity.

77 Shift #3: Rigor: In Major Topics, Pursue Conceptual Understanding, Procedural Skill and Fluency, and Application The CCSSM require a balance of: Solid conceptual understanding Procedural skill and fluency Application of skills in problem solving situations Pursuit of all threes requires equal intensity in time, activities, and resources. This shift is about the depth of what is expected in the standards, and also about what one should expect to see happening in the classroom, in curricular materials, and so on. By conceptual understanding, the standards require that student understand math – not simply how to get the answers. In order to build on their knowledge and skills they need more than tricks. Again, with focus we now have time to attend to building understanding. Additionally there are a few things at each grade level which students need to develop procedural skill and fluency – speed and accuracy. The typical example is knowing multiplication facts within 100 in 3rd grade. It is important to note that simply having that fluency without an understanding of the concept of multiplication is not sufficient. Third is the idea that students are able to apply their understanding and procedural skills in mathematics to problem solving situations. These are the rich tasks that have been often shared as capturing the expectations of the CCSS for mathematics. It is important to consider that an effective way for students to gain proficiency in problem solving situations is to support their understanding of concepts and procedural skills and fluency.

78 Required Fluencies in K-6
Grade Standard Required Fluency K K.OA.5 Add/subtract within 5 1 1.OA.6 Add/subtract within 10 2 2.OA.2 2.NBT.5 Add/subtract within 20 (know single-digit sums from memory) Add/subtract within 100 3 3.OA.7 3.NBT.2 Multiply/divide within 100 (know single-digit products from memory) Add/subtract within 1000 4 4.NBT.4 Add/subtract within 1,000,000 5 5.NBT.5 Multi-digit multiplication 6 6.NS.2,3 Multi-digit division Multi-digit decimal operations Fluent in the particular Standards cited here means “fast and accurate.” It might also help to think of fluency as meaning the same thing as when we say that somebody is fluent in a foreign language: when you’re fluent, you flow. Fluent isn’t halting, stumbling, or reversing oneself. The word fluency was used judiciously in the Standards to mark the endpoints of progressions of learning that begin with solid underpinnings and then pass upward through stages of growing maturity. Some of these fluency expectations are meant to be mental and others with pencil and paper. But for each of them, there should be no hesitation in getting the answer with accuracy.

79 Standards for Mathematical Practice
The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics include both standards for content and standards for mathematical practice. These practice standards really deal with the "habits of mind" in mathematics and should only be addressed in conjunction with grade level content. It would be a significant misstep in implementation to go from a mile wide, inch deep curriculum to going mile wide, mile deep by implementing the practices without first Focusing the scope of content. Implementing practices first, would, in effect make a difficult task of raising the expectations for all students in mathematics, impossible. The language in the Standards often gives a direct indication of the connection to the practices.

80 You have just purchased an expensive Grecian urn and asked the dealer to ship it to your house. He picks up a hammer, shatters it into pieces, and explains that he will send one piece a day in an envelope for the next year. You object; he says “don’t worry, I’ll make sure that you get every single piece, and the markings are clear, so you’ll be able to glue them all back together. I’ve got it covered.” Absurd, no? But this is the way many school systems require teachers to deliver mathematics to their students; one piece (i.e. one standard) at a time. They promise their customers (the taxpayers) that by the end of the year they will have “covered” the standards. ~Excerpt from The Structure is the Standards Phil Daro, Bill McCallum, Jason Zimba This excerpt from an essay written by three of the lead authors of the math standards captures the big picture idea that should be kept in mind. These standards aren’t bits or individual items that can just be shuffled and dealt from one grade level to the next. In order to really understand this work, keep in mind these big picture shifts of the implications of the Common Core both for ELA/literacy as well as mathematics.

81 Mathematics Domains

82 Let’s look at the Math Standards

83 Reflecting on the Shifts for Mathematics
Activity Reflecting on the Shifts for Mathematics This activity (see handout) provides participants with the opportunity to process and reflect on the shifts. It is important that participants do more than just listen to these shifts, but to also internalize them - be able to speak to others about them, use them to guide the work of implementation, evaluation of resources, evaluation of PD offerings, etc. This activity prompts participants to start applying the descriptions of the shifts to the work that happens within the classroom. It supports the opportunity to both identify challenges to address as well as opportunities that exist, intended to leverage current effective practices.

