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Executive Functioning and Sentence Comprehension Sarah Key-DeLyria, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Portland State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Executive Functioning and Sentence Comprehension Sarah Key-DeLyria, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Portland State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Executive Functioning and Sentence Comprehension Sarah Key-DeLyria, Ph.D., CCC-SLP Portland State University

2 Learning Objectives 1. Define the categories of executive functions. 2. Define specific types of executive function skills within the general categories. 3. Name tasks that are thought to test several specific executive functions. 4. Name specific executive function skills that may be used at different points during sentence comprehension.

3 Executive Functioning: What is it? A collection of constructs

4 PLANNING 1,4,5,6,7 UPDATING 4,5,7,9,15 SHIFTING & INHIBITION GOAL FORMULATION 1 Internally or Externally Generated 1 ; Requires at least Intention 1, Motivation 1, and Self awareness 1,2,3 CARRYING OUT ACTIVITIES 1 e.g., Initiate, Switch, Stop Sequence, Maintain, in an Orderly & Integrated Manner EFFECTIVE PERFORMANCE 1 Working Memory 5,7,9,15 Modify 15 or Update Information 4,8,9,15 or Internal representation 4 Sequencing 4 Manipulate information 9 Monitoring of information 4 DUAL TASK or TIME SHARING 4,15,19 Allocate resources between tasks or processes Sustained attention 1,2 Not necessarily a component but required for successful planning Hypothesizing and Hypothesis Testing 6 Generate Alternatives 4 or Verbal/ Design Fluency 5,20 Problem Solving 5,8,9 Decision making 5 Rule Detection 10 Strategizing 4 Conceptual Framework 1 e.g., Monitor 1,4, Self-Correct, Regulate Tempo & Intensity Effective performance is required throughout many of the above processes Terms Referring to Shifting Selectively attend to one and inhibit* effect of other stimuli 2,5,15 Engage/Disengage appropriately 8 New operation despite negative priming/ interference 8 Mental Flexibility 8,16 Cognitive Flexibility 4,5,8,20 Cognitive Control 17 Inhibitory Control 16,18 Attentional Control 16,18 Attention Shifting 17 Set shifting 8,15,16,17 Switching 1,4,5,19 Conflict resolution 17 Shifting due to an internal representation not compatible with current demands Shifting terms are mostly synonymous but not always used with the same definitions or tasks 20. Switching also refers to switching repeatedly in the dual task sense. *Types of Inhibition 11 Motor response Inhibition 12 Cognitive Inhibition 12,13 Suppresses irrelevant information already in working memory Resistance to Interference 13 Prevents irrelevant information from entering working memory Unintentional Inhibition 8,12 Can lead to reactive inhibition 8 Inhibition of prepotent response 4,8 Current target requires a ‘no’ response but it required ‘yes’ recently 14 ; Intentional Inhibition 8,12 Reactive Inhibition 7,14 o Inhibition of Return (IOR) 8,21 Target in a location that was previously cued; IOR occurs after a brief period of enhancement with the initial cue o Negative Priming 8 Current target where a distractor used to be 1 Lezak, 1982 2 Stuss & Alexander, 2000 3 Spreen & Strauss, 1998 4 Salthouse et al., 2003 5 Alvarez & Emory, 2006 6 Lehto, 1996 7 Grossman et al., 2002 8 Miyake et al., 2000 9 Carpenter, Just, & Reichle, 2000 10 Jurado & Rosselli, 2007 11 Some consider inhibition to be a possible underlying feature of all EF subcomponents (Miyake et al., 2000); the inhibition types listed are not necessarily mutually exclusive 12 Harnishfeger, 1995 13 Wilson & Kipp, 1998 14 Jonides, Smith, Marshuetz, Koeppe, & Reuter-Lorenz, 1998 15 Collette & Van der Linden, 2002 16 Mazuka, Jincho, & Oishi, 2009 17 Novick et al., 2005 18 Cowan, Fristoe, Elliott, Brunner, & Saults, 2006 19 Baddeley, 1996 20 Flexibility is often used loosely to refer to shifting, switching or even to take many viewpoints, especially in novel contexts 3. Spreen and Strauss (1998) separate cognitive flexibility into spontaneous flexibility, synonymous with fluency, and reactive flexibility, defined as shifting. 21 Klein, 2000 Executive Function Categories

