Presentation on theme: "The BIG FIVE Components of Reading Comprehension"— Presentation transcript:
1 The BIG FIVE Components of Reading Comprehension Materials:Comprehension strategies run and laminated for each teacher on bright paper to put on the board1 set of Small strips of strategies for me to useText structure anchor chartsDocument readerPredict O Gram ready to be played on document readerThe BFG by Roald Dahl
2 The Big 5 Components of Reading ComprehensionPhonicsTalk at your tables and come up with one word or phrase that tells about the most important thing about each of the first Big 4.Share ideasVocabulary
3 Objectives You will learn: the strategies and skills good readers use to comprehendthe importance of teaching comprehension strategies and skills in every subject areahow to support students in reading informational texts through THIEVES and knowledge of text structure
4 VocabularyComprehension strategies Comprehension skills THIEVES Gradual release of responsibility Text type Schema
5 Common Core Anchor Standards for Reading Read to gain literary and cultural knowledge and familiarity with text structures (literary texts)Read to build knowledge and background to be better readers (informational texts)Structure curriculum to develop rich content knowledge within and across gradesKey ideas from side note on range and content of student readingLook at anchor standards (subtitles on each of the standards pages.) Note the 4 areas that included in each grade level’s standards. Let them readNow turn to your grade level standards for reading literature.Now take time to look at the 4 areas as fleshed out in each grade to see the progressionNow look at your grade level standards for reading Informational Texts
6 ReadingA skilled reader rapidly and accurately decodes the words, attaches the meaning to words and sentences, connects text information to relevant background knowledge, maintains a mental representation of what he or she has already read, forms hypotheses about upcoming information and makes decisions based on his or her purpose for reading – all at the same time.Carlisle and Rice 2002What is reading?Done before, during, and after reading.Comprehension strategies and skillsAt what grade levels are they appropriate? When does teaching comprehension begin?Are our children able to do these automatically?
7 Comprehension Old Way Students read. Teacher asks questions about what they read.New WayAfter preparation for a story, students read with decreasing support from the teacher.As students read, the teacher models reading strategies (thinks aloud as a reader) with gradual release of responsibility.Old way is assessing comprehension, not teaching it.
8 Big Changes K-5 K 1 2 3-5 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency VocabularyComprehensionLetter and sound combinationsMultisyllablesVocab –need the Greek and Latin roots, as well as prefixes and suffixes.So, as our students need more and more complex skills to read, we are the ones to give them those skills. Let’s look at some things we can do before and during reading to support the development of comprehension.ListeningReadingListeningReading
9 Before Reading Build Background Knowledge Background knowledge (schema)Experiences (real or vicariously)VocabularyInformational Texts: KWLLiterary Texts:Browsing (Clues, Wonderings,Problems)Predict O GramWe are realizing more and more that children need background knowledge, or schema, in order to comprehend. Think about reading a book on Organic Chemistry. Your background knowledge would be too weak to understand it.So, we have to evaluate the background knowledge of our students before they read. We dare not assume they know the concepts and vocabulary necessary to comprehend well.Talk about “velcro” in the brain.That is why pre-assessment is so important.Here are 2 ways to ascertain the schema students have – different ways to do pre-assessment: KWL and Predict o grams.KWL is used for informational texts. Predict O Gram can be a strategy to introduce literary texts. (HO 6-8)Do it with The BFG (chapter 2) – get volunteers to make a group of 4 and talk aloud as they put the items in the “correct” columns.Then read chapter 2 as they stay at the front and move the items around as you read. When done reading, have them agree on the placement of the papers.When done, have each group in the room who has done this share what they decided the correct placement is. If they disagree, that’s OK, as long as they can justify their placement. It makes for interesting discussion.
10 Before Reading Predictions Students need a purpose to readLiterary texts: What might happen?Informational texts: What might Ilearn?When children make a prediction before they read, they use the information from the pictures and as they browse to learn something new or connect it with what they already know.In literary text, they may connect the information to experiences they have had or know about and then make a prediction about what will happen.In informational text, they browse the text, evaluate what they already know about the subject, and decide what they might learn from the text.