84 How does Common Core apply to Special Education?

85 Instruction of Students with Disabilities
Students with disabilities need to meet high academic standards and to fully demonstrate their conceptual and procedural knowledge and skills in mathematics, reading, writing, speaking and listening (English language arts), their instruction must incorporate supports and accommodations, including: An Individualized Education Program (IEP) which includes annual goals aligned with and chosen to facilitate their attainment of grade-level academic standards. Teachers and specialized instructional support personnel who are prepared and qualified to deliver high-quality, evidence-based, individualized instruction and support services Supports and related services designed to meet the unique needs of these students and to enable their access to the general education curriculum (IDEA 34 CFR §300.34, 2004).

86 Culture of High Expectations for All Students
Instructional accommodations (Thompson, Morse, Sharpe & Hall, 2005) ―changes in materials or procedures― which do not change the standards but allow students to learn within the framework of the Common Core. Assistive technology devices and services to ensure access to the general education curriculum and the Common Core State Standards. Instructional supports for learning― based on the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) ―which foster student engagement by presenting information in multiple ways and allowing for diverse avenues of action and expression Success in the general curriculum for students with disabilities, as appropriate, may be provided through additional supports and services.

87 Upcoming Student Progression Plan
Students with disabilities are required to the same instructional time as their non-disabled peers. H. Special Provisions for SWDs For SWDs who exhibit a substantial deficiency in reading skills Intensive Interventions as specified in the CRRP. EOC Waiver SWD in a VE model should have no more than two grade levels and one subject area within a single instructional block in order to ensure fidelity of instruction in core curriculum.

88 International Center for Leadership in Education
White Paper February 2011 Fewer, Clearer, Higher Common Core State Standards: Implications for Students Receiving Special Education Services Rising Above the Gathering Storm Revisited: Rapidly Approaching Category US quickly losing its competitive edge in the world Original report indicated the same thing IDEA Reauthorization Committee Review and authorization of the IDEA is needed to move to the next step of providing special education and related services to children with disabilities to improve and increase educational achievement.

89 International Center for Leadership in Education
Fewer, Clearer, Higher Common Core State Standards: Implications for Students Receiving Special Education Services -continued Initial Stages of Transition from State Standards to Common Core State Standards Focusing on the needs exceptional students will benefit all students

90 International Center for Leadership in Education
Fewer, Clearer, Higher Common Core State Standards: Implications for Students Receiving Special Education Services -continued FIVE key elements that schools must address to support the achievement of students receiving special education services: Ownership – students receiving special education services responsibility of all High Expectations – understanding by administrators, faculty, and students that all students will be challenged and expected to perform to the best of their ability. Intervention Systems – policies, procedures, and protocols to ensure that struggling learners meet academic and/or behavioral expectations as measured by improved performance. Inclusion/Collaborative Teaching – students receiving special education services included in general education and have access to both content and special education expertise. Organization/Professional Development – programs for struggling learners depend on alignment of and access to standards-based curriculum, instruction, and assessment and data-driven professional development to support teaches in achieving goals.

91 Resources

92 Resources
_Core_Standards.aspx state-standards-resources standards/common-core.aspx

93 12:00-1:00

94 Curriculum Programs New Generation Sunshine State Standards Versus
Common Core State Standards Curriculum Programs

95 Florida Transitions to Common Core State Standards
NGSSS CCSS Standards-based instruction facilitated by learning goals Big ideas and learning goals guide the development of curriculum maps Learning progressions or scales describe expectations for student progress in attaining the learning goals Assessments used to monitor student progress are aligned directly to the learning progressions or scales Teaching big ideas narrows the focus and allows students to delve deeper for a greater depth of understanding Standards-based instruction Test item specifications guide development of curriculum maps Focus mini-assessments aligned to individual benchmarks and used to monitor student progress Teaching benchmarks in isolation results in long lists of tasks to master NGSSS – Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics were adopted between 2007 and 2008. CCSS – Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects were adopted by Florida’s State Board of Education in June 2010.


97 Pacing Guides Staff within the core content areas of Language Arts/Reading, Mathematics, and Science, has aligned State Standards and essential curricular content to instructional materials and resources. Each discipline has developed content-specific pacing guides which set expectations for student performance at K-12 levels, for the school year.


