Presentation on theme: "DAY ONE The Learning Process Thinking About Learning Enhancing Learning and Memory Enhancing ATC Decision-making Explaining Complex Concepts The OJT Environment."— Presentation transcript:
DAY ONE The Learning Process Thinking About Learning Enhancing Learning and Memory Enhancing ATC Decision-making Explaining Complex Concepts The OJT Environment Understanding the OJT/Certification Process Qualities of Effective OJT Instructors Quality Teams Training & Readiness Requirements
DAY TWO Tower Visibility Observer Standard Operating Procedures Conducting Prebriefings Maintaining Situation Awareness Intervening During OJT Effective Feedback Debriefing Skills Basic Instructor Completing Position Evaluations Understanding Motivation Coaching Techniques Training Documentation Position Logs/VIDS GCA Run Logs Cherry Point Training History
TOPIC #1 THINKING ABOUT LEARNING (THE NUMBER GAME)
TOPIC #2 ENHANCING LEARNING AND MEMORY
Beginnings and Endings Concrete Versus Abstract Information Association People tend to remember more from the beginning and end of a learning session. If you want to have people remember something from the middle of a learning session, it needs to be more memorable. Memorable things are often colorful, bizarre, funny, emotional, or different from the pattern of events. People tend to remember information that they can turn into a visual image. Abstract ATC concepts can be learned easier if they are converted into visual images. For example… “When you think about how aircraft turn, think about what a race car does on a curve. An aircraft needs to create a bank just like a race car does around a curve on a raceway”. People tend to remember more when they can associate the information with something important to them. The brain does not soak in information like a sponge. Every new fact or concept learned is added to an existing chain of information.
Chunking Mastery Learning People tend to remember more information when it is presented in clusters or groups. The number of new items people can remember is “Seven: Plus or Minus Two”. In other words, some people can remember only five items and others can remember nine items. Most people cannot recall over nine items. However, people can remember five chunks of the information that may contain several items within each chunk. By chunking, the amount of items remembered can be increased dramatically. Chunking also helps to form associations for trainees. If information is provided in an organized fashion, trainees will be able to link it more effectively to existing knowledge. “Mastery Learning” is ensuring that the trainee learns the foundation “chunks” of knowledge and skills before proceeding to the more advanced “chunks”. A quality foundation is needed before building the next stories of a building, and each story of the building is as stable as the one below it. A weak foundation may prevent a trainee from concentrating on the more advanced skills such as maintaining situation awareness. Correcting foundation problems may free up the trainee to do better thinking.
TOPIC #3 ENHANCING ATC DECISION MAKING
PULLING A CAR OUT INTO TRAFFIC TO MAKE A LEFT-HAND TURN MAKING A PEANUT BUTTER AND JELLY SANDWICH
TOPIC #4 EXPLAINING COMPLEX CONCEPTS
TOUCHDOWN 0 FEET 1 MILE FEET 2 MILES FEET 3 MILES FEET 4 MILES 1,273.7 FEET 5 MILES 1,592.2 FEET PRECISION APPROACH 3 o GLIDESLOPE AGL or MSL TDZE CURVATURE OF THE EARTH
TOPIC #5 UNDERSTANDING THE OJT/CERTIFICATION PROCESS
AT COACH TOWER SIM IPART PLYWOOD SIM TAPE TALK OJF OJT TEAM MEETING TRAINING PLAN SKILL CHECK S.E.T. TIME LIMITS CEB TESTING DATA STACKS CLASSROOM DAILY EVAL PUBLICATIONS DEBRIEF ORIENTATION SELF STUDY LQS LTG BIG STICK ORIENTATION FLIGHTS PREBRIEF TRAINING REPORTS
ORIENTATION Form a Training Team Issue a Training & Readiness Supplement Issue Publications Classroom and Self Study Testing
ORIENTATION ACAD – 8500 Comprehend general ATC knowledge. ACAD – 8501 Comprehend general ATC terminology. ACAD – 8502 Comprehend the airfield layout. ACAD – 8503 Comprehend local area/airfield specific information. ACAD – 8504 Comprehend location of ATC Facility Emergency/Safety Equipment. ACAD – 8505 Comprehend ATC emergency procedures and policies. ACAD – 8506 Comprehend the handling of special flights procedures and policies. ACAD – 8507 Comprehend basic weather knowledge. ACAD – 8508 Comprehend information contained in Local Letters of Agreement. ACAD – 8509 Comprehend knowledge of ATC publications
DOCUMENTATION Every aspect of training, which includes initial and proficiency, needs to be documented. We have many means of fulfilling this requirement. VIDS (Currency and Proficiency) Daily Evaluation Forms 4-Day Evaluation Forms Position Logs (Simulation, Skill Checks, OJF and OJT) Classroom Rosters Annual Skill Check Forms Training Plans GCA Run Logs (Currency and OJT) Air Traffic Activity Reports Completed Tests Printed Certificates Post It Notes
DOCUMENTATION Every aspect of training, which includes initial and proficiency, needs to be documented. Things that need to be documented accurately. OJT OJF Skill Checks Classes (one on one, group) Qualifications Designations Suspensions Training Plans Training Teams/meetings GCAs conducted Air Traffic Activity Absences that affect training
Situation #1 A training team reaches agreement that the trainee needs skill enhancement training on voice quality and speed while reading ATC clearances. The skill enhancement training includes the following: 4 hours to observe effective clearance delivery Playback of his/her own audio recordings 2 additional weeks of OJT
Situation #2 The secondary OJTI is away on a 2-week vacation. The primary OJTI calls in sick. The supervisor informs the trainee that OJT will have to wait until the primary OJTI is back. The trainee asks why another OJTI can’t provide OJT. The supervisor states that only training team members can provide OJT. Another OJTI would have to be added to the training team.
