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The BIG FIVE Components of Reading Comprehension

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1 The BIG FIVE Components of Reading Comprehension
Materials: Comprehension strategies run and laminated for each teacher on bright paper to put on the board 1 set of Small strips of strategies for me to use Text structure anchor charts Document reader Predict O Gram ready to be played on document reader The BFG by Roald Dahl

2 The Big 5 Components of Reading
Comprehension Phonics Talk at your tables and come up with one word or phrase that tells about the most important thing about each of the first Big 4. Share ideas Vocabulary

3 Objectives You will learn:
the strategies and skills good readers use to comprehend the importance of teaching comprehension strategies and skills in every subject area how to support students in reading informational texts through THIEVES and knowledge of text structure

4 Vocabulary Comprehension strategies Comprehension skills THIEVES Gradual release of responsibility Text type Schema

5 Common Core Anchor Standards for Reading
Read to gain literary and cultural knowledge and familiarity with text structures (literary texts) Read to build knowledge and background to be better readers (informational texts) Structure curriculum to develop rich content knowledge within and across grades Key ideas from side note on range and content of student reading Look at anchor standards (subtitles on each of the standards pages.) Note the 4 areas that included in each grade level’s standards. Let them read Now turn to your grade level standards for reading literature. Now take time to look at the 4 areas as fleshed out in each grade to see the progression Now look at your grade level standards for reading Informational Texts

6 Reading A skilled reader rapidly and accurately decodes the words, attaches the meaning to words and sentences, connects text information to relevant background knowledge, maintains a mental representation of what he or she has already read, forms hypotheses about upcoming information and makes decisions based on his or her purpose for reading – all at the same time. Carlisle and Rice 2002 What is reading? Done before, during, and after reading. Comprehension strategies and skills At what grade levels are they appropriate? When does teaching comprehension begin? Are our children able to do these automatically?

7 Comprehension Old Way Students read.
Teacher asks questions about what they read. New Way After preparation for a story, students read with decreasing support from the teacher. As students read, the teacher models reading strategies (thinks aloud as a reader) with gradual release of responsibility. Old way is assessing comprehension, not teaching it.

8 Big Changes K-5 K 1 2 3-5 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency
Vocabulary Comprehension Letter and sound combinations Multisyllables Vocab –need the Greek and Latin roots, as well as prefixes and suffixes. So, as our students need more and more complex skills to read, we are the ones to give them those skills. Let’s look at some things we can do before and during reading to support the development of comprehension. Listening Reading Listening Reading

9 Before Reading Build Background Knowledge
Background knowledge (schema) Experiences (real or vicariously) Vocabulary Informational Texts: KWL Literary Texts: Browsing (Clues, Wonderings, Problems) Predict O Gram We are realizing more and more that children need background knowledge, or schema, in order to comprehend. Think about reading a book on Organic Chemistry. Your background knowledge would be too weak to understand it. So, we have to evaluate the background knowledge of our students before they read. We dare not assume they know the concepts and vocabulary necessary to comprehend well. Talk about “velcro” in the brain. That is why pre-assessment is so important. Here are 2 ways to ascertain the schema students have – different ways to do pre-assessment: KWL and Predict o grams. KWL is used for informational texts. Predict O Gram can be a strategy to introduce literary texts. (HO 6-8) Do it with The BFG (chapter 2) – get volunteers to make a group of 4 and talk aloud as they put the items in the “correct” columns. Then read chapter 2 as they stay at the front and move the items around as you read. When done reading, have them agree on the placement of the papers. When done, have each group in the room who has done this share what they decided the correct placement is. If they disagree, that’s OK, as long as they can justify their placement. It makes for interesting discussion.

10 Before Reading Predictions
Students need a purpose to read Literary texts: What might happen? Informational texts: What might I learn? When children make a prediction before they read, they use the information from the pictures and as they browse to learn something new or connect it with what they already know. In literary text, they may connect the information to experiences they have had or know about and then make a prediction about what will happen. In informational text, they browse the text, evaluate what they already know about the subject, and decide what they might learn from the text.