99 Elementary Core Reading Curriculum

100 Elementary Core Reading Curriculum

101 Houghton Mifflin Materials
Purpose Phonics Library Provides practice for application of phonics and high frequency words Theme Skills Test Evaluate discrete reading and language arts skills through a multiple choice format Integrated Theme Skills Test Measures students’ use of comprehension skills and strategies along with word skills, spelling, grammar and writing Vocabulary Readers Helps readers below grade levels access core anthology by using the same vocabulary in selection

102 Houghton Mifflin Materials
Purpose Classroom Management Handbook Timesaving management tips, assignable daily activities for small and large groups, weekly assignment planners, and helpful blackline masters. *Small Group Independent Activities Kit Organizes center and group rotations, student practice for anthology section, ideas on how to differentiate and assistance to help students understand classroom routines *Classroom Ready- Made Manipulatives Kit Games for practicing reading skills to be done in small groups or in centers

103 Houghton Mifflin Materials
Purpose Instruction Transparencies/ Masters and Strategy Posters Includes graphic organizers, providing additional practice in vocabulary, comprehension, grammar, writing, etc. Teacher’s Resource Blackline Masters Collection of blackline masters that have instructional and practice activities with weekly selection tests and reading cards for small group work Leveled Readers Kit Build comprehension and vocabulary skills in small groups and centers Builds fluency with audio CD Challenge Handbooks Meet the needs of high achieving and advanced learners with the instructional strategies and independent activities Theme Paperbacks Extend themes and encourage independence with stories sequenced below, on and above level and labeled with guided reading level lesson plans

104 90 Minute Reading Block Whole Group

105 90 Minute Reading Block Differentiated Instruction

106 Question Can the 90-minute uninterrupted reading block in elementary school be divided between settings (i.e., a general education setting and an ESE resource setting)?

107 Question Can an IEP team make the decision to decrease the 90-minute reading requirement in elementary school for a student with disabilities?

108 Secondary Curriculum

109 Language Arts Core Curriculum
Core Textbooks 6-12: McDougal Littell Literature Novel Study

110 Comprehensive Mathematics Plan
The District Math Department created a Comprehensive Mathematics Plan to provide leadership to empower teachers to deliver instruction that develops mathematical competence and confidence in students, and provide effective strategies for improving mathematical literacy for all.

111 Elementary Core Math Curriculum





116 Interventions Interventions are for High Risk, Levels I and II, and/or Tiers 2 and 3 students in addition to the reading block. Special education classes are not considered an Intervention.

117 Required Reading Interventions
CIRP - Comprehensive Intervention Reading Programs one or more years below grade level should accelerate growth in reading with the goal of grade level proficiency instructional content based on the six essential components of reading instruction (oral language, phonological awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension) frequent assessments of student progress and more systematic review in order to ensure proper pacing of instruction and mastery of all instructional components.

118 Elementary Reading Interventions
Voyager lesson plans can be found at: Voyager Passport is a comprehensive reading intervention that meets the needs of all struggling readers. The six essential components of reading (phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary, oral language, and comprehension) are strategically integrated in systematic minute daily lessons. An assessment is done after every 10 lessons – “Adventure Checkpoint”.

119 SuccessMaker SuccessMaker develops phonological awareness, phonics, reading fluency, vocabulary and comprehension skills through a lesson-based format that allows students to practice and apply these skills.

120 Elementary Supplemental Reading Interventions
H M Guided Reading Quick Reads Early Success Soar to Success National Geographic Theme Sets Words Their Way RALLY (Essential Skills for Reading Success) Great Source Lessons in Literacy Elements of Reading Vocabulary Earobics Fast Forward ELL- Houghton Mifflin Vocabulary and Leveled Readers ELL- Supplementary Haitian Creole Materials Abrams Readers Theater Sing-Spell-Read-Write

121 Additional Elementary Reading Interventions Selected Schools
SRA is designed for students in grades 3 through 12 who read so haltingly or inaccurately they can’t understand what they read. for students who do not read at an adequate rate and who confuse words. designed to provide differentiated instruction that is appropriate for each learner through direct instruction Imagine Learning provides a research-based language acquisition curriculum. It is the ideal program for : English language learners Struggling readers Students with disabilities

122 District Approved Interventions for Elementary
Reading Voyager Passport Successmaker SRA at selected schools Math Florida Online Intervention Florida Destination Math Florida Soar to Success

123 Middle School Interventions
There are three courses in middle school that reflect the intensity of instruction based on student needs. All FCAT Level 1 and 2 students, regardless of whether they are fluent, will be placed in the appropriate reading class. ELL students will be scheduled in the Developmental Language Arts Through ESOL course.