Situation #3 The trainee has reached 75% of OJT time required for certification. The supervisor has just completed the 75% performance skill check. The trainee’s performance was exemplary. After the performance skill check, all of the training team members agree that the trainee is ready for certification. Because there is consensus, the supervisor decides to count the performance skill check as the certification skill check.
Situation #4 A trainee has reached 100% of OJT time limit and is assigned 2 additional weeks. The maximum amount of additional OJT for this position is 2 weeks. After completing the additional OJT, the supervisor conducts a certification skill check. The trainee’s performance is still not acceptable. The training team decides that the trainee should be given skill enhancement training followed by another certification skill check.
Situation #5 A CEB is being conducted for a trainee who has not been able to certify within the time limit and additional OJT time. The training review is being conducted by the ATCFO, the Training Chief, and the Crew Chief, who was the trainee’s secondary OJTI.
Situation #6 LCpl Smith returned from deployment. He was previously qualified on Tower Flight Data and Ground Control and has been away for 7 months. The Tower Chief conducts a performance skill check on both positions and determines that LCpl Smith meets performance standards.
Situation #7 A trainee has reached 75% of the OJT time limit on Ground Control. During the course of the 75% performance skill check, the trainee’s supervisor determines that the trainee has stopped progressing. The trainee’s supervisor suspends training.
Situation #8 The trainee’s supervisor conducted a certification skill check. During the certification skill check, the supervisor did not observe the trainee perform all job functions because traffic was light. All observed functions were satisfactory. However, the trainee’s supervisor decided that the trainee could not be certified because one item on the position evaluation was marked “not observed”. During the past performance skill check, the trainee performed all functions in a satisfactory manner.
TOPIC #6 QUALITIES OF EFFECTIVE OJTIs
TOPIC #7 QUALITY TEAMS
TOPIC #8 TRAINING & READINESS REQUIREMENTS
ACAD-8522 ACAD (*) B L Goal. Comprehend flight progress strip knowledge. Requirement. Conduct the following IAW the reference: 1. Describe the methods for updating information on flight progress strips. 2. Label flight progress strips, to include: a. Arrivals. b. Departures. c. Overflights. d. Enroute aircraft. 3. List aircraft prefixes. 4. List aircraft suffixes. 5. List flight progress strip control information symbols.
ACAD-8522 RFD 3 – FLIGHT PROGRESS STRIPS (ACAD-8522) Lesson Topic Guide 1. FAA JO General Terminal Data Entries Aircraft Identity Aircraft Equipment Suffix Control Symbology 2. Facility Manual FDIO Test Flight Plans Data Entries for NJM Stereo Routes and VFR Flight Guarding General Terminal Data Entries Control Symbology Departure Strips 3. Airfield Operations Manual 2002 Instructions for Filing and Completing Flight Plans Local Qualification Standards Knowledge. Satisfactorily complete test RFD 3. Skills and Abilities Demonstrate the ability to identify civil and military aircraft using call sign prefixes. Demonstrate the skill to properly complete flight progress strips. Demonstrate the ability to properly forward aircraft equipment suffixes. Demonstrate the ability to use the proper code for test flight plans. Demonstrate the skill to post flight progress strips and data to the appropriate position Individual has satisfactorily completed all LQS requirements for RFD 3:
DAY TWO First Class is Tower Visibility Observer If you already have a Tower Visibility Observer designation, you do not need to show next Saturday until 0900L.
DAY TWO Tower Visibility Observer The OJT Environment Standard Operating Procedures T&R Event 5000 T&R Event 5010 T&R Event 5020 Training Documentation Position Evaluations Position Logs/VIDS GCA Run Logs Cherry Point Training History
TOWER VISIBILITY OBSERVER TOPIC #9
TOPIC #10 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES
TOPIC #11 CONDUCTING PREBRIEFINGS
Situation During the previous OJT session, the trainee “lost the picture” and you needed to intervene by overriding. Several other people were nearby at the time. Up to this point, the trainee’s performance had been outstanding. After the override, the trainee was able to recover and regain control of the situation. During the debrief, the trainee dwelled on the override. In addition, the trainee appeared upset by the fact that others may have witnessed the situation. The trainee’s confidence level has been shook up. Before the next session, you decide to conduct a prebriefing. What do you want to accomplish in the prebriefing? How would you conduct the prebriefing?
