2Can You Read The Following Words? when contains factor form notthis other inverse inequality havesides of with be adding do asnegative terms variable both sideadditive equivalent
3Now Read This Passage and Solve the ProblemWhen the inequality contains terms that have the variable as a factor and terms that do not have the variable as a factor on both sides, form an equivalent in equality that has all the terms with the variable as a factor on one side and the terms not having the variable on the other side. This can be accomplished by adding the additive inverse (negatives) of the terms to both sides of the inequality.
4Were you able to solve the problem? Why or why not?
5What Prevented You From Fully Comprehending The Passage?
6Egregio Michaelangelo, Mi scuso d’aver tardato cosi tanto a scriverti Egregio Michaelangelo, Mi scuso d’aver tardato cosi tanto a scriverti. Ti ringrazio tanto per la tua ospitalita. Mi sono divertita moltissimo in Italia. Spero di ritornare in molto presto.Grazie, Anna
7Why did Anna write the letter. What did Anna say in the letter Why did Anna write the letter? What did Anna say in the letter? How did Anna feel about her trip?
8What Prevented You From Fully Comprehending The Passage?
9The woggly thenk squonked zurrily mire the herp. What Squonked?How did it squonk?Where did it squonk?What kind of thenk is it?
10Where You Able to Fully Comprehending The Passage?
11What Does This Tell Us About Comprehension? It is affected by:Understanding of genre or contentFamiliarity with language & structureBackground knowledgeVocabulary knowledge
12How Do We Get Kids To Comprehend When they lack vocabulary, background knowledge, genre experience? We give them strategiesWe model the strategiesWe give them time to practice the strategies while reading
13COMPREHENSIONExplicit Instruction for Developing Strategic, Active, Critical Readers
14The “BIG FIVE” Phonemic Awareness Phonics/Word Study Vocabulary FluencyComprehension
15ComprehensionComprehension is the reason for reading. If readers can read the words but do not understand what they read, they are not really reading. As they read, good readers are both purposeful and active.Sounding out or decoding words is part of the reading puzzle but falls short of real reading. If children don’t understand what they read, they’re not really reading. If they don’t unlock meaning as they read, the words are boring babble and they will never read well or enjoy reading. So, how is meaning unlocked?
16What is challenging about helping your students learn to read with comprehension? THINK…PAIR…SHARE…
17What Does Research Say About the PROFICIENT READER? Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategies.By using conscious plans- sets of steps to make sense of textBy helping students become purposeful, active readersStudents can be taught to use comprehension strategies.Through explicit or direct instructionThrough cooperative learningThrough learning how to use multiple strategies flexibly and as they are neededIn the 1980’s, a breakthrough occurred: researchers identified the specific thinking strategies used by proficient readers. They found that reading is an interactive process in which good readers engage in a constant internal dialogue with the text. The ongoing dialogue helps them understand and elaborate on what they read. By identifying what good readers do as they read, this research gave important new insights about how to teach children to read it and get it.“Once thought of as the natural result of decoding plus oral language, comprehension is now viewed as a much more complex process involving knowledge, experience, thinking and teaching.”(Linda Fielding and P. David Pearson, 1994)
19Strategic Thinking!“True comprehension goes beyond literal understanding and involves the reader’s interaction with text. If students are to become thoughtful, insightful readers, they must extend their thinking beyond a superficial understanding of the text.”Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis
20What Strategies Should be Taught? Researchers identified strategies that proficient readers use to construct meaning from text.Pearson, Keene, Harvey, Goudvis, Robb and others summarized these strategies.
21The Comprehension Strategies Identified through Research Use your schema to make connectionsMake mental imagesAsk questionsMake InferencesPick out Important IdeasSynthesize Information
22Use your schema to make connections Text to SelfText to TextText to WorldMaking connections between the new and the known, building and activating background knowledge.According to Harvey and Goudvis, “Readers pay more attention when they relate to the text. Readers naturally bring their prior knowledge and experience to reading but comprehend better when they think about the connections they make between the text, their lives, and the larger world.”