11 Before Reading: Building Schema for Informational Texts: THIEVES
T – Title  H – Headings  I – Introductory Material  E – Every 1st sentence in each paragraph V – Visuals and Vocabulary  E – End Questions S – Summary See HO 9, 10. Refer to Magic School Bus books and how hard they are to know where to begin reading. I prefer to have them look at the V before the I. Now we will look at what do to as students read to support them in their comprehension

12 Before Reading: Building Schema: Use of Text Types
Identifying Text Type The Importance of Knowledge of Text Types to Building Background (Schema) The new term for genre is text type

13 Frozen Peach Shortcake Squares
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? Frozen Peach Shortcake Squares Ingredients 1 (8 ounce) tub COOL WHIP Whipped Topping, thawed 1 pint vanilla ice cream, softened 1 pkg. (4 serving size) JELL-O Brand Peach Flavor Gelatin (unprepared) 4 cups pound cake cubes 1/4 cup raspberry preserves 12 small peach slices 12 raspberries Directions Stir whipped topping, ice cream and dry gelatin in large bowl until well blended. Stir in cake cubes. Spoon into 8-inch square pan. Freeze 3 hours or until firm. Drizzle with raspberry preserves. Cut into squares. Top each square with 1 peach slice and 1 raspberry. Store leftover dessert in freezer. Turn and Talk: Answer questions at top. Have them share.

14 The Blind Men and the Elephant
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? The Blind Men and the Elephant Characters: Boy Blind man 4 Blind man 1 Blind man 5 Blind man 2 Blind man 6 Blind man 3 Guide Setting:  Somewhere in Asia where an elephant is passing by. Boy: (enters stage running and yelling). An elephant!  Everybody, come see it, it's coming, it's coming.  Everybody come out, come and see the elephant…  An elephant! (the blind men enter stage walking slowly with their cranes). Blind man 1: I don't know how an elephant looks like. Blind man 2: Me neither. Blind man 3: Me neither. Turn and Talk: Answer questions at top. Have them share.

15 What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know?
What is the vocabulary you expect to see? Dinosaurs Survived Mass Extinction by 700,000 Years, Fossil Find Suggests University of Alberta researchers determined that a fossilized dinosaur bone found in New Mexico confounds the long established paradigm that the age of dinosaurs ended between 65.5 and 66 million years ago. The U of A team, led by Larry Heaman from the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, determined the femur bone of a hadrosaur as being only 64.8 million years old. That means this particular plant eater was alive about 700,000 years after the mass extinction event many paleontologists believe wiped all non-avian dinosaurs off the face of earth, forever. Turn and Talk: Answer questions at top. Have them share.

16 The Ant and the Grasshopper
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? The Ant and the Grasshopper In a field one summer's day a Grasshopper was hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart's content. An Ant passed by, bearing along with great toil an ear of corn he was taking to the nest. "Why not come and chat with me," said the Grasshopper, "instead of toiling and moiling in that way?" "I am helping to lay up food for the winter," said the Ant, "and recommend you to do the same." "Why bother about winter?" said the Grasshopper; we have got plenty of food at present." But the Ant went on its way and continued its toil. When the winter came the Grasshopper had no food and found itself dying of hunger, while it saw the ants distributing every day corn and grain from the stores they had collected in the summer. Then the Grasshopper knew: It is best to prepare for the days of necessity. Turn and Talk: Answer questions at top. Have them share.

17 McCain, Franklin (Franklin Eugene), 1941-
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? McCain, Franklin (Franklin Eugene), 1941- Franklin Eugene McCain is one of the original four who took part in the Woolworth sit-in on February 1, 1960 in Greensboro, North Carolina. "Franklin Eugene McCain was born in Union County, North Carolina, in 1942, and raised in Washington, D.C. He graduated from Eastern High School in 1959 and attended North Carolina A&T State University. McCain and three other A&T freshmen, now known as the 'Greensboro Four,' are credited with initiating the sit-in movement when they sat down at the F. W. Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro on February 1, 1960 and requested service.” Turn and Talk: Answer questions at top. Have them share.

18 Text Types Fiction Informational text Mystery Biography, Autobiography
Realistic fiction Recipe Science fiction How-to Fantasy Chart, Graph, Map, Table, Folk Tales Diagram Historical fiction Directions, Procedures Article, Pamphlet, Brochure Journal Letter Poetry Drama The text type papers I have given you have definitions for text types found in the NCSCOS (HO 23-55) There are also different poetry genres that you will find in the handouts

19 Details in Different Text Types
Format level (macro level) How it looks – poem, recipe, for instance Vocabulary level (micro level) Hoop skirts = historical fiction Interplanetary protection gear = science fiction Clue = mystery Riding a bus to school = realistic fiction How did you identify the different text types? -at the macro level by knowing how a text type looks (recipes, poems, drama) -At the micro level by knowing the specific words that go with a text type Why is it important to know the text type ? The text type unlocks a lot of schema in our heads. We know what to expect and some of the background knowledge to understand. We need to teach students to unlock the text type quickly from the micro level (words) so they have the schema necessary to comprehend. It helps them make predictions and inferences.