124 Middle School Interventions
Intensive Reading Plus (IR+): Level 1 and 2 students who are non-fluent and in need of decoding, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension instruction = minimum of 90 minutes daily. Intensive Reading (IR): Level 1 and 2 students who are fluent and in need of vocabulary and comprehension instruction = minimum of 55 minutes daily. Intensive Reading Enrichment (IR-EN): Level 2 students who are fluent and in need of vocabulary and comprehension instruction at a higher level=minimum of 55 minutes daily.

125 CIRP- Required Interventions
Grades 6-8 Language!- (Intensive Reading Plus)   Voyager Passport Journeys (IR - Intensive Reading) IR-Enrichment) IR-EN – Selected Grade Level Text, Novels ELL – Hampton Brown Inside Level A/B for ESOL Level 1 Inside Level C for ESOL 2 Inside Level D for ESOL 3 Inside Level E for ESOL 4

126 Middle School Reading Interventions
Intensive Reading Plus Intensive Reading Language! Voyager Passport Journeys

127 Achieve 3000 is a computer based reading program that delivers differentiated assignments at 12 different reading levels, along with formative assessments linked to state and Common Core standards .

128 Secondary (6-8) Reading Interventions
Rewards Jamestown Timed Readers Plugged Into Reading Reading and Writing Sourcebook SIPPS* (Systematic Instruction in Phonemic Awareness, Phonics and Sight Words) Quick Reads ELL- Visions/Thomson Learning ELL- Focus On Grammar

129 CIRP – Required Interventions
Grades 9-12 Hampton Brown Edge (IR+) Level A – Grade 9 Level B – Grade 10 Jamestown Reading Navigator (IR) Jamestown Reading Navigator (Trek 4) IR-EN Selected Grade Level Text, Novels – IR-EN USA Today (11th&12th grade Retaker classes) ELL-Hampton Brown Edge Fundamentals ESOL Level 1 Edge Level A – ESOL 2 Edge Level B – ESOL 3 Edge Level C – ESOL

130 Secondary Grades 9-12 Supplementary Interventions
SIPPS Reading Plus Rewards Jamestown Timed Readers USA Today (11th & 12th Grade Retakers) Plugged into Reading ELL- Focus on Grammar ELL- Shining Star/Pearson Academic Support Program Longman  Reading and Writing Sourcebook Impact My Reading Coach  Reader’s Handbook

131 Secondary Grades 9-12 Interventions (Technology)
FCAT Explorer FCAT Simulation FCAT Focus FCAT Express Reading Plus Accelerated Reader (AR) Academy of Reading READ 180  ELL- COMPASS 4.2 ELL- Teen Biz 3000 ELL – ELLIS Academics

132 District Approved Interventions for Secondary
Reading (6-8) Intensive Reading Plus (Language! Curriculum) Intensive Reading (Voyager) Reading (9-12) Intensive Reading Plus (Hampton Brown Edge) Intensive Reading (Jamestown) Math Intensive Math

133 School CCRP CIRP/SIRP/ED TECH Assessments K-2 Assessments 3-5
Reading Minutes per Day Assessments K-2 Assessments 3-5 Minutes of Daily Intervention Days per Week of Intervention Caribbean 0661

134 School CCRP Assessments K-2 Assessments 3-5 CIRP/SIRP/ ED TECH
Reading Minutes Per Day Assessments K-2 Assessments 3-5 Minutes of Daily Intervention Days per Week of Intervention Auburndale 0121 Auburndale 0121

135 Resources

136 Resources


138 What is a Quality IEP? A Quality IEP
Is in compliance with all requirements of federal, state, and district laws and regulations Reflects decisions based on active and meaningful involvement of members of the IEP team Provides a clear understanding of Student educational needs and expected outcomes Special education services and supports Today we are learning how to write a quality IEP. “What is a quality IEP?” A quality IEP is first and foremost in compliance with all requirements of federal, state, and district laws and regulations. We’ll be learning about many of these today. A quality IEP reflects decisions based on active and meaningful involvement of all members of the IEP team, including the parents, and when appropriate, the student. It provides a clear understanding of expected student learning outcomes and the special education services and supports that will be provided for the individual student.  Note to Trainer: Identify any specific district policies and procedures regarding IEP development and implementation. Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