23Make mental images“Active readers create visual images in their minds based on the words they read in the text. The pictures they create enhance their understanding.” Teachers sometimes explain this as “creating a movie of the text in your head.” When students create scenarios and pictures in their minds while reading, their level of engagement increases and their attention doesn’t wander.Harvey and Goudvis“Visualizing is a comprehension strategy that enables readers to make the words on a page real and concrete.”Keene and Zimmerman
24Ask questions“Questioning is the strategy that keeps readers engaged. When readers ask questions, they clarify understanding and forge ahead to make meaning. Asking questions is at the heart of thoughtful reading.”Harvey and GoudvisGenerating questions before, during, and after reading that lead to deeper understanding of the text
25Make Inferences“Inferring is at the intersection of taking what is known, garnering clues from the text, and thinking ahead to make a judgment, discern a theme, or speculate about what is to come.”Harvey and GoudvisInferential thinking occurs when text clues merge with the reader’s prior knowledge and questions to point toward a conclusion about an underlying theme or idea in the text. If readers don’t infer, they will not grasp the deeper essence of texts they read.
26Pick out Important Ideas “Thoughtful readers grasp essential ideas and important information when reading. Readers must differentiate between less important ideas and key ideas that are central to the meaning of the text.”Harvey and GoudvisDetermining important ideas and information in text is central to making sense of reading and moving toward insight. Teachers need to support readers in their efforts to sift and sort essential information depending on their purpose for reading.
27Synthesize Information The Evolution of ThoughtSynthesizing is putting together separate parts into a new whole….a process akin to working a jigsaw puzzle.Harvey and Goudvis“Synthesizing involves combining new information with existing knowledge to form an original idea or interpretation. Reviewing, sorting, and sifting important information can lead to new insights that change the way readers think.”Harvey and Goudvis
28Metacognition“If confusion disrupts meaning, readers need to stop and clarify their understanding. Readers may use a variety of strategies to “fix up” comprehension when meaning goes awry.”Harvey and GoudvisMany students just don’t know that they don’t know. They lack the awareness of how they think when they read. Others are aware that meaning is breaking down but they don’t know what to do about it. Teachers need to point out to their students that even they lose focus or “space out” while reading and need to use “fix-up” strategies to repair their understanding. Monitoring for meaning—knowing when you know and when you don’t know!
29Four Kinds of Readers/Learners Tacit Readers/LearnersAware Readers/LearnersStrategic Readers/LearnersReflective Readers/LearnersTacit Readers/LearnerThese are readers who lack awareness of how they think when they think.Aware Readers/LearnersThese are readers who realize when meaning has broken down or confusion has set in but who may not have sufficient strategies for fixing the problem.Strategic Readers/LearnersThese are readers who use the thinking comprehension strategies to enhance understanding and acquire knowledge. They are able to monitor and repair meaning when it is disrupted.Reflective Readers/LearnersThese are the readers who are strategic about their thinking and are able to apply strategies flexibly depending on their goals or purpose for reading.
30Four Kinds of Readers/Learners Tacit Readers/LearnersAware Readers/LearnersStrategic Readers/LearnersReflective Readers/LearnersTacit Readers/LearnerThese are readers who lack awareness of how they think when they think.Aware Readers/LearnersThese are readers who realize when meaning has broken down or confusion has set in but who may not have sufficient strategies for fixing the problem.Strategic Readers/LearnersThese are readers who use the thinking comprehension strategies to enhance understanding and acquire knowledge. They are able to monitor and repair meaning when it is disrupted.Reflective Readers/LearnersThese are the readers who are strategic about their thinking and are able to apply strategies flexibly depending on their goals or purpose for reading.30
32Teaching for Comprehending and Fluency Instruction in Action…Irene C. Fountas and Gay Su PinnellTeaching for Comprehending and FluencyThinking, Talking, and Writing About ReadingShow the topic Teaching for comprehension. Overview about 8 minutes on the main menu.
