2Text Comprehension Instruction The National Reading Panel’s synthesis (NICHD, 2000) of comprehension research studies indicates explicit or formal instruction in the application of a multiple- strategy method has been shown to be highly effective in enhancing understanding. The seven techniques below appear to provide a scientifically based foundation for the improvement of comprehension.Comprehension Monitoring: where readers learn how to be aware of their understanding of the material;Cooperative Learning: where students learn reading strategies together;Use of graphic and semantic organizers: where readers make graphic representations of the material to assist comprehension;Question answering: where readers answer questions posed by the teacher and receive immediate feedback;Question generation: where readers ask themselves questions about various aspects of the story;Story structure: where students are taught to use the structure of the story as a means for helping them recall the story content in order to answer questions about what they have read;
3Text Comprehension Instruction Summarization: where readers are taught to integrate ideas , infer, and generalize from text information.The evidence suggest that teaching a combination of reading comprehension techniques is most effective. When students use them appropriately, they assist in recall, question answering, question generation, and summarization of text.
4Comprehension Monitoring And Cooperative Learning
5What is Comprehension Monitoring The ability of a reader to be aware, while reading, whether a text is making sense or not.
6Questions to Help Assess Reading Does the reader understand the purposes for reading a particular text?Does the reader understand (or attempt to understand) the purposes and goals of the author?Does the reader bring personal background knowledge to bring an understanding to the text?How well does the reading bring knowledge forward from one part of the text to another, from another text or activity to another text or activity?How well does the reader employ other general processes of reading?
7Questions to Help Assess Reading How independent is the reader with a particular text or kind of text?How well does the student understand global structures of organizing text?How often does the reader encounter unfamiliar words?How well does the student recognize codes and conventions?How well does the student learn information from the text?Does the student recognize text as a construction of an author?
8How to Monitor & Repair Comprehension Direct Instruction:TeachingModeling – Think AloudsGuided PracticeCollaborationApplicationInconsistent ElementMultiple-Strategy Instruction
9Comprehension Monitoring Strategies Identify where the difficulty is.Identify what is difficult.Restate the passage in their own words.Look back through the text.Look forward in the text.
10Assessing Comprehension Monitoring Retell or SummaryStrategy AssessmentTeacher ObservationCloze Passages
11What is Cooperative Learning? It is an instructional arrangement that allows two to six students the opportunity to work together on a shared task in order to jointly construct their knowledge and understanding of the content.Fisher, Frey, & Everlove 2009
12LEARNING PYRAMID National Training Laboratories, Bethel Maine AverageRetentionRate5%Lecture10%Reading20%Audio-Visual30%Demonstration50%Discussion Group75%Practice By Doing90%Teach Others/Immediate Use of Learning
13Why use Cooperative Learning? Greater Efforts to AchieveMore Positive RelationshipsGreater Psychological Health
14Basic Elements to Ensure Cooperative Learning Positive InterdependenceFace-to-Face InteractionIndividual AccountabilityInterpersonal and SmallGroup SkillsGroup Processing
15Positive Interdependence Group goal of maximizing allmembers learning providinga purposeLinked with each otherin a way that onecannot succeed unlesseveryone succeedsClear tasksRoles
16Individual & Group Accountability Hold themselves and each other accountable for doing high quality work to achieve their mutual goalsEach member must be accountable for contributing his or her share of the work
17Face-to-Face Promote Interaction Work face-to-face to produce joint work productsProvide both academic and personal supportDo real work together and promote each other’s success
18Read and Say Something - Draw Read and Retell Sticky Note Discussion CRISSRead and Say Something - DrawRead and RetellSticky Note DiscussionPicture NotesContent FramesReflective Double Entry Journals
19Interpersonal & Group Skills Taught social skills are expected to be seen as students coordinate their efforts and achieve their goals.Both task work and teamwork are emphasizedAll members are responsible for providing leadership
22What are Questioning Strategies? Teachers pose questions to students in order to engage them in explicit, deeper-level thinking about the subject under discussion.Through the art of thoughtful questioning, teachers cannot only extract factual information but,aid learners in connecting concepts,making inferences,increasing awareness,encouraging creative and imaginative thought,aiding critical thinking processes,and generally helping learners explore deeper levels of knowing, thinking, and understanding.
23Question Types (based on blooms level of complexity) #1- Recall-Knowledge (cognitive memory, factual, input)Questions used to determine students’ knowledge about factual information.Also used to reinforce learning as well as to check on student retention.Examples:Name 3 states of water in the water cycle.How many times did you visit the ocean station?What is (the definition of) transpiration?
24Question Types (based on blooms level of complexity) #2- Comprehension (deeper understanding, interpretation, processing, inferring)Questions used to determine the student’s understanding of a subject.Examples:What processes occur when water molecules move from the ocean to plants?Compare your journey with another person’s journey.Explain why your journey was different than your partner’s.