139 IDEA Requirements Schools must provide each eligible student with a disability an individualized educational program that: Is designed to meet the unique educational needs of the student Addresses academic performance and functional needs Enables the student to be involved and make progress in the general curriculum In keeping with the intent of the federal law, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004), the state of Florida ensures that students with disabilities are involved and make progress in the general curriculum. This is accomplished through the provision of services and supports to meet the needs of the individual student. IDEA requires that students with disabilities who meet the criteria of one or more categories of disability specified in law and who are determined eligible for special education services must have an individual educational plan. Schools must provide each eligible student with a disability an appropriate educational program that: Is designed to meet the unique educational needs of the student. The program must be determined on an individual basis based on assessment of educational needs. Addresses academic achievement and functional performance needs. Academic needs relate to performance in areas, such as reading and mathematics. Functional performance needs relate to non-academic areas, such as social skills, communication, and activities of daily living. Enables the student to be involved and make progress in the general curriculum. These requirements have not changed. Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

140 MTSS Alignment with IEP Components
Handout P-3 MTSS Multi Tiered System of Supports IEP Individual Education Plan Step 1. Problem Identification What’s the problem? Step 2. Problem Analysis Why is it taking place? Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance Step 3. Intervention Planning and Implementation What are we going to do about it? Measurable Annual Goals Special Education Services and Supports Look at Handout P-3: Using a Problem-Solving Process. After the IEP is completed, the team moves to Step 4 of the problem-solving process embedded in Florida’s multi-tiered system of supports. In Step 4. Response to Instruction/Intervention, “Is it working?,” the IEP team monitors the student’s response to the intervention and uses progress monitoring data to evaluate the student’s progress on annual goals. If progress is not sufficient for the student to reach the annual goal, the team will need to revise the IEP. During this step, the team may determine: Who will be responsible for delivering services and supports on the IEP? Who will monitor the integrity of implementation? How can decision rules be used to determine if there has been a positive, questionable, or poor response to the services and supports?  Note to Trainer: Explain any specific district preferences regarding planning for implementation of the IEP. Step 4. Response to Instruction/Intervention Is it working? IEP Implementation, Review, and Revision Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

141 Step 1: What's the Problem?
Determine the gap between what is expected of a student at a current age or grade level and the current performance of the student. Review information about student progress to identify general areas of concern and strengths. Then investigate each area of concern to pinpoint specific needs. Let's look more closely at step 1 of the process. The problem is defined as the gap between what is expected of a student at a given grade level or age and the student's current performance. The gap may result from academic performance that is below grade level or behaviors that are developmentally inappropriate. To determine the gap, the team first reviews information about student progress to identify strengths and general areas of concern. The team reviews summary information from a variety of sources about student progress to develop a shared understanding of the student's overall strengths and needs. If the student's educational need relates to academic achievement, the team should compare the expectations of the grade-level benchmarks or access points with what the student does now. They also may consider how the student's functional performance impacts active involvement in the general curriculum. Next, the team conducts a more in-depth review of data for each area of concern to identify the specific skills and behaviors that are difficult for the student. Through this analysis, the team can identify specific elements of the skills or behaviors that the student finds difficult or impossible. If you haven't written many IEPs, it may appear hard to know where to start and what to consider. This problem-solving process leads you through each step in a systematic way and can yield more accurate information on which to base team decisions. Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

142 Step 2: Why Is It Taking Place?
For each area of concern, analyze factors that may be affecting student performance Curriculum and instruction (standards, instructional methods and materials) Environment (barriers and supports) The effect of the student's disability These notes describe the effect of the disability. Now the team is ready to answer the critical question: What is the effect of the student's disability? The present level statement must include a statement of how the disability impacts the student's involvement and progress in the general curriculum. The student's disability may impact academic achievement and functional performance. The IEP team should consider the effect of the disability on performance in any area, including curriculum and learning environment, social and emotional behavior, communication, independent functioning, nonacademic areas, physical education, and transition. The disability may affect how independently the student works and behaves, how much prompting or personal assistance the student needs, how effectively the student interacts and communicates with others, and what types of supports and services are required. The purpose of determining the effects of the disability and resulting educational needs is to develop annual goals that specifically target the student's needs. The effect of the disability may provide evidence for specialized instructional approaches and accommodations the student needs. Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

