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Understanding CCSS and the SBAC Summative Assessment Shannon Wells Sara Shore 1

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COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDS CCSS 2

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What are the Common Core State Standards? A voluntary state-led effort coordinated by the State Superintendents and the National Governors’ Association Development included parents, educators, content experts, researchers, national organizations and community groups from 48 states, 2 territories and the District of Columbia 3

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The Common Core Standards Rigorous, research-based standards for English language arts and mathematics for grades K-12 4 A collaborative effort that builds on the best of current state standards Standards primarily from California and Massachusetts A clear and consistent educational framework Internationally benchmarked to ensure that students will be globally competitive Designed to prepare the nation’s students with the knowledge and skills needed for success in college and the workforce

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Shift from Literary Text to Informational Reading/Language Arts 6 GradeLiterary TextInformational Text Elementary School50% Middle School45%55% High School30%70% Current language arts typically consist of 80% literary text and 20% informational text

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Organization of the CCSS in Mathematics The CCSS for Mathematics are organized by grade level in Grades K–8. At the high school level, the standards are organized by conceptual category showing the body of knowledge students should learn in each category to be college and career ready, and to be prepared to study more advanced mathematics, these categories are: –Number and quantity –Algebra –Functions –Geometry –Modeling and Probability –Statistics

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K-8 Mathematics Sequence 9 Current standards address all strands throughout the K-7 sequence CCSS now has standards for grade 8 math Designed to prepare students for Algebra 1 and higher level math

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The Pathways Appendix A of the CCSS Math 10

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The Pathways -Traditional “Traditional” –An approach typical within the U.S. –Grade 8: Grade 8 CCSS math –Grade 9: Algebra I –Grade 10: Geometry –Grade 11: Alg II A “compacted” Traditional pathway where no content is omitted but will enable students to take Alg I in their 8 th grade year –Grade 7: Grade 7 and 8 CCSS math –Grade 8: Algebra I –Grade 9: Geometry –Grade 10: Alg II

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The Pathways -Integrated 12 “Integrated” an approach typical outside of the U.S., sequence of spiraling courses, each of which includes number sense, algebra, geometry, probably and statistics. –Grade 8: Grade 8 CCSS math –Grade 9: Math I –Grade 10: Math II –Grade 11: Math III A “compacted” version of the integrated pathway where no content is omitted but will enable them to reach Calculus or other college level course by their senior year –Grade 7: Grade 7 and 8 CCSS math –Grade 8: HS Math I –Grade 9: Math II –Grade 10: Math III

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Discussion Questions When do students take Algebra I? What are the implications for placement, pacing, curriculum, course development, and course offerings? 13

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SMARTER BALANCED ASSESSMENT CONSORTIUM SBAC 14

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Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) One of two multistate consortia awarded funding to develop an assessment system based on the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Measurement of current student achievement and growth across time, with progress toward being college and career ready 15

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SBAC Assessment Goals Students leave high school prepared for postsecondary success in college or in a career Summative assessments are to be operational across the consortium states in the school year 16

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New Assessments Opportunities and Challenges Richer assessment of and for learning Use of technology as a tool Adaptive testing National expertise Preparation for 21 st century skills College and Career ready students 17

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SBAC Assessment Summative Assessment –Administered in grades 3-8 and in grade 11 in the last 12 weeks of the year –Two parts Computer adaptive –SR, CR and TE items Performance task –ER and PT 18

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Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT) Allows for a testing experience that is tailored to a student’s ability which is measured during the test Increased measurement precision relative to fixed form assessments; more accurate growth estimates Shortened test length than paper-pencil Faster results 19

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Evidence-Centered Design The SBAC assessment is being developed using the principles of Evidence-Centered Design (ECD). Three basic elements of ECD are: –Stating the claims to be made about test takers –Deciding on the evidence that is required to support the claims –Administering the test items that provide the required evidence 20

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Evidence-Centered Design Item/Task Evidence Assessment Target Claim Content Standard

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6 Key Concepts of Evidence- Centered Design 1. Define the domain 2. Define claims to be made

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Example of a Claim English Language Arts Literacy Claim #1 Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. English Language Arts Literacy Claim #1 Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts.

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6 Key Concepts of Evidence- Centered Design 1. Define the domain 2. Define claims to be made 3. Define assessment targets

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Example of an Assessment Target Grade 11 – Assessment Target Analyze the figurative (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron, hyperbole, paradox) or connotative meanings of words and phrases used in context and the impact of these word choices on meaning and tone. Grade 11 – Assessment Target Analyze the figurative (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron, hyperbole, paradox) or connotative meanings of words and phrases used in context and the impact of these word choices on meaning and tone.

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6 Key Concepts of Evidence-Centered Design 1. Define the domain 2. Define claims to be made 3. Define assessment targets 4. Define evidence required

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Example of an Evidence Description Evidence for Assessment Target 1 When reading informational or argumentative texts, students analyze the figurative or implied meanings of words or phrases as they are used in a text and analyze how the choice of these particular words affects meaning and tone. Evidence for Assessment Target 1 When reading informational or argumentative texts, students analyze the figurative or implied meanings of words or phrases as they are used in a text and analyze how the choice of these particular words affects meaning and tone.