33The Steps to Teaching Reading Comprehension Scaffold to Success MODEL “THINK ALOUD”PROVIDE GUIDEDPRACTICEALLOW FORINDEPENDENTGIVE MULTIPLEOPPORTUNITIES TOEXPERIMENT USINGTHE STRATEGIESSee Think Aloud copyA think aloud which involves talking aloud about what you are thinking as you interact with a specific piece of text is an excellent way to demonstrate how a proficient readers uses one of the comprehension strategies.Guided practice– the teacher and students work together to use the comprehension activity to understand a piece of text. The teacher assist student as they try to make meaning, providing feedback and advice. The students are encouraged to verbalize how they are thinking, so that the use of the activity is apparent and the students are clear about what they are trying to accomplish.Independent practice – the students try using the learning activity on their own and they track their efforts by recording their thinking in their journals, on sticky notes affixed to the text, or on notetaking sheets.The goal is to gradually release responsibility to the students to independently apply the strategies.Students need a great deal of practice with guidance and feedback from the teacher to gain personal control over their own thinking about their reading.Use: fiction and nonfiction, informational text, books, articles, textbooks, magazines, and newspapers.
34MODEL “THINK ALOUD” “I DO.” The teacher explains the strategy. The teacher demonstrates how to apply the strategy successfully.The teacher thinks aloud to model the mental processes she uses when she reads.According to Harvey and Goudvis, “We need to be EXPLICIT about teaching kids to be aware, to check for understanding, and to dip into their reservoir of reading comprehension strategies, to make meaning, and to monitor and repair their understanding.” Explicit teaching of comprehension monitoring builds reflective readers and learners.Strategy instruction is not something you can introduce on Monday and test on Friday. There is no fixed time to leave one strategy and move onto another. These may need to be practiced over time until kids are observed applying the strategy across different genres and in different situations - OR…when we see boredom setting in.Modeling is more than reading directions and assigning worksheets. It involves giving the students a window into the mind of a proficient reader.show mini lesson on Author’s message about 7 minutes on the main menu under whole class-mini lessons- Author’s message.Reading aloud involves a blend of reading for pure enjoyment and strategy instruction. It models for the students what a fluent reader sounds like and puts all students on a level playing field .Thinking aloud demonstrates thought processes of the proficient reader and is visually enhanced through coding of text.Lifting text allows the teacher to use samples from many different content areas. When put on a transparency for the overhead projector it is useful for demonstrating strategy application.When reasoning through text, teachers have an opportunity to clear up misconceptions, clarify ideas and help children monitor their comprehension.“I DO.”
35Instructional Approach Reading AloudThinking Aloud and Coding TextLifting Text (overhead projector)Reasoning Through Text (engaging in conversation)Reading aloud involves a blend of reading for pure enjoyment and strategy instruction. It models for the students what a fluent reader sounds like and puts all students on a level playing field .Thinking aloud demonstrates thought processes of the proficient reader and is visually enhanced through coding of text.Lifting text allows the teacher to use samples from many different content areas. When put on a transparency for the overhead projector it is useful for demonstrating strategy application.When reasoning through text, teachers have an opportunity to clear up misconceptions, clarify ideas and help children monitor their comprehension.
36Instructional Approach Providing Anchor Experiences (mini lessons on strategies)Rereading for Deeper Meaning (multiple readings of text)Sharing Our Own Literacy by Modeling With Adult Literature (using more difficult text to teach)Anchor experiences serve as reminders of past strategy lessons. (see next slide for information and photo)Multiple readings allow familiarity with the text which in turn allows for practicing the use of multiple strategies. Show example of my own book—teachers can speak of what they are reading at home and their own thinking.Multiple readings of text can be used to enhance understanding.Sharing our own literacy experiences shows students that teachers are also readers. This is also a way to provide more complex text examples.