5 Important Subcomponents Planning The delineation & identification of alternatives, organization, decision-making, and strategizing in relation to current choices or behaviors Directed towards to future Helps to update goals Involves Strategizing Involves Hypothesizing

6 Important Subcomponents Carrying out activities Cognitive Control Coordinate thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals (overarching resource) Indicates how much “top-down” control to exert Set shifting Doing something despite interference, negative priming, distraction (Miyake et al., 2000) OR inhibit a previous item and activate a new item OR maybe just activating a new item enough to shift well Conflict Resolution Monitors levels of conflict to pass on to ‘control centers’ Seeks an alternative Set shifting needs conflict resolution to determine level of control

7 Important Subcomponents Carrying out activities Cognitive Inhibition Resistance to interference Inhibition of a prepotent response Negative priming Monitoring/ Error detection Conflict resolution?

8 Testing Executive Functions TasksPlanning ConstructsShifting & Inhibiting Constructs Effective Performance Constructs Tower of Hanoi (Simon, 1975) Overall planning, Strategizing, Hypothesizing “Avoiding perseveration”; Impulse control, Inhibition Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (Berg, 1948) Overall planning, Problem Solving (Mental/Cognitive) Flexibility, Inhibitory Control, Shifting Trail-Making Test (WAIS-IV)Overall planning (Tralis B) Cognitive Flexibility, A: Maintaining Sequences; B: Alternating Between Sequences Multiple Errands Test (Shallice & Evans, 1978) Overall planning, Rule detection, Time management

9 TasksPlanning Constructs Shifting & Inhibiting Constructs Effective Performance Constructs Cognitive Estimates Test (Shallice & Evans, 1978) Overall planning, Estimation Verbal or Design Fluency (Benton & Hamsher, 1989) Overall planning, Strategizing, Maintenance of set Monitoring to avoid repetition Stroop (Stroop Color and Word Test, Golden) Cognitive control, Conflict resolution, Inhibition, Inhibition of prepotent response, Negative priming, Stroop interference, Mental flexibility, Processing speed!... Delayed letter verification Updating, Cognitive control

10 TasksPlanning Constructs Shifting & Inhibiting Constructs Effective Performance Constructs Plus-minus task (Miyake et al., 2000) Shifting Flanker taskResistance to interference Antisaccade taskInhibition of prepotent response

11 Plus-minus task 656411 249298 353021 988331 215997 941447 366449 56618 461491 378539 853293 662955 86741 121432 172983 65750 649238 433799 92131 387578 386143 869690 535089 44642 838192 719280 9176 645430 616820 162669

12 How do we comprehend sentences? Rules, Context, Meaning But when? Incrementally! Theories of sentence processing Garden Path Model (Frazier, 1987; Frazier & Rayner, 1982) Multiple Constraints Model (Trueswell, Tanenhaus, & Garnsey, 1994) “Good Enough” Model (Christianson, Hollingworth, Halliwell, & Ferreira, 2001)

13 How do we test sentence comprehension? Informal assessment Token Test New! Northwester Assessment of Verbs and Sentences (NAVS)

14 Executive Function and Sentence Comprehension ARE linked January et al., 2009 Novick et al., 2004, 2005 Prior & Gollan, 2013 Ye & Zhou 2008, 2009 Grossman et al., 2002; Waters & Caplan, 1997 (PD) Novick et al., 2010; Hamilton & Martin, 2005 (VLPFC damage cases) Sesma et al., 2009 (ADHD) Christiansen et al., 2010 (Aphasia: Agrammatism) Hinchliffe et al., 1998 (TBI)

15 Temporarily Ambiguous Sentence Comprehension While the man hunted the deer ran into the woods. Conj VP NP IP PP V IP VP NP IP ? Conj NP VP NP VP PP IP Christianson et al., 2001

16 Ambiguous Sentence Resolution and EFs Pre-sentence Planning Goal setting Where’s the data? Initial interpretation Maintaining the goal Sequencing Strategic Planning Hypothesizing (Novais-Santos et al., 2007) Cognitive Inhibition of possible alternatives in WM

17 Ambiguous Sentence Resolution and EFs Wait, what? (encountering an unexpected ending) Monitoring/ Error detection Conflict resolution (Ye & Zhou, 2008) Cognitive control (Novick et al., 2004, 2005) Hypothesizing? Maintaining the goal? Resolving (maybe) Set shifting Maybe not fully inhibiting that first parse Switching (Novais-Santos et al., 2007) Negative Priming Inhibition of a prepotent response

18 References

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