Presentation on theme: "List-Group-Label (Taba, 1967) A pre-instruction exercise, a during instruction strategy, and a post- instruction assessment."— Presentation transcript:
List-Group-Label (Taba, 1967) A pre-instruction exercise, a during instruction strategy, and a post- instruction assessment.
From Boling and Evans, 2008 “More than 8 million American adolescents cannot read or comprehend what they read at a basic level” (Biancarosa & Snow, 2004 in Boling and Evans, 2008, p. 59). “Each day, more than 7,000 students drop out of high school because they lack the basic literacy skills needed to be successful” (Alliance for Excellent Education, 2006). “The National Assessment of Educational Progress (2005) indicated that these students have the skills necessary to read or at least recognize words; however, they do not comprehend what they read. To reverse this downward spiral, researchers have stated that these students need strategic reading instruction from competent, caring, and qualified teachers to improve their reading and comprehension skills” (Alliance for Excellent Education, in Boling & Evans, 2008, p. 59).
Using Images “Adolescents are more likely to succeed in an environment in which learning is meaningful and engaging (Pachtman & Wilson, 2006). For example, giant World War II posters of planes flying across the sky may promote comprehension and motivate students. Questions concerning WWII posted on large chart paper may promote thinking about possible answers to those questions. Together, items such as these create interest and dialogue concerning the content topic” (Boling & Evans, p. 60).
The scaffolded reading experience (SRE) is an organizational framework that content-area teachers may use to integrate the reading process into their content (Graves, Juel, & Graves, 2001). SRE can be used with any content topic or genre. Teachers may use a textbook reading, a short story, a poem, or a newspaper article. The SRE framework supports the learning process with any text and creates an instructional model destined for success. (p. 60) SRE is one method of integrating content knowledge into the context and process of learning. (p. 64)
Why have pre-instructional strategies? (a) establishes the purpose for reading and (b) activates the students’ prior knowledge of the topic. (p. 60)
Pre-reading Technique the teacher organizes the environment by establishing a context conducive to learning and then prepares students for the intended instruction using a pre-reading technique (p. 61).
Pre-reading strategy List-Group-Label List-group-label (LGL; Taba, 1967) is a pre- reading instructional strategy used to improve existing vocabulary and organize verbal concepts.
Step 1-List “The first step of the strategy is to generate a list of vocabulary words associated with the instructional concept. The teacher selects a one- or two-word concept and writes it on the board” (p. 61).
Step 2 - Group Group. The second step of the LGL strategy is to group words and phrases into categories. Students use common elements of the words and phrases to form groups. The commonali- ties may include parts of speech, similar meanings, types of characters, and so forth.
Step 3 - Label Label. The final step of the LGL strategy is to label the categories. Students read the words associated with the group and identify a word with similar characteristics.
The Teacher’s Role (p. 62) “First, the teacher activates background knowledge…” “Next, the teacher models appropriate pronunciation and spelling of the words…” “The teacher then leads discussions and facilitates the learning process by assisting students as they discover relations between and among the concepts as they establish groups of words…” “Next, students connect the words and relationships with a label. The label becomes the link that will connect new words to the students’ schemas…”
Schema Everything the student comes with and everything that contributes to their understanding, connections, and relationships to concepts.
Example – Take the following words; in teams come up with groupings and labels -Create original ways to represent learning; --Pick out ideas and themes; -Create visual, auditory and sensory connections. -What is being asked? - Identify reasonable answers; -Ask questions of yourselves, of others; -Wonder and think inferentially, discuss, agree, disagree with the text; -Look for text to text, text to self, text to world relationships; -Identify important details; -Draw conclusions, make judgments and predictions from interpretations; -Expand thinking and ideas – inferring and interpreting, building new knowledge; -Make predictions/comparisons. Utilize technology;
Now, take the handout and review your group/labels.
List-Group-Label as a During Instruction The list is on the board The groups are labeled As new words come up, add them to the list
List-Group-Label as a post assessment strategy At the end of the experience, give students 15 words from the groups Ask them to write a summary of the experience using those words
During Reading Technique Text structures (narrative/expository) Visualization Self-regulation
During Reading Strategy Story Pyramid - requires text knowledge, visualization, and self-regulated learning. – Narrative 1.Identify the main character using one word. 2. Describe the main character using two words. 3. Describe the setting using three words. 4. Describe the problem or conflict using four words. 5. Describe an event near the beginning of the story using five words. 6. Describe an event in the middle of the story using six words. 7. Describe an event near the end of the story using seven words. 8. Describe the solution or conclusion in eight words. Expository 1. Identify the topic using one word. 2. Describe the topic using two words. 3. Describe the setting for this topic using three words. 4. Describe a problem of this topic using four words. 5. Describe an event or fact concerning the topic in five words. 6. Describe an event or fact concerning the topic in six words. 7. Describe an event or fact concerning the topic in seven words. 8. Describe the solution to the problem in eight words.
After Reading Strategy – A summary A summary is a concise statement of the most important information in a text. It includes a topic or main idea, supporting details, and a closing statement. The summary can be as short as three sentences or as long as one page. By using the pyramid as a frame, students can expand the terms and phrases into sentences that summarize narrative or expository text.
Summary 1 Topic sentence. Students combine information about the character or topic and problem into a statement. Students may use information from Steps 1–4 of the pyramid to com- pose this statement. The topic sentence captures the essence of the summary.
Summary 2 Supporting details. Students describe relevant story events or facts concerning the topic. Students may transfer the sentences or expand information from Steps 5–7 of the pyramid to compose sentences for the supporting details.
Summary 3 Closing statement. Students conclude the summary by providing a solution to the problem presented in the text or synthesizing information concerning the topic.
References Boling, C. J., & Evans, W. H. (2008). Reading Success in the Secondary Classroom. Preventing School Failure, 52(2), 59- 64. Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Kelly, D. C. (1986, March). An investigation of the List-Group- Label strategy in retention of technical vocabulary of ninth- grade students. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Taba, H. (1967). Teacher’s handbook for elementary social studies. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Classroom Advice from Bolin and Evans (2008). Do Create a positive context for learning. Spend quality time planning for prereading, reading, and postreading strategies. Use structured classroom management techniques. Provide demonstration and modeling of each strategy. Do Not Assume adolescents have no appreciation of learning contexts. Put materials together at the last minute. Relax classroom rules and guidelines; students need boundaries. Assume students have been taught the strategies in earlier grades.