## Presentation on theme: "Read These………. Comprehension."— Presentation transcript:

Can You Read The Following Words?
when contains factor form not this other inverse inequality have sides of with be adding do as negative terms variable both side additive equivalent

Solve the Problem When the inequality contains terms that have the variable as a factor and terms that do not have the variable as a factor on both sides, form an equivalent in equality that has all the terms with the variable as a factor on one side and the terms not having the variable on the other side. This can be accomplished by adding the additive inverse (negatives) of the terms to both sides of the inequality.

Were you able to solve the problem? Why or why not?

What Prevented You From Fully Comprehending The Passage?

Egregio Michaelangelo, Mi scuso d’aver tardato cosi tanto a scriverti
Egregio Michaelangelo, Mi scuso d’aver tardato cosi tanto a scriverti. Ti ringrazio tanto per la tua ospitalita. Mi sono divertita moltissimo in Italia. Spero di ritornare in molto presto. Grazie, Anna

Why did Anna write the letter. What did Anna say in the letter
Why did Anna write the letter? What did Anna say in the letter? How did Anna feel about her trip?

What Prevented You From Fully Comprehending The Passage?

The woggly thenk squonked zurrily mire the herp.
What Squonked? How did it squonk? Where did it squonk? What kind of thenk is it?

Where You Able to Fully Comprehending The Passage?

What Does This Tell Us About Comprehension?
It is affected by: Understanding of genre or content Familiarity with language & structure Background knowledge Vocabulary knowledge

How Do We Get Kids To Comprehend When they lack vocabulary, background knowledge, genre experience?
We give them strategies We model the strategies We give them time to practice the strategies while reading

COMPREHENSION Explicit Instruction for Developing Strategic, Active, Critical Readers

The “BIG FIVE” Phonemic Awareness Phonics/Word Study Vocabulary
Fluency Comprehension

THINK…PAIR…SHARE…

Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies. By using conscious plans- sets of steps to make sense of text By helping students become purposeful, active readers Students can be taught to use comprehension strategies. Through explicit or direct instruction Through cooperative learning Through learning how to use multiple strategies flexibly and as they are needed In the 1980’s, a breakthrough occurred: researchers identified the specific thinking strategies used by proficient readers. They found that reading is an interactive process in which good readers engage in a constant internal dialogue with the text. The ongoing dialogue helps them understand and elaborate on what they read. By identifying what good readers do as they read, this research gave important new insights about how to teach children to read it and get it. “Once thought of as the natural result of decoding plus oral language, comprehension is now viewed as a much more complex process involving knowledge, experience, thinking and teaching.” (Linda Fielding and P. David Pearson, 1994)

Strategic Thinking! “True comprehension goes beyond literal understanding and involves the reader’s interaction with text. If students are to become thoughtful, insightful readers, they must extend their thinking beyond a superficial understanding of the text.” Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis

What Strategies Should be Taught?
Researchers identified strategies that proficient readers use to construct meaning from text. Pearson, Keene, Harvey, Goudvis, Robb and others summarized these strategies.

The Comprehension Strategies Identified through Research
Use your schema to make connections Make mental images Ask questions Make Inferences Pick out Important Ideas Synthesize Information

Use your schema to make connections
Text to Self Text to Text Text to World Making connections between the new and the known, building and activating background knowledge. According to Harvey and Goudvis, “Readers pay more attention when they relate to the text. Readers naturally bring their prior knowledge and experience to reading but comprehend better when they think about the connections they make between the text, their lives, and the larger world.”

Make mental images “Active readers create visual images in their minds based on the words they read in the text. The pictures they create enhance their understanding.” Teachers sometimes explain this as “creating a movie of the text in your head.” When students create scenarios and pictures in their minds while reading, their level of engagement increases and their attention doesn’t wander. Harvey and Goudvis “Visualizing is a comprehension strategy that enables readers to make the words on a page real and concrete.” Keene and Zimmerman

Ask questions “Questioning is the strategy that keeps readers engaged. When readers ask questions, they clarify understanding and forge ahead to make meaning. Asking questions is at the heart of thoughtful reading.” Harvey and Goudvis Generating questions before, during, and after reading that lead to deeper understanding of the text

Make Inferences “Inferring is at the intersection of taking what is known, garnering clues from the text, and thinking ahead to make a judgment, discern a theme, or speculate about what is to come.” Harvey and Goudvis Inferential thinking occurs when text clues merge with the reader’s prior knowledge and questions to point toward a conclusion about an underlying theme or idea in the text. If readers don’t infer, they will not grasp the deeper essence of texts they read.