143 Step 3: Measurable Annual Goals
Handout P-3 What specific knowledge, skill, or behavior does the student need to learn to be involved and make progress in the general curriculum? What does the student need to learn to meet other educational needs that result from the disability? How will student progress be monitored to determine the effectiveness of the intervention and support? When developing an annual goal, the IEP team considers: What specific knowledge, skill, or behavior does the student need to learn to be involved and make progress in the general curriculum? What does the student need to learn to meet other educational needs that result from the disability? For example, a student may need mobility and orientation training in order to move around the campus safely, or a student may need to learn self-care skills to improve independent functioning. How will student progress be monitored to determine effectiveness of the intervention and support? Point out the questions on the slide are listed on Handout P-3: Using a Problem-Solving Process for step 3 under the italicized subheading for Measurable Annual Goals. Other questions to ask when making decisions include: How does the goal relate to the needs identified in the present level statement? What is a reasonable and attainable level of performance that the student will achieve in the next 12 months? Will achieving this goal help the student be involved and make progress in the general curriculum? Remember, the goal should not duplicate grade-level benchmarks or access points. Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

144 Make It Measurable Specific
Handout P-6 Specific The action, behavior, or skill to be measured Tells what to measure and how to measure it Objective Yields same result no matter who measures it Quantifiable Numerical or descriptive information that can be compared to baseline to calculate progress Clear Understandable by all involved Each annual goal must be measurable so that progress can be monitored to determine when the student has achieved the goal. You must measure student performance to monitor progress accurately and objectively and report it to parents. To measure something, you are able to observe it (or use an instrument to do so). Example: To measure the temperature, look at a thermometer. Example: To measure oral reading fluency, count the words read aloud correctly in a minute. Barbara Bateman and Cynthia Herr (in Writing Measurable IEP Goals and Objectives, 2003) identify the following characteristics of "measurable" goals, short-term objectives, and benchmarks. Specific: Describes exactly what to measure to determine whether the goals, objectives, and benchmarks have been accomplished Objective: Would yield the same conclusion if measured by several people Quantifiable: Allows a calculation of the progress a student makes starting from the original baseline performance Clear: Can be measured and understood without additional information Refer participants to the Measurement Section on page 2 of Handout P-6: IEP Quick Check. Point out: You can use this section to check the annual goals, short-term objectives, and benchmarks you write to make sure they are measurable. Bateman & Herr, 2003 Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

145 Step 3: Intervention Planning and Implementation
What type of intensive, individualized intervention will be provided? Special education services and related services What type of support? Classroom and testing accommodations Program modifications Supplementary aids and services Support for school personnel When? Where? How often? Intervention planning means identifying the type of intensive, individualized intervention that is needed. Special education services means specially designed instruction to meet the unique needs of a student with a disability. Within the context of MTSS, special education is generally considered a Tier III intervention. Related services are services the student needs to benefit from special education. (Click) What type of support will be needed? Support includes classroom and testing accommodations, program modifications, supplementary aids and services, and support for school personnel. (Click) For each identified service or support, the team will need to document the frequency, duration, and location of the service or support. The amount of services and supports must be documented in the IEP so the district's commitment to resources is clear to parents and other IEP team members. Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

146 Step 4: Is it Working? Understanding Responsibilities
Teachers and other service providers must be informed of specific responsibilities related to the student’s IEP. Each general education teacher, ESE teacher, and other service provider who works with the student must have access to the student’s IEP. It’s very important that everyone involved in implementation of the IEP clearly understand their responsibilities. Teachers and other service providers must be informed of their specific responsibilities related to the student’s IEP regarding the accommodations, program modifications, services, and supports to be provided to the student. Each general education teacher, ESE teacher, and other service provider must have access to the student’s IEP. This is a requirement. When the IEP is written, you may be asked to document that the IEP is accessible to each of the student’s teachers who are responsible for implementation and that each teacher of the student has been informed of the specific responsibilities related to implementing the IEP. Access to a student’s IEP can be provided by: Paper copy Electronic version Be sure that all educators are informed about the student’s right to privacy and confidentiality. They may not share the IEP with others who do not provide educational service and support to the student.  Note to Trainer: Explain any specific district/school preferences regarding informing staff of responsibilities for an IEP. Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

