Presentation on theme: "Implementing Common Core: A Focus on Early Literacy Module 6 – Comprehension I Presenters: LaRae Blomquist, Susie Lapachet and Patty Tong October 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Implementing Common Core: A Focus on Early Literacy Module 6 – Comprehension I Presenters: LaRae Blomquist, Susie Lapachet and Patty Tong October 2013
Share Out As a result of the last module, how did the information impact your thoughts and/or actions? Topics covered: Recognize effective vocabulary instruction Develop criteria for selecting vocabulary Identify research-based vocabulary instruction components
Outcomes: Participants will explore: comprehension at the sentence level. support for struggling readers to enhance sentence level comprehension. close reading and text dependent questions and implications for implementation of the CCSS.
Setting the Stage ACTIVITY: Read the sentence from The Great Gatsby on the following slide. Prepare to paraphrase what the sentence is saying. Determine what might make the sentence difficult to understand.
A Challenging Sentence… “The groups change more swiftly, swell with new arrivals, dissolve and form in the same breath; already there are wanderers, confident girls who weave here and there among the stouter and more stable, become for a sharp, joyous moment the center of a group, and then, excited with triumph, glide on through the sea-charge of faces and voices and color under the constantly changing light.”
Deconstructing Comprehension Difficulties Some of the following features may have made the sentence difficult to comprehend: Length of the sentence Multiple phrases Figurative use of language
Consider the Implications for “Pre- Readers” How might the comprehension difficulties be compounded for pre/non-readers who do not have a visual reference for the sentences?
Listening and Reading Comprehension (by Age) Age Comprehension Listening Comprehension Reading Comprehension Source: CCSS Appendix A
Teaching Reading Comprehension words phrases sentences and their interconnections strategic reading paragraph and discourse structure connections to self and the world L. Moats, 2005 CA Reading First Institute
Reading Comprehension: Connection to the CCSS words phrases sentences and their interconnections strategic reading paragraph and discourse structure connections to self and the world L. Moats, 2005 CA Reading First Institute “Integration of Knowledge and Ideas” R-L/R-IT 7, 9, 10 “Close Reading” strategies “Craft and Structure” R-L/R-IT 5,
Reading Comprehension: Connection to the CCSS words phrases sentences and their interconnections strategic reading paragraph and discourse structure connections to self and the world L. Moats, 2005 CA Reading First Institute “Craft and Structure” – RL/RIT 4 “Vocabulary Acquisition and Use” – L 4 & 5 Reading Standards: RL/RIT 2-9
Text-Dependent Nature of Reading Standards
Effective Comprehension of Sentences “A common element of all natural language is grammar, or syntax. Derived from the Greek word for “arrangement,” syntax has been defined as “the way in which words are arranged to show relationships of meaning within (and sometimes between) sentences” (Crystal 1987,p.94).” J. Carlisle & M. Rice (2002) Improving Reading Comprehension Read the quotes on this slide and the next two slides. How does syntax impact comprehension?
Quote on Syntax “When students process a simple sentence, they mainly use word associations. Syntax merely helps them corroborate the associations. But when the associations are ambiguous and/or the syntax is complex, students must have a good understanding of syntax in order to work out how each word fits into the sentence structure and, ultimately, comprehend the sentence.” The Brain Connection (2001) Sentence Comprehension
Quote on Syntax “Why Teach Sentence Comprehension Written language structures are different from oral language. Syntactic awareness helps readers correct decoding errors. Efficient processing of sentence structure is necessary for overall comprehension. Syntactic awareness (conscious awareness of the parts of a sentence) support composition skill.” L. Moats (2004) LTRS
Problematic Syntactical Structures Dr. Louisa Moats
A Kindergarten Example OCR 2002 Unit 5 p. T104- “Tillie and the Wall”
Table Talk 1.What were AH-HAs that you had as you listened to Dr. Moats? 2.What is the specific impact for diverse learners such as EL students or students with auditory/visual processing difficulties? 3.How might this knowledge inform/affect your role as a site administrator?
Resource: Types of Conjunctions Coordinating Conjunctions and but for nor or so yet Correlative Conjunctions both… and either…or whether…or not only…but also neither…nor Commonly Used Subordinating Conjunctions after although as as if as much as as though because before how if in order that provided since so that than that through unless until when whenever where wherever while
Examples of Sentence Structures Simple The pig chased the sheep. Compound The pig chased the sheep, and the turtle ran away. Complex While the pig chased the sheep, the turtle ran away. Compound-Complex After the sheep bit the turtle, the pig chased the sheep, and the turtle ran away.