Pick out Important Ideas
“Thoughtful readers grasp essential ideas and important information when reading. Readers must differentiate between less important ideas and key ideas that are central to the meaning of the text.” Harvey and Goudvis Determining important ideas and information in text is central to making sense of reading and moving toward insight. Teachers need to support readers in their efforts to sift and sort essential information depending on their purpose for reading.

Synthesize Information
The Evolution of Thought Synthesizing is putting together separate parts into a new whole….a process akin to working a jigsaw puzzle. Harvey and Goudvis “Synthesizing involves combining new information with existing knowledge to form an original idea or interpretation. Reviewing, sorting, and sifting important information can lead to new insights that change the way readers think.” Harvey and Goudvis

Metacognition “If confusion disrupts meaning, readers need to stop and clarify their understanding. Readers may use a variety of strategies to “fix up” comprehension when meaning goes awry.” Harvey and Goudvis Many students just don’t know that they don’t know. They lack the awareness of how they think when they read. Others are aware that meaning is breaking down but they don’t know what to do about it. Teachers need to point out to their students that even they lose focus or “space out” while reading and need to use “fix-up” strategies to repair their understanding. Monitoring for meaning—knowing when you know and when you don’t know!

Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency
Instruction in Action… Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency Thinking, Talking, and Writing About Reading Show the topic Teaching for comprehension. Overview about 8 minutes on the main menu.

The Steps to Teaching Reading Comprehension Scaffold to Success
MODEL “THINK ALOUD” PROVIDE GUIDED PRACTICE ALLOW FOR INDEPENDENT GIVE MULTIPLE OPPORTUNITIES TO EXPERIMENT USING THE STRATEGIES See Think Aloud copy A think aloud which involves talking aloud about what you are thinking as you interact with a specific piece of text is an excellent way to demonstrate how a proficient readers uses one of the comprehension strategies. Guided practice– the teacher and students work together to use the comprehension activity to understand a piece of text. The teacher assist student as they try to make meaning, providing feedback and advice. The students are encouraged to verbalize how they are thinking, so that the use of the activity is apparent and the students are clear about what they are trying to accomplish. Independent practice – the students try using the learning activity on their own and they track their efforts by recording their thinking in their journals, on sticky notes affixed to the text, or on notetaking sheets. The goal is to gradually release responsibility to the students to independently apply the strategies. Students need a great deal of practice with guidance and feedback from the teacher to gain personal control over their own thinking about their reading. Use: fiction and nonfiction, informational text, books, articles, textbooks, magazines, and newspapers.

MODEL “THINK ALOUD” “I DO.” The teacher explains the strategy.

Instructional Approach
Reading Aloud Thinking Aloud and Coding Text Lifting Text (overhead projector) Reasoning Through Text (engaging in conversation) Reading aloud involves a blend of reading for pure enjoyment and strategy instruction. It models for the students what a fluent reader sounds like and puts all students on a level playing field . Thinking aloud demonstrates thought processes of the proficient reader and is visually enhanced through coding of text. Lifting text allows the teacher to use samples from many different content areas. When put on a transparency for the overhead projector it is useful for demonstrating strategy application. When reasoning through text, teachers have an opportunity to clear up misconceptions, clarify ideas and help children monitor their comprehension.

Instructional Approach
Providing Anchor Experiences (mini lessons on strategies) Rereading for Deeper Meaning (multiple readings of text) Sharing Our Own Literacy by Modeling With Adult Literature (using more difficult text to teach) Anchor experiences serve as reminders of past strategy lessons. (see next slide for information and photo) Multiple readings allow familiarity with the text which in turn allows for practicing the use of multiple strategies. Show example of my own book—teachers can speak of what they are reading at home and their own thinking. Multiple readings of text can be used to enhance understanding. Sharing our own literacy experiences shows students that teachers are also readers. This is also a way to provide more complex text examples.