11 Before Reading: Building Schema for Informational Texts: THIEVES T – Title H – Headings I – Introductory Material E – Every 1st sentence in each paragraphV – Visuals and Vocabulary E – End QuestionsS – SummarySee HO 9, 10. Refer to Magic School Bus books and how hard they are to know where to begin reading.I prefer to have them look at the V before the I.Now we will look at what do to as students read to support them in their comprehension
12 Before Reading: Building Schema: Use of Text Types Identifying Text TypeThe Importance of Knowledge ofText Types to Building Background(Schema)The new term for genre is text type
13 Frozen Peach Shortcake Squares What is the Text Type?What is the text type? How do you know?What is the vocabulary you expect to see?Frozen Peach Shortcake SquaresIngredients1 (8 ounce) tub COOL WHIP Whipped Topping, thawed1 pint vanilla ice cream, softened1 pkg. (4 serving size) JELL-O Brand Peach Flavor Gelatin (unprepared)4 cups pound cake cubes1/4 cup raspberry preserves12 small peach slices12 raspberriesDirectionsStir whipped topping, ice cream and dry gelatin in large bowl until well blended. Stir in cake cubes. Spoon into 8-inch square pan.Freeze 3 hours or until firm.Drizzle with raspberry preserves. Cut into squares. Top each square with 1 peach slice and 1 raspberry. Store leftover dessert in freezer.Turn and Talk:Answer questions at top.Have them share.
14 The Blind Men and the Elephant What is the Text Type?What is the text type? How do you know?What is the vocabulary you expect to see?The Blind Men and the ElephantCharacters:Boy Blind man 4Blind man 1 Blind man 5Blind man 2 Blind man 6Blind man 3 GuideSetting: Somewhere in Asia where an elephant is passing by.Boy: (enters stage running and yelling). An elephant! Everybody, come see it, it's coming, it's coming. Everybody come out, come and see the elephant… An elephant!(the blind men enter stage walking slowly with their cranes).Blind man 1: I don't know how an elephant looks like.Blind man 2: Me neither.Blind man 3: Me neither.Turn and Talk:Answer questions at top.Have them share.
15 What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see?Dinosaurs Survived Mass Extinction by 700,000 Years, Fossil Find SuggestsUniversity of Alberta researchers determined that a fossilized dinosaur bone found in New Mexico confounds the long established paradigm that the age of dinosaurs ended between 65.5 and 66 million years ago.The U of A team, led by Larry Heaman from the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, determined the femur bone of a hadrosaur as being only 64.8 million years old. That means this particular plant eater was alive about 700,000 years after the mass extinction event many paleontologists believe wiped all non-avian dinosaurs off the face of earth, forever.Turn and Talk:Answer questions at top.Have them share.
16 The Ant and the Grasshopper What is the Text Type?What is the text type? How do you know?What is the vocabulary you expect to see?The Ant and the GrasshopperIn a field one summer's day a Grasshopper was hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart's content. An Ant passed by, bearing along with great toil an ear of corn he was taking to the nest. "Why not come and chat with me," said the Grasshopper, "instead of toiling and moiling in that way?" "I am helping to lay up food for the winter," said the Ant, "and recommend you to do the same." "Why bother about winter?" said the Grasshopper; we have got plenty of food at present." But the Ant went on its way and continued its toil. When the winter came the Grasshopper had no food and found itself dying of hunger, while it saw the ants distributing every day corn and grain from the stores they had collected in the summer. Then the Grasshopper knew:It is best to prepare for the days of necessity.Turn and Talk:Answer questions at top.Have them share.
