Presentation on theme: "The BIG FIVE Components of Reading Comprehension."— Presentation transcript:
The BIG FIVE Components of Reading Comprehension
The Big 5 Components of Reading Phonological Awareness Fluency Comprehension Phonics Vocabulary
Objectives You will learn: –the strategies and skills good readers use to comprehend –the importance of teaching comprehension strategies and skills in every subject area –how to support students in reading informational texts through THIEVES and knowledge of text structure
Vocabulary Comprehension strategies Comprehension skills THIEVES Gradual release of responsibility Text type Schema
Common Core Anchor Standards for Reading Read to gain literary and cultural knowledge and familiarity with text structures (literary texts) Read to build knowledge and background to be better readers (informational texts) Structure curriculum to develop rich content knowledge within and across grades
Reading A skilled reader rapidly and accurately decodes the words, attaches the meaning to words and sentences, connects text information to relevant background knowledge, maintains a mental representation of what he or she has already read, forms hypotheses about upcoming information and makes decisions based on his or her purpose for reading – all at the same time. Carlisle and Rice 2002
Comprehension Old Way Students read. Teacher asks questions about what they read. New Way After preparation for a story, students read with decreasing support from the teacher. As students read, the teacher models reading strategies (thinks aloud as a reader) with gradual release of responsibility.
Big Changes K-5 K123-5 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Letter and sound combinations Multisyllables Listening Reading Listening Reading
Before Reading Predictions Students need a purpose to read – –Literary texts: What might happen? – –Informational texts: What might I learn?
Before Reading: Building Schema for Informational Texts: THIEVES T – Title T – Title H – Headings H – Headings I – Introductory Material I – Introductory Material E – Every 1 st sentence in each paragraph V – Visuals and Vocabulary V – Visuals and Vocabulary E – End Questions S – Summary
Before Reading: Building Schema: Use of Text Types Identifying Text Type The Importance of Knowledge of Text Types to Building Background (Schema)
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? Frozen Peach Shortcake Squares Ingredients 1 (8 ounce) tub COOL WHIP Whipped Topping, thawed 1 pint vanilla ice cream, softened 1 pkg. (4 serving size) JELL-O Brand Peach Flavor Gelatin (unprepared) 4 cups pound cake cubes 1/4 cup raspberry preserves 12 small peach slices 12 raspberries Directions Stir whipped topping, ice cream and dry gelatin in large bowl until well blended. Stir in cake cubes. Spoon into 8-inch square pan. Freeze 3 hours or until firm. Drizzle with raspberry preserves. Cut into squares. Top each square with 1 peach slice and 1 raspberry. Store leftover dessert in freezer.
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? The Blind Men and the Elephant Characters: BoyBlind man 4 Blind man 1Blind man 5 Blind man 2Blind man 6 Blind man 3Guide Setting: Somewhere in Asia where an elephant is passing by. Boy: (enters stage running and yelling). An elephant! Everybody, come see it, it's coming, it's coming. Everybody come out, come and see the elephant… An elephant! (the blind men enter stage walking slowly with their cranes). Blind man 1: I don't know how an elephant looks like. Blind man 2: Me neither. Blind man 3: Me neither.
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? Dinosaurs Survived Mass Extinction by 700,000 Years, Fossil Find Suggests University of Alberta researchers determined that a fossilized dinosaur bone found in New Mexico confounds the long established paradigm that the age of dinosaurs ended between 65.5 and 66 million years ago. The U of A team, led by Larry Heaman from the Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, determined the femur bone of a hadrosaur as being only 64.8 million years old. That means this particular plant eater was alive about 700,000 years after the mass extinction event many paleontologists believe wiped all non-avian dinosaurs off the face of earth, forever.
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? The Ant and the Grasshopper In a field one summer's day a Grasshopper was hopping about, chirping and singing to its heart's content. An Ant passed by, bearing along with great toil an ear of corn he was taking to the nest. "Why not come and chat with me," said the Grasshopper, "instead of toiling and moiling in that way?" "I am helping to lay up food for the winter," said the Ant, "and recommend you to do the same." "Why bother about winter?" said the Grasshopper; we have got plenty of food at present." But the Ant went on its way and continued its toil. When the winter came the Grasshopper had no food and found itself dying of hunger, while it saw the ants distributing every day corn and grain from the stores they had collected in the summer. Then the Grasshopper knew:. It is best to prepare for the days of necessity.
