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Teaching Using Informational Texts (Close Reading) Martinsville School District November 8, 2013 Linda Reven Denise E. Reid.

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Presentation on theme: "Teaching Using Informational Texts (Close Reading) Martinsville School District November 8, 2013 Linda Reven Denise E. Reid."— Presentation transcript:

1 Teaching Using Informational Texts (Close Reading) Martinsville School District November 8, 2013 Linda Reven Denise E. Reid Eastern Illinois University

2 Why is Reading Informational Text Important? Findings in the 2009 National Assessment of Educational Progress confirm the need for more informational text reading: 34% of fourth graders were at or above the proficient level in science. 30% of eighth graders were at or above the proficient level in science. 21% of twelfth graders were at or above the proficient level in science.

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4 CCSS—Common Core State Standards Anchor Standard 10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. GradeExpectations for Informational Texts KActively engage in group reading activities with purpose and understanding. 1With prompting and support, read informational texts appropriately complex for grade 1. 2By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 3By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 2-3 text complexity band proficiently. 4By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades 4-5 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high at the high end of the range. 5By the end of the year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, at the high at the high end of the grades 4-5 text complexity band independently and proficiently.

5 CCSS—Common Core State Standards Anchor Standard 10: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. GradeExpectations for Informational Texts 6By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. 7 8By the end of the year, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently. 9-10By the end of grade 9, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 9-10 text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 9-10 text complexity band independently and proficiently By the end of grade 11, read and comprehend literary nonfiction in the grades 11-CCR text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range. By the end of grade 12, read and comprehend literary nonfiction at the high end of the grades 11-CCR text complexity band independently and proficiently.

6 CCSS—Common Core State Standards Anchor Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it: cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions from the text. GradeExpectations for Informational Texts KWith prompting and support ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 2Ask and answer questions as who, what, where, when why and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. 3Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. 4Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 5Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

7 CCSS—Common Core State Standards Anchor Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it: cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions from the text. GradeExpectations for Informational Texts KWith prompting and support ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 1Ask and answer questions about key details in a text. 2Ask and answer questions as who, what, where, when why and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text. 3Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. 4Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 5Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

8 CCSS—Common Core State Standards Anchor Standard 1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it: cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions from the text. GradeExpectations for Informational Texts 6Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 7Cite several pieces of textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 8Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. 9-10Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of wht the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text Cite strong and thorough textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text, including determining where the text leaves matters uncertain.

9 What is Close Reading? “Close reading represents one type of classroom reading in which a small or large group of students “have a go” at a text. Students become the primary investigators of the text and its meaning.” (Lapp, et al., pg. 110)

10 Purpose of Close Reading Complex Informational Text 1.Assimilate new textual information with background knowledge/prior experiences to build new schema. 2.Build habits of readers when they engage with a complex piece of text. 3.Building stamina and persistence when confronted with complex texts. 4.Fostering metacognition.

11 Instructional Practices/ Comprehension Strategies Instructional Practices Interactive read-alouds and shared readings Teacher modeling and think-alouds Guided reading with leveled texts Collaborative reading and discussions Independent reading and writing Comprehension Strategies Questioning strategies Summarizing strategies Inferencing strategies Self-monitoring strategies Connection strategies Analysis strategies

12 Think-Alouds Make predictions… Describe images (pictures)… Give analogies (“this is like”)… Be aware of “potholes” in reading… Use fix-up strategies…

13 Useful Strategies & Tools QAR (Question-Answer-Relationship) – In the Book (Right There Questions/Think & Search) – In My Head (Author & Me/On My Own) Reciprocal Teaching – Summarizer-Predictor-Clarifier-Questioner Graphic Organizers (Word Map) Expectation Grid/Bookmarks Double Entry Journal Herringbone Wiki sticks, sticky notes, book marks, foldables. Sentence Frames Ex. The author wrote this book to tell us that ____________. Story frames

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15 (Raphael, Highfield & Au, 2006)

16 Picture - QAR (Cortese, 2003) This strategy provides a “venue outside the printed text for practicing cognitive tasks that are critical to reading comprehension” (p. 375). This technique “can reduce the cognitive linguistic burden on students by extricating processing demands from text” (p. 376).

