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Welcome. Words of Wisdom No one should teach who is not in love with teaching. Margaret Elizabeth Sangster.

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Presentation on theme: "Welcome. Words of Wisdom No one should teach who is not in love with teaching. Margaret Elizabeth Sangster."— Presentation transcript:

1 Welcome

2 Words of Wisdom No one should teach who is not in love with teaching. Margaret Elizabeth Sangster

3 Vocabulary Club

4 Aim: to expand members' active English vocabulary in a systematic but informal way Both students and faculty welcome Once a week for 45 minutes in the LEP Sharing new words members have learned New vocabulary reinforced through activities and vocabulary games Members benefiting from the outset

5 Reading Comprehension

6 Find it on the blog Reading Comprehension Skills Presentation

7 On the blog you will find … PowerPoint presentation (but in PDF) Readability statistics for Well Read 1-4 16 texts from Well Read 1-4, downloadable and editable 3 experimental texts of my own devising (lower levels) 2 additional texts for readability tests (J.K. Rowling, Steve Jobs)

8 Blog Contents (contd) My introduction and continuity commentary Full results of my 3 investigations into o Readability of texts o Students’ perception of reading o Correlation between time taken to complete reading comprehension test, and test result

9 Downloadable and editable All the documents embedded in the blog except for the PowerPoint presentation (which is in PDF) are downloadable and editable in either Microsoft Word [2013] or Microsoft Excel [2013], depending on the format they were uploaded in. PowerPoint format of presentation obtainable on removable disk.

10 Screenshot of blog

11 My approach / philosophy Reading Comprehension Skills (appropriate course title) Subtitle: A course in thinking Getting students to think about the course in a certain way Opening up the texts for students

12 Readability Tests Designed to gauge the understandability of a contemporary English academic text. Among other things, they produce an approximate representation of the number of years of formal education someone needs to comprehend the text. However, they give several additional and very useful statistics e.g. lexical density = a measure of the proportion of the content (lexical) words over the total words.

13 Some Readability Tests Automated Readability Index Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease & Grade Level Tests Gunning Fog Index SMOG Index Fry Readability Formula Coleman-Liau Index

14 Word of caution These tests DO NOT necessarily produce the same results. You can run different tests on the same text but ultimately have to settle for one or two of them and base your decisions on that. The important thing is to achieve an internal consistency in your test findings.

15 Whole text or part thereof You can run the tests on an entire text or parts thereof This could help you determine the level of difficulty of the questions based on a particular part. (Check if average of individual results correspond with comprehensive result)

16 Readability Tests Online Offline Offline: Microsoft Word 2013 [Flesch Reading Ease & Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Tests]

17 Readability tests - online Readability Formulas

18 Text Content Analysis Tool A very useful tool that you could use in conjunction with any of the standard readability tests. More about this tool later in this presentation.

19 How to enable Readability Statistics in Microsoft Word 2013 With a Microsoft Word document open: 1. Click on File. 2. Click on Options. 3. Click on Proofing. 4. Select both “Check grammar with spelling” and “Show readability statistics”. 5. Click “OK”.

20 Running the Test in MS Word 2013 Run a grammar and spell check. Once completed, the statistics will come up. Important: You have to run the grammar and spell check first. That’s where the readability test gets its statistics from.

21 Sample Readability Statistics

22 Understanding F-K Readability Scores Flesch Reading Ease Test This test rates text on a 100-point scale. The higher the score, the easier it is to understand the document. For most standard files, you want the score to be between 60 and 70.

23 Understanding F-K Readability Scores Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level Test This test rates text on a U.S. school grade level. For example, a score of 8.0 means that an eighth grader can understand the document. For most documents, aim for a score of approximately 7.0 to 8.0.

24 F-K widely used The F-K formula was first used by the U.S. Army for assessing the difficulty of technical manuals in 1978. Soon became the Department of Defense military standard. Pennsylvania: car insurance policies must be written at a maximum of ninth grade level (14-15 years of age). This is now a common requirement in many other states and for legal documents e.g. insurance policies.

25 Text Content Analysis Tool

26 Text Statistics 1 (Text Content Analysis Tool)

27 Text Statistics 2 (Text Content Analysis Tool)

28 Text Statistics 3 (Text Content Analysis Tool)

29 Word Frequency Cloud (Text Content Analysis Tool)


31 Related Investigation A fascinating related investigation would be into the readability of listening comprehension texts, and investigating a possible correlation between the level of reading comprehension difficulty, on the one hand, and the level of listening comprehension difficulty, on the other.

32 Analysis of Well Read 1-4 texts

33 Readability statistics for 16 Well Read 1-4 texts Readability statistics (handouts) Flesch-Kincaid grade level ranges for 4 texts at each level. Pay particular attention to the extent of the overlaps. Complete statistics on the blog Also on the blog, the texts of the 16 texts, downloadable and editable, should you want to run your own tests.

34 Practical implications / utility Eliminating guesswork in choosing texts for quizzes and exams Moving outside of, and beyond, the text book CHOOSING TEXTS FOR SUPPLEMENTARY (VOLUNTARY) READING ASSIGNMENTS AND QUIZZES The Well Read series we’re using is (1) dated, (2) monochrome, (3) mono- technological, and (4) all non-fiction.

35 Practical Implications (ctd) Papers submitted for publication Speeches

36 Experimental texts Uploaded to blog (embedded) Three texts (1) Poem [on friendship] (2) Humorous quotes (3) Did you know? [interesting information] Each with readability statistics and possible questions.

37 Words of Wisdom Nine tenths of education is encouragement. Anatole France

38 Find it on the blog Reading Comprehension Skills Presentation

39 Survey (anonymous) (Complete statistics on the blog)

40 Questionnaire – Reading 1 On a scale from 0 – 10: Q1 How much do you enjoy reading Arabic? Q2 How much did you enjoy reading English before this course started? Q3 How much do you enjoy reading English now? 0 = hate(d) it; 10 = love(d) it

41 Results/findings Two sections (7201, 7203) 16 + 21 = 37 students Figures in columns 1-3 express relative like/dislike Percentage in column 4 expresses the increase/decrease when comparing (a) students’ enjoyment of reading English before the course started to (b) their enjoyment of reading English midway through the course

42 Results / findings Q1Q2Q3 % inc/dec 68.3856.4973.78+17.30

43 Duration/grade correlation

44 Correlation between time taken to complete test, and test results? Reading 1, sections 7201 and 7203, midterm 1 Objective test (multiple choice, T/F, fill in the blanks) 1 hour 3 segments: first 30 minutes, next 15 minutes, final 15 minutes

45 Results / findings Top scorers: 85 and above Extended the analysis to 2 sections of Writing 1, for comparison Complete statistics on blog

46 Results / findings – Reading 1 (two sections) Composite - Reading Segment 123 Average of top scorers (%)989193 Average of non-top scorers (%) 757066 Average of all scorers (%)958071

47 Results / findings – Writing 1 (two sections) Composite - Writing Segment 123 Average of top scorers (%)959493 Average of non-top scorers (%) 05766 Average of all scorers (%)957374

48 Comparative Results Composite - Reading/Writing Segment 123 Ave. top scorers (%)R989193 W959493 Ave. n/top scorers (%)R757066 W05766 Aver. all scorers (%)R958071 W957374

49 Words of Wisdom I'm afraid I have an incurable urge for teaching. Antonio Munoz Molina

50 Find it on the blog Reading Comprehension Skills Presentation

51 Conclusion

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