20 Visualizing to Determine Text Type
Give students words from a text type and have them visualize the scene: Ogre, unicorn, book, potion Summer, camping, missing tent, flashlight Begin making lists of vocabulary specific to a text type on your Text Type posters. What’s the Genre? The things I am suggesting can happen at read aloud time and be reinforced during reading time. Fantasy Mystery or Realistic fiction What’s the Genre? HO11-12, Have them do this.

21 What Causes Students to Dislike Certain Text Types?
Their schema What Kind of a Reader Are You? Students like to read what is familiar but not overly repetitive. That’s why they like series like Junie B. Jones and Harry Potter. They are comfortable with them. However, if students never read a genre, they do not have a chance to build their schema for that genre. It is up to us in the read aloud time to expose them to different genres. So, be sure you are not just reading genre you prefer. When students have no schema for a topic, they will not want to read it. You couldn’t get me to read about physics for anything. How do we get students to be aware of the different text types they like to read and become intentional in expanding their reading? HO Have them do this.

22 Steps for Introduction of Text Type Studies in Classrooms
Give the survey, “What kind of reader are you?” Put up text type posters in classrooms Discuss the text type of any selection in reading, content areas, read alouds Add the title to the appropriate poster Add vocabulary of the text type to the poster After a while, ask children if they can identify the text type Give children books or selections and see if they can identify the text type Urge them to read a different text type than they usually do Go over the bullet points Now we will look at what do to as students read to support them in their comprehension as they read.

23 During Reading: What Do Good Comprehenders Do?
Comprehension Strategies What good readers do to understand the text Make connections Summarize Make predictions Visualize Ask questions Clarify Adjust reading speed Read through list. Does this sound familiar? HO 56-58 These are used the first time a person reads a text. I know you have been doing each of these in Imagine It. This is one reason why Imagine It is such a strong reading program. Its phonemic awareness, phonics, and comprehension strategies and skills support reading. Imagine It comprehension strategies (on the first read, what a reader does to understand) can be even stronger is we go even deeper than Imagine It does. As I go through the strategies on the next slides, please think about what you can add as you are teaching Imagine It red band to make the strategies more relevant for the students.

24 During Reading: Make Connections
Three levels of making connections: Text to self Text to world Text to text Making connections deepens our understanding of the text Making connections expands our understanding of the text and our own knowledge Readers ask themselves What does this remind me of In my life In something I’ve seen or heard In another selection that I’ve read Example of Kennedy: studying the bonds between molecules: covalent bonds: bonding of atoms through attraction of electrons. Connection: compare to a magnet. Always bring the knowledge to a level that it relates to something child has experienced. Best way to get information into long term memory: emotions or connect to what is already there. “velcro” After working with my grandson on Earth Science, I think this is one of the most important comprehension strategies

25 During Reading: Visualize
Visualizing is creating a mental picture about the text Visualizing involves Picturing what the author wrote Going beyond the text and incorporating prior knowledge and experience that deepen understanding Readers visualize The setting The characters The action The other one is to visualize. As long as he was reading the words, they went in one ear and out the other. When he could visualize what he was reading, he made it his own. 1. Read first bullet. 2. Listen to this selection from Wikipedia about volcanoes. “A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface. Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. “ What did you learn? Now I will read to you and you sketch it as I read. Turn and tell your partner what I said. Read2ndbullet Read 3rd bullet. Now sketch this: I was sitting on my grandma’s porch. Show your partner your sketch. How would the different visuals that you all had influence the comprehension of the text? We need to be very aware that children bring prior experiences or no experiences to the text. We need to be sure they are visualizing in a way that adds correctly to the text. We need to teach students that, if they cannot visualize what is happening, they are not comprehending and need to stop and figure out where the breakdown was – was it vocabulary or were they not paying attention?

26 During Reading: Visualizing (continued)
Visualizing is used in fiction and nonfiction texts Visualizing helps us understand complex processes in nonfiction Authors help us visualize by using Illustrations Diagrams Maps Good readers ask themselves What picture is in my mind? Does the picture extend beyond the text? Would making a drawing help me understand? Reading long boring selection on recycling to 5th graders.

27 During Reading: Summarize
Summarizing involves putting the information into our own words. It involves determining importance If a reader cannot summarize, they reread to find the gaps The difficulty of the text determines how often a reader summarizes In nonfiction: after each section In fiction: after an episode has been read Whenever we have put down a book and are about to begin reading again

28 During Reading: Summarize
Good readers ask: Does this make sense? What is this about? How can I put this in my own words? Summarize what has happened so far. Include only what is important.