17 McCain, Franklin (Franklin Eugene), 1941- What is the Text Type?What is the text type? How do you know?What is the vocabulary you expect to see?McCain, Franklin (Franklin Eugene), 1941-Franklin Eugene McCain is one of the original four who took part in the Woolworth sit-in on February 1, 1960 in Greensboro, North Carolina. "Franklin Eugene McCain was born in Union County, North Carolina, in 1942, and raised in Washington, D.C. He graduated from Eastern High School in 1959 and attended North Carolina A&T State University. McCain and three other A&T freshmen, now known as the 'Greensboro Four,' are credited with initiating the sit-in movement when they sat down at the F. W. Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro on February 1, 1960 and requested service.”Turn and Talk:Answer questions at top.Have them share.
18 Text Types Fiction Informational text Mystery Biography, Autobiography Realistic fiction RecipeScience fiction How-toFantasy Chart, Graph, Map, Table,Folk Tales DiagramHistorical fiction Directions, ProceduresArticle, Pamphlet, BrochureJournalLetterPoetry DramaThe text type papers I have given you have definitions for text types found in the NCSCOS (HO 23-55)There are also different poetry genres that you will find in the handouts
19 Details in Different Text Types Format level (macro level)How it looks – poem, recipe, for instanceVocabulary level (micro level)Hoop skirts = historical fictionInterplanetary protection gear = science fictionClue = mysteryRiding a bus to school = realistic fictionHow did you identify the different text types?-at the macro level by knowing how a text type looks (recipes, poems, drama)-At the micro level by knowing the specific words that go with a text typeWhy is it important to know the text type ? The text type unlocks a lot of schema in our heads. We know what to expect and some of the background knowledge to understand.We need to teach students to unlock the text type quickly from the micro level (words) so they have the schema necessary to comprehend. It helps them make predictions and inferences.
20 Visualizing to Determine Text Type Give students words from a text type and have them visualize the scene:Ogre, unicorn, book, potionSummer, camping, missing tent, flashlightBegin making lists of vocabulary specific to a text type on your Text Type posters.What’s the Genre?The things I am suggesting can happen at read aloud time and be reinforced during reading time.FantasyMystery or Realistic fictionWhat’s the Genre? HO11-12, Have them do this.
21 What Causes Students to Dislike Certain Text Types? Their schemaWhat Kind of a Reader Are You?Students like to read what is familiar but not overly repetitive. That’s why they like series like Junie B. Jones and Harry Potter. They are comfortable with them. However, if students never read a genre, they do not have a chance to build their schema for that genre. It is up to us in the read aloud time to expose them to different genres. So, be sure you are not just reading genre you prefer.When students have no schema for a topic, they will not want to read it. You couldn’t get me to read about physics for anything.How do we get students to be aware of the different text types they like to read and become intentional in expanding their reading? HO Have them do this.
22 Steps for Introduction of Text Type Studies in Classrooms Give the survey, “What kind of reader are you?”Put up text type posters in classroomsDiscuss the text type of any selection in reading, content areas, read aloudsAdd the title to the appropriate posterAdd vocabulary of the text type to the posterAfter a while, ask children if they can identify the text typeGive children books or selections and see if they can identify the text typeUrge them to read a different text type than they usually doGo over the bullet pointsNow we will look at what do to as students read to support them in their comprehension as they read.
23 During Reading: What Do Good Comprehenders Do? Comprehension StrategiesWhat good readers do to understand the textMake connectionsSummarizeMake predictionsVisualizeAsk questionsClarifyAdjust reading speedRead through list. Does this sound familiar? HO 56-58These are used the first time a person reads a text.I know you have been doing each of these in Imagine It. This is one reason why Imagine It is such a strong reading program. Its phonemic awareness, phonics, and comprehension strategies and skills support reading.Imagine It comprehension strategies (on the first read, what a reader does to understand) can be even stronger is we go even deeper than Imagine It does. As I go through the strategies on the next slides, please think about what you can add as you are teaching Imagine It red band to make the strategies more relevant for the students.