25Question Types (based on blooms level of complexity) #3 –Analysis/Synthesis (break down, put together, hypothesis/prediction, output)Questions that require students to take their knowledge and apply it to new situations. They are also used to determine whether students are making generalizations, examining and breaking down information into parts, and putting the parts back together.Examples:What might be affected in the water cycle if there was a source of pollution next to the river?Create a story about what you experienced during your journey.If the average temperature of the earth increased by 5 degrees Celsius, where might activity in the water cycle change, and why?
26Question Types (based on blooms level of complexity) #4- Evaluation (evaluative, critical analysis, opinion)Questions used to give students an opportunity to make a value judgment, express opinions, provide criticisms, or raise their own questions. There are no right or wrong answers. The use of these types of questions is to get a feel for what students are thinking and, how they are balancing their new learning with prior beliefs and values.Examples:What are the advantages and disadvantages of “cloud seeding”?What part do humans (you) play in the water cycle?
28Socratic QuestionsSocratic questioning is the basis for developing questions that can be used to develop critical thinking skills.These are used to evaluate, process, and store relevant information.Using Socratic questioning effectively is a learned skill that parents and teachers can use when guiding the thought process in their children.6 types of Socratic QuestionsQuestions for clarificationQuestions that probe assumptionsQuestions that probe reasons and evidenceQuestions about viewpoints and perspectivesQuestions that probe implications and consequencesQuestions about the question
29Graphic OrganizersGraphic organizers give students a visual representation of concepts being studied and their relationships to other concepts.Graphic organizers help students:Gather information in an organized mannerComprehend how the pieces of information are relatedOrganize opinions, information, and reflectionSynthesize informationSolve problems by integrating their thinking, reading, and writing processesPractice high-level thinking skills and apply them to real life situationsGraphic organizers help teachers:Explain and illustrate abstract conceptsHelp students understand sequence and interrelationshipsProvide second language learners with a visual image for new vocabulary and conceptsReview materials as a post-reading activityEvaluate student understanding
30Spider MapUsed to describe a central idea: a thing (a geographic region), process (meiosis), concept (altruism), or proposition with support (experimental drugs should be available to AIDS victims). Key frame questions: What is the central idea? What are its attributes? What are its functions?
31Problem/Solution Outline Used to represent a problem, attempted solutions, and results.Key frame questions:What was the problem?Who had the problem?Why was it a problem?What attempts were made to solve the problem?Did those attempts succeed?
32Resources for Graphic Organizers Resource Website for Graphic Organizers-–organizers/printable/6293.html
35Story StructureExplicit teaching of story structure helps students to:Improve comprehension of textMake meaning as they readImprove memory retention of the events in the storyComplete assignments successfully and compose stories of their ownTransfer that knowledge to different and more complicated texts
36Story Structure (cont’d) The elements of story structure are as follows:PlotSettingCharacterThemePoint of View
37Plot Events in the story, including the conflict. Ways to teach plot: Explicitly teach elements of plot – list elements, define and discuss using a familiar storyHave students create advertisement for book/movie using elements of plot as guideView a short film and have students identify parts of plot in groupsGraphic Organizers –students fill in organizers during or after reading (See College Board Springboard Plot Organizer)
38SettingLocation, time, and time period in which the story takes place.Ways to teach setting:Questioning/discussing effect of setting on text as you readQuestioning/discussing how text would change (if at all) if setting was different after story has been readSetting Bookmark – See Handout
39Character The people or personified animals in the text. Ways to teach character:Explicitly teach different types of characters – list different types and have students identify them in a common textBody BiographyCreative writing – Create a Character, Tell the Story
40ThemeCentral message or idea in a story; not always a moral, sometimes just a comment on life.Ways to teach theme:Begin with familiar storyPlay a song with a clear theme and discuss with studentsClass Theme Wheel using poetry/music – use as classroom anchor chart
41Point of ViewThe position by which the narrator views the subject of the text.Ways to teach point of view:Explicitly discuss with students the four types of point of viewCompare/contrast text with different points of view and discuss the affect each has on the textCreative Writing – Same Story, Different Point of View
42Summarization Summarizing is… Taking larger texts and breaking them down into only the necessary and important componentsDifficult task, even for some adultsOnce students can summarize, it shows that they have ownership of the material and can prepare themselves to use the information elsewhere.
43Summarization (cont’d) When writing summaries remind students to:Delete things that are not essential to the textRefrain from repetitionUse specific rather than general termsLocate a topic sentence within the text or create one to focus summary
44Summarization (cont’d) Ways to teach summarization:Somebody Wanted But SoDon’t Look BackJournalist QuestionsMagnet SummariesModel, Model, Model! (Think Aloud)