Outcomes for This Session Receive background knowledge about the Common Core Reading Standards and Text Complexity
Elementary teachers K-5 Secondary ELA teachers 6-12 Science, Social Studies, & History teachers 6-12 Who is Responsible?
Common Core Standards REVIEW THE STANDARDS FOR YOUR GRADE LEVEL (5 minutes) What do you see? HIGHLIGHT GREEN What do you notice? HIGHLIGHT YELLOW PARTNER WITH MEMBERS FROM 2 ADJACENT GRADE LEVELS (5 minutes) What do you see between grade levels? HIGHLIGHT PINK What do you notice about student readiness? HIGHLIGHT ORANGE
4 Reading Standard Strands (K-12) Key Ideas and Details Strand (3 Standards) Integration of Knowledge and Ideas Strand (3 Standards) Craft and Structure Strand (3 Standards) Range and Level of Text Complexity Strand (1 Standard) ELA for Literature, Informational- ELA Science, SS & History
10 College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Reading (K-12 ) See Standards Document K-5 Page 11 6-8 Page 36 9-12 Page 38 Content Pages 61- 62 Range and Level of Text Complexity 10. Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently
Why focus on text complexity? Increasing text complexity is Required for College and Career Readiness
Look at Text Exemplars GO TO: Appendix B--Table of Contents pages 4-13 1--Find your grade level range in the Elementary (K-5) Middle (6-8) High School (9-12) 2--Look at: Excerpts Performance Tasks
Shifts in ELA/ Literacy 11 Refer to Shifts Handout Shift 1 Building Knowledge Through Content-Rich Non-Fiction Building knowledge through content rich non-fiction plays an essential role in literacy and in the Standards. Shift 2 Reading, Writing, and Speaking Grounded in Evidence from Text, Both Literary and Informational The Standards place a premium on students writing to sources, i.e., using evidence from texts to present careful analyses, well-defended claims, and clear information. Shift 3 Regular Practice with Complex Text and its Academic Language Rather than focusing solely on the skills of reading and writing, the Standards highlight the growing complexity of the texts students must read to be ready for the demands of college and careers.
Why Text Complexity ? Why Text Complexity ? Performance on complex texts is the clearest differentiator in reading between students who are likely to be ready for college and those who are not. This is true for both genders, all racial/ethnic groups, and all annual family income levels. ACT Reading Between the Lines ACT Reading Between the Lines
Qualitative 3. Qualitative measures – levels of meaning, structure, language conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands Quantitative 2. Quantitative measures – readability and other scores of text complexity Reader and Task 1. Reader and Task – background knowledge of reader, motivation, interests, and complexity generated by tasks assigned Text complexity is defined by 3 factors: 14
Evaluating Text Complexity Quantitative Dimensions Word length/frequency Sentence length Text Cohesion
Lexiles are quantitative measures Lexile measures are based on two well- established predictors of how difficult a text is to comprehend: word length, frequency, and sentence length. More Information: http://www.lexile.com/ http://www.lexile.com/ http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards http://www.corestandards.org/the-standards
Figure 3: Text Complexity Grade Bands and Associated Lexile Ranges (in Lexiles) Text Complexity Grade Band in the Standards Old Lexile Ranges Lexile Ranges Aligned to CCR expectations K–1N/A 2–3450–725450–790 4–5645–845770–980 6–8860–1010955–1155 9–10960–11151080–1305 11–CCR1070–12201215–1355
Life After Graduation “Student Readiness for Postsecondary Options” Gary Williamson, Ph.D. (2004) Median Text Measures: 11th/12th grade (LA/SS textbooks):1090L Military (training/field manuals): 1180L Citizenship (newspapers, voting, jury):1230L Workplace (Daggett study materials):1260L Postsecondary - first two yrs (textbooks):1355L – GED Test Materials:1060L – SAT/ACT Test Materials:1180L
College and Career Readiness Skills Reading Demand of Newspapers USA Today Wall Street Journal New York Times Washington Post Chicago Tribune Reuters Associated Press Match the Newspaper to the appropriate lexile. Note one lexile will be used more than once. 1200L1200L 1310L1310L 1320L1320L 1350L1350L 1380L1380L 1440L1440L
College and Career Readiness Skills Reading Demand of Newspapers USA Today (1200L) Associated Press (1310L) Chicago Tribune (1310L) Wall Street Journal (1320L) Washington Post (1350L) NY Times (1380L) Reuters (1440L)
Limitations of Lexile Measures What Lexile text measures do not address Text Characteristics Age-appropriateness of the content Text support (e.g., pictures, pull-outs) Text quality (i.e., Is it a good book?) Reader Characteristics Interest and motivation Background knowledge Reading context and purpose Lexile text measures only measure text readability. Input from readers, parents, teachers and librarians is necessary.
Evaluating Text Complexity Qualitative Dimensions Levels of Meaning/ Purpose Text Structure Language Knowledge Demands
Appendix A—pp. 5 & 6 QUALITATIVE DIMENSIONS of Text Complexity 1—LEVELS OF PURPOSE: Is the purpose explicitly stated? Or is it obscure or hidden? 2—STRUCTURE: Organization: Simple, well-marked conventions? Or unconventional structure? Sequence: easy to follow? Or flashbacks? Framed stories? Graphics: Add on? Or necessary to understand the text? 3—LANGUAGE CONVENTIONALITY & CLARITY: Language: Contemporary & literal? Or ambiguous, misleading, archaic, unfamiliar? 4—KNOWLEDGE DEMANDS: Does not go much beyond depth of reader’s knowledge? OR makes assumptions that reader has a vast knowledge of the topic?
Martin Luther King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail What makes this complex?
Analyze Martin Luther King’s Letter from Birmingham Jail
Archer’s 3 Vocabulary Considerations 1. Select words that are unknown. 2. Select words that are critical to passage understanding. 3. Select words that students are likely to encounter in the future and generally useful (Stahl, 1986). 1. Teach word families.
My Vocabulary List 1. Criticism (future use / critical to understanding passage). 2. Mutual (unknown / future use / critical to understanding passage). 3. Injustice (critical to understanding passage – speech is most recognized because of Dr. King’s use of this word). 4. “outside agitator” (critical to understand argument). 5. Superficial ( unknown /critical to understand argument). 6. Clergyman (critical to understanding passage/ reference do not teach). 7. Demonstrations (critical to understanding passage / reference only).
Teach the word and its relatives AnalyzeAnalyzingAnalyzedAnalysisAnalyzableAnalyzer From Dr. Anita Archer, Dynamic Vocabulary Instruction
32 More information and updates can be found for Common Core State Standards can be found on: MDE website : www.michigan.gov/mde www.michigan.gov/mde Common Core State Standards: www.corestandards.org www.corestandards.org Smarter Balanced Consortia: www.k12.wa.us/smarter/ www.k12.wa.us/smarter/