29 GIST Who? What? How? When? Where? Why? 13 word summary
Use GIST or Somebody…to do so. HO 59

30 GIST Who? The three little pigs What? Built houses How? Of straw, sticks, brick When? ?? Where? ?? Why? To live on their own I wanted to model GIST for you, so I decided to do it about The Three Little Pigs. This is what I did. Then I realized it was missing the point of the story. What am I missing? I realized the main character is not the 3 little pigs, but the big bad wolf. So I tried it again with the big bad wolf.

31 GIST Who? The big bad wolf
What? Blew down the little pigs’ houses, but could not blow down the house of bricks Why? To eat them When? ?? How? By huffing and puffing and blowing their house down Where? ?? The Big Bad Wolf tried to blow down the Three Little Pigs’ houses and eat them by huffing and puffing, but he could not blow down the brick house. The Wolf could not blow down the brick house to eat the Pigs.

32 During Reading: Make Predictions
Predicting involves Summarizing what has been read so far Identifying clues and events in the text Making connections to prior knowledge and personal events to make inferences about what will happen next Predictions are never wrong, just confirmed or disconfirmed Readers ask: What are the clues in the text? What do I already know that will help me know what will happen next? Making predictions occurs before, during, and after reading. Predictions happen before reading – what do you see on the cover or the first few pages? What do you think might happen? Or What might I learn? During reading – my prediction was confirmed or disconfirmed. What might happen next? After reading – what may happen next? What do you think will happen next with Sophie or the giant?

33 During Reading: Ask questions
Asking questions allow the reader to check the understanding and follow the writer’s train of thought We ask questions about what we might learn Asking questions clears up confusion or makes us wonder why something is in the text the way it is Asking questions is like having a teacher inside you to ask comprehension questions Good readers ask Why is this the way it is? What new information am I learning? What questions will be answered as I read? What does not make sense? Ask some questions about the BFG. Why do you think the author has the setting for the BFG in an orphanage? Why does the author not have the other children see the giant? What have I learned so far? What questions will be answered as I read?

34 During Reading: Clarify
We clarify when we do not understand a word or concept Good readers ask What does not make sense? (WAC a word) If it is a word, how can I figure it out? Word Structure The father said he would disinherit his son unless he did as he asked. Apposition He suffered from somnambulism, walking in his sleep. Context The man reached up to get the camera. He stretched his body. What is the main idea of what I just read? Can I put what I just read into my own words? This is closely related to summarizing and visualizing, but it is used when we realize we are confused.

35 During Reading: Adjust Reading Speed
We adjust our reading speed by Speeding up when the text is easy Slowing down when the text is hard Good readers ask themselves Am I understanding what I am reading? Can I remember what I read? Do I need to re-read more slowly? The difference between reading Danielle Steele and a chemistry book.

36 During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension
Modeling and thinking aloud Especially effective on a first read or read aloud How do we teach children to comprehend?

37 During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension
Model summarizing Model clarifying Model asking questions Model predicting Model making connections Model visualizing Model adjusting reading speed

38 During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension
Use gradual release of responsibility I do it We do it together You do it alone

39 Procedure for Gradual Release of Responsibility
I do it: This is a good time to stop because ____. I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy. We do it together: Teacher: This is a good time to stop because ____. We are going to ____(comprehension strategy). Students: Apply the strategy. Teacher: This is a good time to stop because ____. Students: I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy. You do it: This is a good time to stop because ____. I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy. I do it: This is a good time to stop because I have just read a chapter of the BFG. I am going to summarize what has happened in this chapter. Sophie and the Giant seem to be the main characters in this chapter. What did they do? The Giant was going from house to house pouring something into a thin trumpet, sticking it into the bedroom windows and blowing. He spotted Sophie and she hid under the covers. We do it together: This is a good time to stop because I have just read a chapter of the BFG. WE are going to summarize what has happened in this chapter. You do it. We do it together: This is a good time to stop because I have just read a chapter of the BFG. What strategy would be best to do now? You do it. You do it: See HO 60 Also see next HO 61: Read and Say Something. You can assign children or they can decide when to use the cards on this sheet. Each has one of the jobs. They take turns reading chunks of the text. When a chunk is complete, they each do their job.

40 Comprehension Skills What the author does to help us understand what was written. Used the second time a selection is read.