37Anchor ChartsAnchor experiences are those we identify and choose as our most effective mini lessons – anchor lessons—those we use to remember a specific strategy and better understand the use of that strategy. We refer back to those lessons when applying the strategy in a new text. Reference the apple corer or can opener.
38Using SHORT TEXT Magazines Poetry Newspapers Short Stories Essay Picture BooksWe might lift the first page of a chapter—Charolette’s Web – to show how to use a strategy. Can lift the first page of science to show how we have to figure out unfamiliar words. Try Ranger Rick, Cobblestone, or other children’s magazines such as Kids’ Discover, Time for Kids, Sport Illustrated for Kids.
39PROVIDE GUIDED PRACTICE The teacher scaffolds the students’ attempts and supports student thinking, giving feedback during conferring and classroom discussions.Students share their thinking processes with each other during paired reading and small - and large – group discussions.Gathering kids in front for instruction, releasing them to practice, and then bringing them back to share their thinking represents a steady flow that is at the heart of effective teaching and learning. Eye to eye and Knee to Knee.“WE DO.”
40ALLOW FOR INDEPENDENT PRACTICE “YOU DO.”After working with the teacher and with other students, the students try to apply the strategy on their own.The students receive regular feedback from the teacher and other students.
41GIVE MULTIPLE OPPORTUNITIES TO EXPERIMENT USING THE STRATEGIES Whole class discussionsPair sharesSmall informal discussion groups“Compass” group – four way shareBook Clubs or Literature CirclesInformational Study Groups“I DO. WE DO. YOU DO.”
42Authentic, Diverse, Open Ended Responses to ReadingAuthentic responses to reading tell us what‘s REALLY going on in kids’ heads! Diverse open-ended responses tell us the most about what children understand or don’t understandAuthentic, Diverse, Open Ended
43Ways To Share Thinking Coding text with sticky notes Making notes in the marginsCircling, highlighting, framing, bracketing, and underlining the textUsing two-and three-column note forms to explore thinkingCoding the text with sticky notes helps to express our thinking. When kids read deeply and monitor their comprehension, sticky notes are used to record thinking and later on remember what was going on in their minds for discussion and application.
44More Ways to Respond to Reading Writing and responding in notebooks – Steno notebooks, literature response journals, Think BooksWriting letters to teachers, classmates, others in the school community, authors, illustratorsRead me again for deeper understanding!
45CHILDREN’S CHOICES: Helping Children Choose Text PurposeEntertainmentTo read instructionsTo find out informationInterestPromotes engagementCentral reason for choiceReadabilityEasyChallengingJust Right BookEasy – is a book in which you can read every word and understand every idea.Challenge – is a book where there are many words you can’t read and many ideas you can’t understand.Just Right Books – is a book where you can read most of the word, but not all , and you can understand most of the ideas, but not all.
46Read a page in the middle of the book. STOP!And use the 5 finger rule when you choose a book!Read a page in the middle of the book.Put up one finger for every “clunk” you have.0 fingers – too easy1-3 fingers – just right4-5 – quite hard – go slow!5+ - too hard for nowScaffold the book selection process with kids to show them how to choose a book. Take a survey of kids interest to make sure baskets are filled with library books supporting their likes.
47Helping our English Language Learners Signal with a visualPair up for sharing in triosPreview/preread the text and vocabularySignal with a visual – an ear, an eye, a brain…active learning signalsTrios for listening and speaking.Turn the page to reference the picture when the students are talking about the book.
48QUESTIONS? COMMENTS? Strategies that Work Mosaic of Thought REFERENCES:QUESTIONS? COMMENTS?Strategies that WorkHarvey & GoudvisMosaic of ThoughtKeene & ZimmermanElkhart Community School DistrictWisconsin Literary EducationComprehension and Fluency Fountas & PinnellReading with MeaningDebbie MillerWhat Really Matters for Struggling ReadersRichard Allington