24 During Reading: Make Connections Three levels of making connections:Text to selfText to worldText to textMaking connections deepens our understanding of the textMaking connections expands our understanding of the text and our own knowledgeReaders ask themselvesWhat does this remind me ofIn my lifeIn something I’ve seen or heardIn another selection that I’ve readExample of Kennedy: studying the bonds between molecules: covalent bonds: bonding of atoms through attraction of electrons. Connection: compare to a magnet.Always bring the knowledge to a level that it relates to something child has experienced.Best way to get information into long term memory: emotions or connect to what is already there. “velcro”After working with my grandson on Earth Science, I think this is one of the most important comprehension strategies
25 During Reading: Visualize Visualizing is creating a mental picture about the textVisualizing involvesPicturing what the author wroteGoing beyond the text and incorporating prior knowledge and experience that deepen understandingReaders visualizeThe settingThe charactersThe actionThe other one is to visualize. As long as he was reading the words, they went in one ear and out the other. When he could visualize what he was reading, he made it his own.1. Read first bullet.2. Listen to this selection from Wikipedia about volcanoes.“A volcano is an opening, or rupture, in a planet's surface or crust, which allows hot magma, volcanic ash and gases to escape from below the surface.Volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. A mid-oceanic ridge, for example the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, has examples of volcanoes caused by divergent tectonic plates pulling apart; the Pacific Ring of Fire has examples of volcanoes caused by convergent tectonic plates coming together. By contrast, volcanoes are usually not created where two tectonic plates slide past one another. “What did you learn?Now I will read to you and you sketch it as I read. Turn and tell your partner what I said.Read2ndbulletRead 3rd bullet.Now sketch this:I was sitting on my grandma’s porch. Show your partner your sketch.How would the different visuals that you all had influence the comprehension of the text?We need to be very aware that children bring prior experiences or no experiences to the text. We need to be sure they are visualizing in a way that adds correctly to the text.We need to teach students that, if they cannot visualize what is happening, they are not comprehending and need to stop and figure out where the breakdown was – was it vocabulary or were they not paying attention?
26 During Reading: Visualizing (continued) Visualizing is used in fiction and nonfiction textsVisualizing helps us understand complex processes in nonfictionAuthors help us visualize by usingIllustrationsDiagramsMapsGood readers ask themselvesWhat picture is in my mind?Does the picture extend beyond the text?Would making a drawing help me understand?Reading long boring selection on recycling to 5th graders.
27 During Reading: Summarize Summarizing involves putting the information into our own words.It involves determining importanceIf a reader cannot summarize, they reread to find the gapsThe difficulty of the text determines how often a reader summarizesIn nonfiction: after each sectionIn fiction: after an episode has been readWhenever we have put down a book and are about to begin reading again
28 During Reading: Summarize Good readers ask:Does this make sense?What is this about?How can I put this in my own words?Summarize what has happened so far. Include only what is important.
29 GIST Who? What? How? When? Where? Why? 13 word summary Use GIST or Somebody…to do so. HO 59
30 GISTWho? The three little pigs What? Built houses How? Of straw, sticks, brick When? ?? Where? ?? Why? To live on their ownI wanted to model GIST for you, so I decided to do it about The Three Little Pigs.This is what I did.Then I realized it was missing the point of the story. What am I missing? I realized the main character is not the 3 little pigs, but the big bad wolf.So I tried it again with the big bad wolf.
31 GIST Who? The big bad wolf What? Blew down the little pigs’ houses, but could not blow down the house of bricksWhy? To eat themWhen? ??How? By huffing and puffing and blowing their house downWhere? ??The Big Bad Wolf tried to blow down the Three Little Pigs’ houses and eat them by huffing and puffing, but he could not blow down the brick house.The Wolf could not blow down the brick house to eat the Pigs.