147 Who Will be Responsible for…
Planning the intervention for the annual goals? Implementing the intervention with integrity? Monitoring student performance and reporting progress to parents? Interpreting student performance data and making decisions concerning effectiveness of the intervention? Planning for implementation of the IEP includes a discussion of the type of personnel who will be responsible. This step is particularly important in light of the requirement for teachers and service providers to have access and information regarding their specific responsibilities for IEP implementation. The IEP team may discuss instructional responsibilities for each annual goal or service. In the past, this was documented on the IEP. That is no longer required. The team may decide to document it in conference notes or use other district planning forms. Remember, the district is responsible for personnel assignments. For purposes of IEP implementation, there are four responsibilities that should be discussed: Planning the intervention for the annual goals Implementing the intervention with integrity/fidelity Monitoring student performance Interpreting student performance data and making instructional decisions concerning student progress and the effectiveness of the intervention and supports Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

148 Implementation with Fidelity
Requires advance planning Staff may require professional development and coaching How to implement the instructional procedures, accommodations, etc. Assistance with data collection and progress monitoring Involves collaborative planning Providing instruction or intervention in the way it was designed or intended is often referred to as “fidelity” or “integrity of implementation.” Fidelity is particularly important for special education services and supports because it helps to ensure that the student with a disability has an optimum chance of making progress. Advance planning is required to implement services and supports with fidelity. The staff may require professional development and ongoing support to carry out their responsibilities and implement the services and supports. In some cases, staff will need specific training to learn how to implement an evidence-based instructional procedure. They may need assistance on data collection and progress-monitoring procedures. You may need to call on district staff, the RtI coach, FDLRS personnel, or Florida Inclusion Network facilitators for assistance. Consultation, coaching, and collaborative planning with therapists and counselors can help teachers work more effectively with students who receive related services. This may be documented on the IEP in the section “Supports for Personnel.” Even a simple accommodation requires intentional planning by the teacher to make sure the student can learn how to use the accommodation, when to apply it, how to use it without distracting others, and how to self-advocate. Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

149 Monitoring Student Progress
Identify the measurement procedures Check the annual goals What conditions are required? What specific assessment methods/tools will be used? What are the mastery criteria? Make a plan When will student be assessed? Who will interpret results? Student progress is monitored using the measurement procedures, tools, and mastery criteria documented by the IEP team for each annual goal. When planning for implementation, the team needs to consider who will be responsible for each annual goal. It may be the ESE teacher who is providing the specially designed instruction or it may be the general education teacher who is working with the student in the regular classroom. The specific conditions for assessment must be considered to be sure they align with the conditions stated in the annual goal. For example, an annual goal for completing tasks on the job will need to be assessed in the work environment. The team may need to discuss how the mastery criteria will be applied. What specific tools or procedures will be used? If progress towards a reading goal is to be monitored using curriculum-based measurement (CBM), the team may discuss which CBM tool to use. For example, Tia’s IEP team indicated that her progress towards her fluency goal would be measured using a standardized oral reading fluency test. Now they need to identify which test will be used. If progress on a behavioral goal will be measured by structured observations with a teacher checklist, the team may decide who will create or obtain the checklist. (For more information on specific progress monitoring tools, see the the National Response to Intervention website at If it hasn’t been specified in the annual goal or evaluation of progress, the frequency of assessments should be determined. Will the student be assessed daily, weekly, or on some other schedule? Data must be collected regularly and frequently to make reliable instructional decisions. The frequency of data collection relates to the type of data to be collected. Behavior data are often collected daily, whereas academic data may be collected weekly. The team must also determine who will interpret the results of the assessments. Is the ESE teacher responsible, or does the interpretation require a collaborative decision by the ESE and general education teachers? Developing Quality IEPs (2012)