What is the Text Type? What is the text type? How do you know? What is the vocabulary you expect to see? McCain, Franklin (Franklin Eugene), Franklin Eugene McCain is one of the original four who took part in the Woolworth sit-in on February 1, 1960 in Greensboro, North Carolina. "Franklin Eugene McCain was born in Union County, North Carolina, in 1942, and raised in Washington, D.C. He graduated from Eastern High School in 1959 and attended North Carolina A&T State University. McCain and three other A&T freshmen, now known as the 'Greensboro Four,' are credited with initiating the sit-in movement when they sat down at the F. W. Woolworth lunch counter in Greensboro on February 1, 1960 and requested service.”
Text Types FictionInformational text Mystery Biography, Autobiography Realistic fiction Recipe Science fiction How-to Fantasy Chart, Graph, Map, Table, Folk Tales Diagram Historical fiction Directions, Procedures Article, Pamphlet, Brochure Journal Letter PoetryDrama
Details in Different Text Types Format level (macro level) – –How it looks – poem, recipe, for instance Vocabulary level (micro level) – –Hoop skirts = historical fiction – –Interplanetary protection gear = science fiction – –Clue = mystery – –Riding a bus to school = realistic fiction
Visualizing to Determine Text Type Give students words from a text type and have them visualize the scene: – –Ogre, unicorn, book, potion – –Summer, camping, missing tent, flashlight Begin making lists of vocabulary specific to a text type on your Text Type posters. What’s the Genre?
What Causes Students to Dislike Certain Text Types? Their schema What Kind of a Reader Are You?
Steps for Introduction of Text Type Studies in Classrooms Give the survey, “What kind of reader are you?” Put up text type posters in classrooms Discuss the text type of any selection in reading, content areas, read alouds Add the title to the appropriate poster Add vocabulary of the text type to the poster After a while, ask children if they can identify the text type Give children books or selections and see if they can identify the text type Urge them to read a different text type than they usually do
During Reading: What Do Good Comprehenders Do? Comprehension Strategies What good readers do to understand the text Make connections Summarize Make predictions Visualize Ask questions Clarify Adjust reading speed
During Reading: Make Connections Three levels of making connections: –Text to self –Text to world –Text to text Making connections deepens our understanding of the text Making connections expands our understanding of the text and our own knowledge Readers ask themselves –What does this remind me of In my life In something I’ve seen or heard In another selection that I’ve read
During Reading: Visualize Visualizing is creating a mental picture about the text Visualizing involves –Picturing what the author wrote –Going beyond the text and incorporating prior knowledge and experience that deepen understanding Readers visualize –The setting –The characters –The action
During Reading: Visualizing (continued) Visualizing is used in fiction and nonfiction texts Visualizing helps us understand complex processes in nonfiction Authors help us visualize by using –Illustrations –Diagrams –Maps Good readers ask themselves –What picture is in my mind? –Does the picture extend beyond the text? –Would making a drawing help me understand?
During Reading: Summarize Summarizing involves putting the information into our own words. It involves determining importance If a reader cannot summarize, they reread to find the gaps The difficulty of the text determines how often a reader summarizes –In nonfiction: after each section –In fiction: after an episode has been read –Whenever we have put down a book and are about to begin reading again
During Reading: Summarize Good readers ask: –Does this make sense? –What is this about? –How can I put this in my own words?
GIST Who?What?How?When?Where?Why? 13 word summary
GIST Who? The three little pigs What? Built houses How? Of straw, sticks, brick When? ?? Where? ?? Why? To live on their own
GIST Who? The big bad wolf What? Blew down the little pigs’ houses, but could not blow down the house of bricks Why? To eat them When? ?? How? By huffing and puffing and blowing their house down Where? ?? The Big Bad Wolf tried to blow down the Three Little Pigs’ houses and eat them by huffing and puffing, but he could not blow down the brick house. The Wolf could not blow down the brick house to eat the Pigs.
During Reading: Make Predictions Predicting involves –Summarizing what has been read so far –Identifying clues and events in the text –Making connections to prior knowledge and personal events to make inferences about what will happen next Predictions are never wrong, just confirmed or disconfirmed Readers ask: –What are the clues in the text? –What do I already know that will help me know what will happen next?
During Reading: Ask questions Asking questions allow the reader to check the understanding and follow the writer’s train of thought We ask questions about what we might learn Asking questions clears up confusion or makes us wonder why something is in the text the way it is Asking questions is like having a teacher inside you to ask comprehension questions Good readers ask –Why is this the way it is? –What new information am I learning? –What questions will be answered as I read? –What does not make sense?