32 During Reading: Make Predictions Predicting involvesSummarizing what has been read so farIdentifying clues and events in the textMaking connections to prior knowledge and personal events to make inferences about what will happen nextPredictions are never wrong, just confirmed or disconfirmedReaders ask:What are the clues in the text?What do I already know that will help me know what will happen next?Making predictions occurs before, during, and after reading.Predictions happen before reading – what do you see on the cover or the first few pages? What do you think might happen? Or What might I learn?During reading – my prediction was confirmed or disconfirmed. What might happen next?After reading – what may happen next?What do you think will happen next with Sophie or the giant?
33 During Reading: Ask questions Asking questions allow the reader to check the understanding and follow the writer’s train of thoughtWe ask questions about what we might learnAsking questions clears up confusion or makes us wonder why something is in the text the way it isAsking questions is like having a teacher inside you to ask comprehension questionsGood readers askWhy is this the way it is?What new information am I learning?What questions will be answered as I read?What does not make sense?Ask some questions about the BFG.Why do you think the author has the setting for the BFG in an orphanage?Why does the author not have the other children see the giant?What have I learned so far?What questions will be answered as I read?
34 During Reading: Clarify We clarify when we do not understand a word or conceptGood readers askWhat does not make sense? (WAC a word)If it is a word, how can I figure it out?Word Structure The father said he would disinherit his son unless he did as he asked.Apposition He suffered from somnambulism, walking in his sleep.Context The man reached up to get the camera. He stretched his body.What is the main idea of what I just read?Can I put what I just read into my own words?This is closely related to summarizing and visualizing, but it is used when we realize we are confused.
35 During Reading: Adjust Reading Speed We adjust our reading speed bySpeeding up when the text is easySlowing down when the text is hardGood readers ask themselvesAm I understanding what I am reading?Can I remember what I read?Do I need to re-read more slowly?The difference between reading Danielle Steele and a chemistry book.
36 During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension Modeling and thinking aloudEspecially effective on a first read or read aloudHow do we teach children to comprehend?
37 During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension Model summarizingModel clarifyingModel asking questionsModel predictingModel making connectionsModel visualizingModel adjusting reading speed
38 During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension Use gradual release of responsibilityI do itWe do it togetherYou do it alone
39 Procedure for Gradual Release of Responsibility I do it:This is a good time to stop because ____. I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy.We do it together:Teacher: This is a good time to stop because ____. We are going to ____(comprehension strategy).Students: Apply the strategy.Teacher: This is a good time to stop because ____.Students: I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy.You do it:This is a good time to stop because ____. I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy.I do it:This is a good time to stop because I have just read a chapter of the BFG. I am going to summarize what has happened in this chapter. Sophie and the Giant seem to be the main characters in this chapter. What did they do? The Giant was going from house to house pouring something into a thin trumpet, sticking it into the bedroom windows and blowing. He spotted Sophie and she hid under the covers.We do it together: This is a good time to stop because I have just read a chapter of the BFG. WE are going to summarize what has happened in this chapter. You do it.We do it together: This is a good time to stop because I have just read a chapter of the BFG. What strategy would be best to do now? You do it.You do it:See HO 60Also see next HO 61: Read and Say Something. You can assign children or they can decide when to use the cards on this sheet. Each has one of the jobs. They take turns reading chunks of the text. When a chunk is complete, they each do their job.
40 Comprehension SkillsWhat the author does to help us understand what was written.Used the second time a selection is read.
41 Comprehension Skills Author’s purpose Text Structures (Description) -Cause and effectSequence (Problem and solution)Compare and contrastAuthor’s point of viewMain idea and detailsClassify and categorizeFact and opinionDrawing conclusions/making inferencesImagine It has all these skills. However, I grouped the text structures together. Imagine It does not call them text structures. Every author has to decide in what format they will write. The text structures are such formats. The whole selection may be written in one of these formats, or the author may include more than one format in a selectionUnder text structures there are 2 items in parentheses. For some reason, Imagine It does not include these 2 text structures in their skills. I suggest we add them. HO 62-63
42 Author’s purpose Every author writes for a reason Most common reasons: EntertainPersuadeInformKnowing this gives the reader an idea of what to expect and maybe an idea of what the author is going to sayEntertain: reader relaxes and lets story carry him or herPersuade: Be aware the author wants you to think in a certain wayInform: Pay attention because you are going to learn something
43 Text Structures Description The author explains a topic, idea, person, place, or thing by listing characteristics, features, and examples.Focus is on one thing and its componentsNow, we move to the text structures. Once an author knows the purpose for writing, the author must decide in what format to write.After each, go to the appropriate pages in the handouts and then read the examples of each in context.HO 64-66Note how this and the following slides begin with “the author”. Comprehension skills are what the author does to organize or write to help the reader comprehend.