17 Picture-QAR Strategy In the Book… “Right There” - students must note information that is depicted outright in a single illustration “Think and Search” - requires the students to draw conclusions from information depicted across several illustrations In my Head… “Author (Artist) and You” - the students’ prior knowledge base must be combined with information the author/illustrator provides “On My Own” - the information is drawn exclusively from the students’ prior knowledge

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19 P-QAR: In the Book Sitting Ducks (Bedard, 1998) Right There What is the setting in this picture? (factory) What is the alligator doing? (punching the time clock) Think and Search How does the duck’s feelings about the waiter in the diner change? Why? (he is excited and then alarmed; the waiter is really an alligator with a duck puppet) Why does the duck give the alligator a ticket? (he wants the alligator to go to Florida too)

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25 P-QAR: In My Head Sitting Ducks (Bedard, 1998) Author/Artist and You How do you think the duck feels when the waiter in the restaurant shows them the daily special? Why? (very uncomfortable, because the daily special is “duck soup”) What do the ducks seem to be doing? Why? (exercising in order to get “in shape” to fly south) On Your Own In this picture, the egg fell off the assembly line. Why do you think this happened? (many possible answers) Why do you think the alligator put the duck in his lunch pail? (many possible answers)

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30 Applying QARs to Pictures… This strategy involving visual literacy provides a means for: – practicing the task demands that are associated with answering comprehension questions while – enhancing the students’ metacognitive awareness of the sources of information available to the reader relative to those questions.

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32 Text Complexity/Informational Text ELA CCSS page 31

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34 Discussion-oriented Classrooms “Teachers should provide opportunities for students to engage in high-quality discussions of the meaning and interpretation of texts in various content areas as one important way to improve their reading comprehension.” (Kamil et al., 2008, p. 21)

35 Reciprocal Teaching Questioning – asking questions about the text they are reading; Summarizing parts of the text; Clarifying words and sentences they don’t understand; Predicting what might occur next in the text. Dialogue/Discussion involving:

36 Points of Entry by Nancy Frey and Douglas Fisher Educational Leadership (November 2013)

37 Word Map

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40 Close Reading Preparation (Lapp, et al., pg. 112) 1.Select short self-contained texts (book). 2.Select text that are more difficult, but worth the effort. 3.Identify the purpose for the close reading. 4.Prepare for the text presentation. 5.Teach children how to annotate sparingly. (Graphic organizers, sticky notes, copies that can be written on, etc.) 6.Write text-dependent questions and prompts.

41 Annotation Chart Highlight major points Circle confusing words, phrases, sentences, etc. ? wonderings/questions ! surprises

42 Herringbone

43 Lesson: Students & Teacher 1.First Reading—Set purpose and process. 2.Chatting and Charting—Student share responses/annotations with elbow partner. 3.Reading again—Based on student conversations, teacher poses a text-based question. 4.Chatting and Charting—This occurs after each return to the text. 5.Independence—Students engage in a task illustrating their understanding. (Written)

44 Written in Bone: Buried Lives of Jamestown and Colonial Maryland By Sally M. Walker

45 Expectation Grid / Bookmarks Categories of Information Expected (“Landmarks” to use in Reading) Brainstorm / Predict …Grid Read / Take Notes …Bookmarks Consolidate Information… Grid & Bookmarks

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47 Unearthing the 17 th Century Chesapeake The First ColonistsDifficult Lives Africans in the ChesapeakeLiving & Dying in America

48 Categories: Unearthing Jamestown What is the evidence of the living conditions? What is the evidence of causes of diseases and death? What is the evidence of a person’s station in life? What is the evidence of the key people?

49 Key PeopleKey LocationsKey Events

50 Why Jamestown?Forensic Evidence Clues to Daily Life

51 Double-Entry Journal (McLaughlin & Allen, 2002) This strategy encourages students to monitor their comprehension by making connections with the text: – Text-to-Text Connection “ This reminds me of when I read…” – Text-to-Self Connection “This makes me think of the time when I was…” – Text-to-World Connection “This makes me think about…”

52 Double-Entry Journal (McLaughlin & Allen, 2002) Select a key event, idea, or quote from the text and record it in the left column. – “What I saw, heard or read?” In the right column, write a response or connection to the item. – “What I think? Why?” Use the Double-Entry Journals as a springboard for discussion of the text.

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55 References Ehrenworth, M. (2013). Unlocking the SECRETS of complex text. Educational Leadership, 71(3), Fisher, D. & Frey, N. (2012). Close reading in elementary schools. The Reading Teacher 66(3), Frey, N. & Fisher, D. (2013). Points of entry. Educational Leadership, 71(3), Frey, N. & Fisher, D. (2013). Rigorous reading: 5 access points for comprehending complex texts. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Literacy. Kinniburgh, L. H. & Shaw, E. L. (2009). Using question-answer relationships to build: Reading comprehension in science. Science Activities: Classroom Projects and Curriculum Ideas 45(4), Lapp, D., Grant, M., Moss, B. & Johnson, K. (2013). Students’ close reading of science texts: What’s now? What’s next? The Reading Teacher 67(2), Pilonieta, P. & Medina, A. L. (2009). Reciprocal teaching for the primary grades: “We can do it, too!” The Reading Teacher 63(2), Walker, S. (2009). Written in Bone. Minneapolis, MN: Carolrhoda Books.


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