41 Comprehension Skills Author’s purpose Text Structures
(Description) -Cause and effect Sequence (Problem and solution) Compare and contrast Author’s point of view Main idea and details Classify and categorize Fact and opinion Drawing conclusions/making inferences Imagine It has all these skills. However, I grouped the text structures together. Imagine It does not call them text structures. Every author has to decide in what format they will write. The text structures are such formats. The whole selection may be written in one of these formats, or the author may include more than one format in a selection Under text structures there are 2 items in parentheses. For some reason, Imagine It does not include these 2 text structures in their skills. I suggest we add them. HO 62-63

42 Author’s purpose Every author writes for a reason Most common reasons:
Entertain Persuade Inform Knowing this gives the reader an idea of what to expect and maybe an idea of what the author is going to say Entertain: reader relaxes and lets story carry him or her Persuade: Be aware the author wants you to think in a certain way Inform: Pay attention because you are going to learn something

43 Text Structures Description
The author explains a topic, idea, person, place, or thing by listing characteristics, features, and examples. Focus is on one thing and its components Now, we move to the text structures. Once an author knows the purpose for writing, the author must decide in what format to write. After each, go to the appropriate pages in the handouts and then read the examples of each in context. HO 64-66 Note how this and the following slides begin with “the author”. Comprehension skills are what the author does to organize or write to help the reader comprehend.

44 Text Structure Sequence
The author lists items or events in numerical or chronological order Describes the order of events or how to do or make something (procedure or process) HO 67-70

45 Text Structure Compare and Contrast
Compare = similarities Contrast = differences The author explains how two or more ideas, objects, or processses are alike and/or how they are different HO 71-73

46 Text Structures Cause and Effect
The author lists one or more causes or events and the resulting consequences or effects Effect = what happened? Cause = what made it happen? Purpose is to explain why or how something happened, exists, or words If/then pattern HO 74-76

47 Text Structure Problem and Solution
The author states a problem and lists one or more possible solutions to the problem May also include the pros and cons for the solutions HO 77-79 The samples are on HO Flip cards are on HO 83-84 Exemplar books are on HO 85-86

48 Author’s point of view Who is telling the story?
First person: one of the characters in the story describes the action and tells what the other characters are like I, me, my Third person: someone outside the story who is aware of the characters’ thoughts, feelings, and actions tells the story He/she, him/her, it Being aware of this helps to know whether the reader is given the full picture or not The author also has to decide how the information will be presented, from whose perspective. How is the BFG told? How would the BFG be different if told from the first person giant’s perspective?

49 Main idea and details The reader should know what the author is writing about The main idea is strengthened by details that help the reader understand the main idea Examples of details: Compare and contrast Provide examples Provide facts Give opinions Give descriptions Cause and effect Give definitions What is the main idea and what are the details? Note that sometimes details are in the form of the text structures. So, an author might have a description or have cause and effect text structures in the same selection. See HO 87 as a way to teach main idea. Also, a sample on HO 88

50 Classify and categorize
The relationships of actions, events, characters, and outcomes in a selection The BFG Characters See Story map in handouts 89-90 Do this with The BFG Settings Problem Events Solution

51 Fact and opinion Essential to critical thinking
What needs to be in place for it to be provable? An opinion is not provable, but should be based on fact. This helps determine the validity of ideas What are the facts in the BFG? What are the opinions?

52 Drawing conclusions/making inferences
Writers do not directly state everything Reader must “read between the lines” Information from the text +Connection to what I know Inference or draw a conclusion The boy punched him +I know boys who punch others (bullies) He is a bully The author decides to make us do some work as readers, so the author gives us information and asks us to read between the lines by asking us to draw conclusions or make inferences. Make an inference from the BFG: What kind of person is Sophie?

53 After Reading: Checking Comprehension
Be sure your comprehension questions are challenging the students to think See HO 91 of Comp questions using higher order skills and next HO 92 of questions stems for expository text.

54 Your Turn Look at your next science or social studies lesson.
Plan to use at least one comprehension strategy and one skill in your lesson. Plan which skill fits best with your lesson Find at least 2 places to model it Plan a way for children to apply the skill themselves Plan an assessment to determine if they understand what the author did to help them comprehend It is important to teach these skills across the curriculum. Science and social studies are not to be left out of comprehension strategies and skills as well as Text Types and text structures.

55 Vocabulary Comprehension strategies Comprehension skills THIEVES Gradual release of responsibility Genre Schema

56 Teaching the Big 5 To be most effective, the five critical components need to be taught explicitly within classrooms that are strongly positive and engaging, use writing activities to support literacy, and provide students with many opportunities to read interesting text and complete authentic reading and writing assignments. Florida Center for Reading Research Please discuss this at your table. Share

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