150 Case Studies Case Study (Elementary)

151 The Comprehensive Evaluation and RtI
Intervention J Consider ESE Traditional Intervention J L Consider ESE If necessary Response to Intervention Regular Education Monitor Progress Before click 1: This slide contains a pair of graphics that characterize two different systems within which we have all likely worked – a traditional system and an RtI system. Let’s look at some of the foundational differences. Click 1: Under a traditional system we would intervene and get one of two potential outcomes Click 2: Smiley face or Click 3: Frowny face. And if we got a frowny face we would Click 4: Intervene again (because we have to have two interventions) with two potential outcomes Click 5: Smiley face or Click 6: Frowny face. Click 7: And after we’d stacked up enough frowny faces we would consider special education. We had created a system that viewed special education the only mechanism for access to student assistance, so folks would relentlessly pursue that. The central question at the table was, “Are we or are we not going to test this child?” The mindset was that a label = help. The problem was that the adults in the system viewed smiley face as a barrier to obtaining help and at times would get quite upset if there was a smiley face. At times people at the table might say things like, “The only reason he’s doing well is because I’m helping him!” – and the logic may almost seem sound at the time. So this system was built and sustained on the discovery of student failure rather than student success. The more failure that was discovered, the more the adults in the system were reinforced. At the point of eligibility, we would hand the student over to the ESE teacher and say something that was, in essence, “We had lots of meetings with lots of people and tried lots of things, but none of them worked.” - and for us, it was game over – mission accomplished. Click 8: In a response to intervention system we intervene – with interventions that are designed/developed through a structured problem solving process – again with two possible outcomes. Click 9: Smiley face or Click 10: Frowny face. Click 11: If we get a smiley face, we monitor progress, at a frequency appropriate to the level of resource, to assure that we sustain the smile. Click 12: If we get a frowny face, we’ll intervene again, still through the structured, self-correcting, problem solving process – with, once again, two potential outcomes Click 13: Smiley face or Click 14: Frowny face. Click 15: If we get a smiley face we’ll monitor progress and Click 16: if we get a frowny face, we’ll continue to intervene, until…. Click 17: we get a smiley face. We don’t stop until we get a smiley face and there is no payoff for frowny face. Click 18: At this point we can then answer the question, “Can we sustain this smile with the resources available in general education (If so, good), or is the amount of resource needed to sustain this smile so intense that we’ll need the services of special education to provide it? Also at this point, we have the answers to the two most fundamental instructional questions, “What to teach?” and “How to teach it?” We’ve always had a two pronged set of criteria for special education eligibility – a student must 1) display the characteristics of a disability, and 2) must need special education. Traditionally, we’ve spent a lot of time and developed sophisticated ways to determine whether a child is a child with a disability, but we’ve not paid much attention to the demonstration of need. If a child was referred, we’ve sort of accepted that as evidence of need. So, in the traditional system, we first demonstrate characteristics of the disability and then assume need. In a PS/RtI system that’s flipped. First we discover what the need is, and then, if necessary explore the existence of a disability. So, it’s need first, then disability. In the words of Dave Tilly, “The change seems subtle ]” It ain’t!” When the target at the student assistance team table is the discovery of ‘what to teach’ and ‘how to teach it’ in order to maximize student outcomes, the activities that occur at that table and the questions asked are much different. In the words of Ken Howell, “The central question is not: ‘What about the students is causing the performance discrepancy?’ but ‘What about the interaction of the curriculum, instruction, learners and learning environment should be altered so that the students will learn?’ This shift alters everything else.” Whether exceptional education is considered, or not, the student comes to the classroom with a huge body of information gathered all along the way, focused on student success. The entire process targets understanding what instructional, curricular, and environmental variables we can alter to maximize student success. The target is always student success.

152 Case 1: Grade 3 Student; Reading
Problem ID Gap Analysis The difference between the student’s current levels of performance and grade level standards Goal Setting

153 Present Levels of Performance
FCAT 2.0- N/A FAIR FCAT Success Probability- 15% FAIR- Reading Comprehension Percentile-18th FAIR Maze- 2nd Percentile FAIR WA- 2nd Percentile Reading Fall Interim Test Level-Insufficient Reading Fall Interim Percent Correct-25 Current Star Test Level- ? Oral Reading Fluency-??

154 Graph of Problem ID Reading Comprehension Percentile (FAIR)

155 Problem Analysis: Why? Curriculum: 3rd Grade Reading Standards
Instruction: Reading Focus? Differentiated Instruction? Environment: Access to Tier 2, What is Tier 3? Learner: Level of Motivation

156 Reading Development Phonological Skills Phonics Reading Fluency
? Phonics WA- 1%ile ? Reading Fluency Maze- 4%ile Comprehension (Oral and Reading) RC- 4%ile Listening Comp- ? Language and Vocabulary- WIPPSI Verbal 95

157 The Tier 1 and Tier 2 Data Profile
Tool used for 2 Purposes Determine Need for Tier 3 Problem Solving Uniqueness and significance of a problem Is it a Tier 2 or Tier 3 Problem Provides Data for Problem Solving ID Needs and Supports Maximizes Tiered Supports

158 Areas for Intervention Have Been Identified
Using the Tier 3 PS Worksheet and Intervention Plan to Assist IEP Development If Done Well, and With Fidelity, Much of the Problem Analysis Has Been Done Areas for Intervention Have Been Identified Remedial Goals Have Been Established Forms of Progress Monitoring Have Been Set





163 Ticket out the Door-Exit Slips

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