TOPIC #12 MAINTAINING SITUATION AWARENESS
TOPIC #13 INTERVENING DURING OJT
TOPIC #14 EFFECTIVE FEEDBACK
TOPIC #15/16 DEBRIEFING SKILLS
TOPIC #17 BASIC INSTRUCTOR (BI)
IUT-5000 Goal. Introduce principles of instruction. Requirement. Given the reference, the BIUT will demonstrate the following with the assistance of a unit instructor: 1.Introduce/discuss/demonstrate instruction techniques. 2. Introduce/discuss/demonstrate class management techniques. a. How to use class resources to communicate with the student. b. How to properly organize the class for effective instruction. 3. Introduce/discuss/demonstrate how to prepare for a period of instruction. a. Schedule the class. b. Prepare/access the training materials for the class. c. Prepare the evaluation form to be used to evaluate the students event performance, as applicable. Performance Standard. 1. The instructor will assess the BIUT’s understanding of the principles of instruction verbally. 2. The BIUT will answer the questions with enough detail to demonstrate event required knowledge. 3. The BIUT will physically demonstrate proper instruction and classroom techniques. 4. The BIUT will demonstrate how to schedule and prepare to instruct an event.
IUT-5010 Goal. Understand the structure of an event. Requirement. Using the community T&R manual, discuss the following with an instructor: 1. State the purpose of a T&R event. 2. Describe the structure of a T&R event and explain the purpose and content for each event section. 3. Using the given event, explain each section as it pertains to the event. a. Explain the purpose and content of the goal. b. Explain the requirement condition and performance steps for the event and what needs to be done to prepare to instruct the event. c. Explain how the event performance standard is measured and when the event has been completed. d. State who can instruct the event. e. State the event prerequisite and how to verify that it was completed. f. Explain how the external syllabus support requirement will be resourced. g. State the references required and how each would be used to train the event. Performance Standard. Without the aid of references and during a discussion session, the BIUT shall demonstrate an understanding of the structure of T&R events. During this session, the instructor shall discuss the event content and question the student throughout the training session to ensure understanding.
IUT-5020 Goal. Conduct a period of instruction on a T&R event. Requirement. The BIUT, under the supervision of an instructor, will learn how to conduct a period of instruction on an event selected by the instructor. The event must be one the BIUT is current and proficient in. The BIUT will be able to: 1. State the instructor responsibilities. 2. Define the purpose and content of a T&R event per the aviation T&R program manual. 3. Prepare to train the event. a. Review the trainee’s PR to identify required training for the event selected. b. Ensure the student has met prerequisites for the event to be trained. c. Develop a student training plan to ensure progression per this manual. d. Schedule the training event (facilities and students). e. Gather the resources necessary to conduct the training (instructional materials, references and equipment). f. Prepare an evaluation form for each student to be evaluated. 4. Conduct training on the event selected: a. Ensure all training resources are properly staged/equipment if set up properly for training. b. Instruct the student in a thorough manner so as to cover all requirements for the event. c. Ensure continuous, objective assessment of the students’ progress during training. 5. Assess student performance: a. Assess the students’ performance to the performance standard. b. Correct student deficiencies in a timely manner and provide the student feedback. c. Complete the evaluation form for each student trained. d. Debrief students on their performance and provide corrective action. 6. Route evaluation form, as required. Performance Standard. Complete the requirement items IAW the reference. Instructor shall question the BIUT to check for understanding of the BI responsibilities.
TOPIC #18 COMPLETING POSITION EVALUATIONS
ONE DAY EVALUATION – MCAS FORM USED FOR SKILL CHECKS (Except Annuals) QUALIFICATION ONE-ON-ONE CLASSES TAPE TALKS RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DESIGNATIONS FOUR DAY EVALUATION – MCAS FORM USED FOR OJT SIMULATION
POSITION LOG DRILL TOPIC #19
TOPIC #20 COACHING TECHNIQUES
TOPIC #21 POSITION LOGS/VIDS
C – Controller responsible for the position. (no trainee) T – Trainee. I – OJT Instructor responsible for the position. Q – Qualifier for trainee qualification/certification. A – Controller responsible for the position receiving an Annual Evaluation. F – Position Familiarization (only used on a “shadow position”). C – Controller responsible for the position. T – Trainee receiving OJT. R – Controller/Trainee receiving a skill check. M – Trainee Monitoring (OJF) S – Supervisor/Staff Specialist
NEARLY 20% OF ENTRIES FOR BLOCK 9 ARE BLANK
TOPIC #22 GCA RUN LOGS
OT14 C130 L TP BK NO GYRO OT14 C130 LZ TP BK SAA MA911 HAR F TP BK NE PAD
Block 9 left blank on AE position logs – 166 out of 865 (19%) Wrong or no position log entry for GCA training – 232 out of 407 (57%) No approaches recorded for GCA simulations – 33 out of 313 (11%) Neo was an instructor for 23 hours on the simulators, 66 hours in the classroom, 99 hours of OJT and 17 hours of OJF due to incorrect, illegible, or missing information on logs and evaluations.