“Instruction in America’s elementary reading classes has been based on this theory: a series of comprehension questions – coming from the basal reader or the teacher – are posed, and the goal is to see if children can answer them in the way the teacher believes they should. Many teachers teach what the basals tell them to teach. Rarely are students taught HOW to comprehend and analyze whole sections of text. If students complete drill sheets and workbook pages, that ensures that they can comprehend text.” Keene and Zimmerman, Mosaic of Thought, page 16
Strategies that MOST Impact Achievement RankStrategy% Gain 1Extending Thinking Skills (compare/contrast; cause/effect; classifying; analogies/metaphors) 45 2Summarizing34 3Vocabulary in Context33 4Advance Organizers28 5Non-Verbal Representations25 We Need to Maximize the BANG for the BUCK!
Retelling in a succinct manner Actively processing instead of Passively receiving Both oral and/or written What Is Summarizing?
Primacy – Recency Effect We remember best, what we experience first and second best what we experience last. (Sousa, 2003)
Students must 1. Keep some information 2.Delete some information 3.Substitute some information (Kintsch, Dijk, 1980) What does research say about summarizing?
Think of summarizing as a mirror that is reflective of our student’s learning, therefore of our teaching. It is both formative and summative, and should always direct our instruction.
Summarizing Techniques If I taught it, how do I know they got it? Your team will have time to “divide and conquer.” You will split up and investigate 17 different summarizing strategies. The next slide names each strategy. The strategies are SMARTBoard files in a folder on the T Drive. You will spend time investigating the strategy, determining curriculum ties and places that you could utilize the strategy across various content areas. You will utilize a graphic organizer to create a “cheat sheet” for your teammates. Administration will collect the “cheat sheets” and create strategy cards for your team. Happy summarizing!
Summarizing Frames Summarizing Cubes Inner – Outer Circle ABC Summary Summarization Pyramid Multiple Journal Topics Four – Two- One One Word Summary Final Countdown P-M-I A/B Partners 3 – 2 – 1 Paired Summarizing The Important Thing The Last Word Ticket Out the Door Synectics Journal Summarizing Techniques Divide and Conquer. Determine which team member will investigate the different techniques.