During Reading: Clarify We clarify when we do not understand a word or concept Good readers ask –What does not make sense? (WAC a word) If it is a word, how can I figure it out? –Word Structure The father said he would disinherit his son unless he did as he asked. –Apposition He suffered from somnambulism, walking in his sleep. –Context The man reached up to get the camera. He stretched his body. –What is the main idea of what I just read? –Can I put what I just read into my own words?
During Reading: Adjust Reading Speed We adjust our reading speed by –Speeding up when the text is easy –Slowing down when the text is hard Good readers ask themselves –Am I understanding what I am reading? –Can I remember what I read? –Do I need to re-read more slowly?
During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension Modeling and thinking aloud –Especially effective on a first read or read aloud
During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension During reading: –Model summarizing –Model clarifying –Model asking questions –Model predicting –Model making connections –Model visualizing –Model adjusting reading speed
During Reading: Procedures for Teaching Comprehension Use gradual release of responsibility –I do it –We do it together –You do it alone
Procedure for Gradual Release of Responsibility I do it: –This is a good time to stop because ____. I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy. We do it together: –Teacher: This is a good time to stop because ____. We are going to ____(comprehension strategy). –Students: Apply the strategy. We do it together: –Teacher: This is a good time to stop because ____. –Students: I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy. You do it: –This is a good time to stop because ____. I am going to ____(comprehension strategy). Apply the strategy.
Comprehension Skills What the author does to help us understand what was written. Used the second time a selection is read.
Comprehension Skills Author’s purpose Text Structures –(Description)-Cause and effect –Sequence -(Problem and solution) –Compare and contrast Author’s point of view Main idea and details Classify and categorize Fact and opinion Drawing conclusions/making inferences
Author’s purpose Every author writes for a reason Most common reasons: –Entertain –Persuade –Inform Knowing this gives the reader an idea of what to expect and maybe an idea of what the author is going to say Entertain: reader relaxes and lets story carry him or her Persuade: Be aware the author wants you to think in a certain way Inform: Pay attention because you are going to learn something
Text Structures Description The author explains a topic, idea, person, place, or thing by listing characteristics, features, and examples. Focus is on one thing and its components
Text Structure Sequence The author lists items or events in numerical or chronological order Describes the order of events or how to do or make something (procedure or process)
Text Structure Compare and Contrast Compare = similarities Contrast = differences The author explains how two or more ideas, objects, or processses are alike and/or how they are different
Text Structures Cause and Effect The author lists one or more causes or events and the resulting consequences or effects Effect = what happened? Cause = what made it happen? Purpose is to explain why or how something happened, exists, or words –If/then pattern
Text Structure Problem and Solution The author states a problem and lists one or more possible solutions to the problem May also include the pros and cons for the solutions
Author’s point of view Who is telling the story? First person: one of the characters in the story describes the action and tells what the other characters are like –I, me, my Third person: someone outside the story who is aware of the characters’ thoughts, feelings, and actions tells the story –He/she, him/her, it Being aware of this helps to know whether the reader is given the full picture or not
Main idea and details The reader should know what the author is writing about The main idea is strengthened by details that help the reader understand the main idea Examples of details: –Compare and contrast –Provide examples –Provide facts –Give opinions –Give descriptions –Cause and effect –Give definitions
Classify and categorize The relationships of actions, events, characters, and outcomes in a selection The BFG Characters SettingsEventsSolutionProblem
Fact and opinion Essential to critical thinking What needs to be in place for it to be provable? An opinion is not provable, but should be based on fact. This helps determine the validity of ideas
Drawing conclusions/making inferences Writers do not directly state everything Reader must “read between the lines” Information from the text +Connection to what I know Inference or draw a conclusion The boy punched him +I know boys who punch others (bullies) He is a bully
After Reading: Checking Comprehension Be sure your comprehension questions are challenging the students to think
Your Turn Look at your next science or social studies lesson. Plan to use at least one comprehension strategy and one skill in your lesson. –Plan which skill fits best with your lesson –Find at least 2 places to model it –Plan a way for children to apply the skill themselves –Plan an assessment to determine if they understand what the author did to help them comprehend
Teaching the Big 5 To be most effective, the five critical components need to be taught explicitly within classrooms that are strongly positive and engaging, use writing activities to support literacy, and provide students with many opportunities to read interesting text and complete authentic reading and writing assignments. Florida Center for Reading Research