44 Text Structure Sequence The author lists items or events in numerical or chronological orderDescribes the order of events or how to do or make something (procedure or process)HO 67-70
45 Text Structure Compare and Contrast Compare = similaritiesContrast = differencesThe author explains how two or more ideas, objects, or processses are alike and/or how they are differentHO 71-73
46 Text Structures Cause and Effect The author lists one or more causes or events and the resulting consequences or effectsEffect = what happened?Cause = what made it happen?Purpose is to explain why or how something happened, exists, or wordsIf/then patternHO 74-76
47 Text Structure Problem and Solution The author states a problem and lists one or more possible solutions to the problemMay also include the pros and cons for the solutionsHO 77-79The samples are on HOFlip cards are on HO 83-84Exemplar books are on HO 85-86
48 Author’s point of view Who is telling the story? First person: one of the characters in the story describes the action and tells what the other characters are likeI, me, myThird person: someone outside the story who is aware of the characters’ thoughts, feelings, and actions tells the storyHe/she, him/her, itBeing aware of this helps to know whether the reader is given the full picture or notThe author also has to decide how the information will be presented, from whose perspective.How is the BFG told?How would the BFG be different if told from the first person giant’s perspective?
49 Main idea and detailsThe reader should know what the author is writing aboutThe main idea is strengthened by details that help the reader understand the main ideaExamples of details:Compare and contrastProvide examplesProvide factsGive opinionsGive descriptionsCause and effectGive definitionsWhat is the main idea and what are the details?Note that sometimes details are in the form of the text structures. So, an author might have a description or have cause and effect text structures in the same selection.See HO 87 as a way to teach main idea.Also, a sample on HO 88
50 Classify and categorize The relationships of actions, events, characters, and outcomes in a selectionThe BFGCharactersSee Story map in handouts 89-90Do this with The BFGSettingsProblemEventsSolution
51 Fact and opinion Essential to critical thinking What needs to be in place for it to be provable?An opinion is not provable, but should be based on fact.This helps determine the validity of ideasWhat are the facts in the BFG?What are the opinions?
52 Drawing conclusions/making inferences Writers do not directly state everythingReader must “read between the lines”Information from the text+Connection to what I knowInference or draw a conclusionThe boy punched him+I know boys who punch others (bullies)He is a bullyThe author decides to make us do some work as readers, so the author gives us information and asks us to read between the lines by asking us to draw conclusions or make inferences.Make an inference from the BFG: What kind of person is Sophie?
53 After Reading: Checking Comprehension Be sure your comprehension questions are challenging the students to thinkSee HO 91 of Comp questions using higher order skills and next HO 92 of questions stems for expository text.
54 Your Turn Look at your next science or social studies lesson. Plan to use at least one comprehension strategy and one skill in your lesson.Plan which skill fits best with your lessonFind at least 2 places to model itPlan a way for children to apply the skill themselvesPlan an assessment to determine if they understand what the author did to help them comprehendIt is important to teach these skills across the curriculum. Science and social studies are not to be left out of comprehension strategies and skills as well as Text Types and text structures.
56 Teaching the Big 5To be most effective, the five critical components need to be taught explicitly within classrooms that are strongly positive and engaging, use writing activities to support literacy, and provide students with many opportunities to read interesting text and complete authentic reading and writing assignments.Florida Center for Reading ResearchPlease discuss this at your table.Share