Anchor Charts Anchor experiences are those we identify and choose as our most effective mini lessons – anchor lessons—those we use to remember a specific strategy and better understand the use of that strategy. We refer back to those lessons when applying the strategy in a new text. Reference the apple corer or can opener.

Using SHORT TEXT Magazines Poetry Newspapers Short Stories Essay
Picture Books We might lift the first page of a chapter—Charolette’s Web – to show how to use a strategy. Can lift the first page of science to show how we have to figure out unfamiliar words. Try Ranger Rick, Cobblestone, or other children’s magazines such as Kids’ Discover, Time for Kids, Sport Illustrated for Kids.

PROVIDE GUIDED PRACTICE
The teacher scaffolds the students’ attempts and supports student thinking, giving feedback during conferring and classroom discussions. Students share their thinking processes with each other during paired reading and small - and large – group discussions. Gathering kids in front for instruction, releasing them to practice, and then bringing them back to share their thinking represents a steady flow that is at the heart of effective teaching and learning. Eye to eye and Knee to Knee. “WE DO.”

ALLOW FOR INDEPENDENT PRACTICE
“YOU DO.” After working with the teacher and with other students, the students try to apply the strategy on their own. The students receive regular feedback from the teacher and other students.

GIVE MULTIPLE OPPORTUNITIES TO EXPERIMENT USING THE STRATEGIES
Whole class discussions Pair shares Small informal discussion groups “Compass” group – four way share Book Clubs or Literature Circles Informational Study Groups “I DO. WE DO. YOU DO.”

Authentic, Diverse, Open Ended
Responses to Reading Authentic responses to reading tell us what‘s REALLY going on in kids’ heads! Diverse open-ended responses tell us the most about what children understand or don’t understand Authentic, Diverse, Open Ended

Ways To Share Thinking Coding text with sticky notes
Making notes in the margins Circling, highlighting, framing, bracketing, and underlining the text Using two-and three-column note forms to explore thinking Coding the text with sticky notes helps to express our thinking. When kids read deeply and monitor their comprehension, sticky notes are used to record thinking and later on remember what was going on in their minds for discussion and application.

More Ways to Respond to Reading
Writing and responding in notebooks – Steno notebooks, literature response journals, Think Books Writing letters to teachers, classmates, others in the school community, authors, illustrators Read me again for deeper understanding!

CHILDREN’S CHOICES: Helping Children Choose Text
Purpose Entertainment To read instructions To find out information Interest Promotes engagement Central reason for choice Readability Easy Challenging Just Right Book Easy – is a book in which you can read every word and understand every idea. Challenge – is a book where there are many words you can’t read and many ideas you can’t understand. Just Right Books – is a book where you can read most of the word, but not all , and you can understand most of the ideas, but not all.

Read a page in the middle of the book.
STOP! And use the 5 finger rule when you choose a book! Read a page in the middle of the book. Put up one finger for every “clunk” you have. 0 fingers – too easy 1-3 fingers – just right 4-5 – quite hard – go slow! 5+ - too hard for now Scaffold the book selection process with kids to show them how to choose a book. Take a survey of kids interest to make sure baskets are filled with library books supporting their likes.

Helping our English Language Learners
Signal with a visual Pair up for sharing in trios Preview/preread the text and vocabulary Signal with a visual – an ear, an eye, a brain…active learning signals Trios for listening and speaking. Turn the page to reference the picture when the students are talking about the book.

QUESTIONS? COMMENTS? Strategies that Work Mosaic of Thought
REFERENCES: QUESTIONS? COMMENTS? Strategies that Work Harvey & Goudvis Mosaic of Thought Keene & Zimmerman Elkhart Community School District Wisconsin Literary Education Comprehension and Fluency Fountas & Pinnell Reading with Meaning Debbie Miller What Really Matters for Struggling Readers Richard Allington