Build the Other Sentence Structures Write compound, complex, and compound- complex sentences for the simple sentence provided. Simple: The dog played with the children. Compound: Complex: Compound Complex:
Whole-Group Share Out How is grammar (e.g., sentence structure) typically taught in most classrooms? What is the connection between explicit grammar instruction (CCSS Language #1) to reading comprehension?
Working Memory: Is there enough? Phonological Decoding Read the paragraph and highlight phrases that tell how phonological decoding impacts working memory and student comprehension a the sentence level.
The Role of Working Memory Efficient Phonological Decoding Retaining Words & Word Order in Working Memory Successful Sentence Comprehension (leads to) What implications does this have for first instruction and intervention on your site?
A Strategy for Developing Working Memory Five Ws and an H The student should be able to repeat five-to – seven word statements Words are introduced in sequence one at a time Sequence: who & what, where & when, how & why
Five Ws and an H: Example Sentence: A girl played soccer in the park. Questions: Who played soccer? What did a girl do? Where did the girl play soccer?
Making Sense of Sentences: Revisited “The groups change more swiftly, swell with new arrivals, dissolve and form in the same breath; already there are wanderers, confident girls who weave here and there among the stouter and more stable, become for a sharp, joyous moment the center of a group, and then, excited with triumph, glide on through the sea- charge of faces and voices and color under the constantly changing light.” Re-read the paragraph applying the strategy. Answer the following questions: Who? What? When? Where? How? Why?
Focused Sentence Practice Sentence Anagrams: Rearrange the words to make a complete sentence that sounds right. Start by finding the main action word (verb) and putting words together to make phrases. Sentence Elaboration: Elaborate sentences systematically.
Big Ideas The components of reading comprehension are represented in CCSS with both reading and language standards. Explicit instruction of syntax is critical for all students since it’s a bridge to reading comprehension. Sentence-level comprehension requires significant working memory at the primary grades.
Reading Comprehension: Connection to the CCSS words phrases sentences and their interconnections strategic reading paragraph and discourse structure connections to self and the world L. Moats, 2005 CA Reading First Institute “Close Reading” strategies
Why Close Reading? “A significant body of research links the close reading of complex texts - whether the student is a struggling reader or advanced- to significant gains in reading proficiency and finds close reading to be a key component of college and career readiness.” Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers, 2011
What is Close Reading? “Close reading means reading to uncover layers of meaning that lead to deep comprehension.” - Nancy Boyles, Southern Connecticut State University Note: Close reading is not a technique or a strategy, but rather an outcome. One uses various techniques in order to closely read.
An Introduction to Close Reading Dr. Douglas Fisher Professor, San Diego State University Teacher and administrator at Health and Science High School Recipient of the IRA Celebrate Literacy Award and numerous other awards
Key Points Use of short passages Rereading Reading with a pencil (grade-appropriate) Noticing things that are confusing Discussing the text with others Responding to text-dependent questions Fisher and Frey, 2012
How are text dependent questions connected to a close read? If artichokes represent close reading…. Artichoke leaves represent text dependent questions.
Demonstrating the Difference DIRECTIONS: Read the following slide. Compare the two sets of questions. What are the differences? Which set of questions most probably represents a close-reading approach? Support your answer with evidence.
From “Look Out Kindergarten, Here I Come!”
Whole-Group Debrief What were the differences between the sets of questions? Which set of questions most probably represents a close-reading approach? Support your answer with evidence. How would the learning objectives differ with the two approaches to reading?
Think of Close Reading as “layers” of text-dependent questions. 1 st Read: 2 nd Read: 3 rd Read: Look Out Kindergarten… “Key Ideas and Details” RL 3– character actions Language #1 grammar “Craft and Structure” RL 4 – vocabulary
Walk and Talk Please choose a language frame: Two things that I learned about close reading are_______ and _______. One thing that I learned about close reading is _________, but I still have a question about ________.
“Big Ideas” Close Reading Close reading is an outcome, not a strategy. Text-dependent questions are organized in “layers” aligned to specific standards. Close reading examines not only the content but also the syntax of a text.
Possible Red Flags Shanahan Blog on Close Reading Reading comprehension and close reading are difficult to learn.
“Next Steps” At your tables, discuss the information presented and what “next steps” might be taken. What is the current, “typical” practice for comprehension instruction? How do you know? What is the perceived need for professional learning opportunities?
Evaluations Please fill out the evaluation forms provided. Specific feedback is greatly appreciated in the comment section.