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6 Key Concepts of Evidence-Centered Design 1. Define the domain 2. Define claims to be made 3. Define assessment targets 4. Define evidence required 5. Develop Task Models

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Example of a Task Model Task Model 1 A constructed response for which the student is prompted to identify an example of figurative language, explain the meaning, and describe how it affects meaning and tone. Stimulus text should be on grade level. Task Model 1 A constructed response for which the student is prompted to identify an example of figurative language, explain the meaning, and describe how it affects meaning and tone. Stimulus text should be on grade level.

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6 Key Concepts of Evidence-Centered Design 6. Develop Items or Performance Tasks 1. Define the domain 2. Define claims to be made 3. Define assessment targets 4. Define evidence required 5. Develop Task Models

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Assessment Claims for ELA Overall ELA Claim (Grades 3-8) –“Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy.” Overall ELA Claim (High School) –“Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy.” 31

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Assessment Claims for ELA cont. Claim #1 Reading – Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Claim #2 Writing – Students can produce effective and well-grounded writing for a range of purposes and audiences. Claim #3 Speaking and Listening – Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. Claim #4 Research and Inquiry – Students engage in research/inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information. 32

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Reporting Categories for ELA Total ELA/Literacy score –Claims 1-4 combined Total Reading score Claim #1 –Literary Text sub-score –Information Text sub-score Total Writing score Claim #2 –Organization and Expression of Ideas sub-score –Use of Evidence sub-score –Conventions sub-score Total Listening and Speaking score Claim #3 –Speaking (may not be assessed each year) Total Inquiry/Research score Claim #4 33

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Assessment Claims for Math Overall math Claim (Grades 3-8) –“Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in mathematics.” Overall math Claim (High School) –“Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in mathematics.” 34

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Assessment Claims for Math cont. Claim #1 Concepts & Procedures – Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedure with precision and fluency. Claim #2 Problem Solving – Students can solve a range of complex and well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies. Claim #3 Communicating Reasoning – Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and critique the reasoning of others. Claim #4 Modeling and Data Analysis – Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can construct and use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems. 35

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Reporting Categories for Math Total Mathematics score –Claims 1-4 combined Total Concepts and Procedures score –Claim #1 Total Problem Solving score –Claim #2 Total Communicating Reasoning score –Claim #3 Total Modeling and Data Analysis score –Claim #4 36

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Discussion Questions How do the claims and assessment targets identify what the student expectations are and how those expectations relate to the Summative Assessment? How do the SBAC reporting categories for ELA and math differ from the current reporting categories? 37

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Break 38

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SBAC Item Types Summative assessment will include a variety of question types: –Selected response –Short constructed response –Extended constructed response –Technology enhanced –Performance tasks 39

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Selected Response Items Series of options from which the student must choose a correct response(s) Will measure one or more content standard(s) 40

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Selected Response Items 41

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Non-Traditional SR Items 42

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Item Information Grade 3 Claim 1 –Concepts & Procedures – Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedure with precision and fluency. Target –F: Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. Standard –3.NF.1 – Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. DOK 2 43

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Selected Response Items 44

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Item Information Grade 3 Claim 1 –Reading – Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Target –1 Key Details: Use explicit details and information from the text to support answers or basic inferences. Standards –RL-1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. –RL-3 Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. DOK 2 45

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Discussion Questions How are the SBAC selected response questions equivalent to what students are currently expected to do? When thinking about the key shifts for CCSS, what are the implications for selected response questions and how will those shifts affect classroom instruction? 46

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Constructed Response Items Allows assessment of claims and targets that are of greater complexity Typically requires more analytical thinking and reasoning than a SR item Eliminate the “guessing” factor associated with typical SR items Administered during the CAT portion of the Summative Assessment Artificial Intelligence (AI) will be used for scoring 47

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Constructed Response Items 48

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Item Information Grade 3 Claim 1 –Concepts & Procedures – Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedure with precision and fluency. Targets –A: Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division. –E: Use place value understanding and properties of arithmetic to perform multi-digit arithmetic. 49

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Item Information cont. Standards –3.OA.2 Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8. –3.OA.7 Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers. –3.NBT.3 Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. DOK 1 50

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Constructed Response Items 51

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Sample Responses 52

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Item Information Grade 4 Claim 1 –Reading – Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Target –4 Reasoning & Evaluation: Use supporting evidence to justify/explain inferences (character development/actions/traits; first or third person point of view; theme; author’s message). Standards –RL-2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. –RL-3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions). –RL-6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. DOK 3 53

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Technology Enhanced Items Used when SR and CR items cannot produce sufficient evidence for mathematical practices SBAC’s hope is that the use of TE items on the Summative Assessment will encourage classroom use of technology as part of instruction 54

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Technology Enhanced Items 55

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Item Information Grade 3 Claim 1 –Concepts and Procedures – Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency. Target –F: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. Standards –3.NF.1 Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. –3.NF.2 Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram. DOK 3 56

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Technology Enhanced Items 57

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Item Information Grade 4 Claim 1 –Reading – Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Target –4 Reasoning and Evaluation: Use supporting evidence to justify/explain inferences (character development/actions/traits; first or third person point of view; theme; author’s message). Standards –RL-2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. –RL-3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions). –RL-6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. DOK 3 58

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Extended Constructed Response In math, ER items will be part of the performance task portion of the Summative Assessment Generating a response rather than selecting one Will measure one or more content standard(s) 59

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Extended Constructed Response 60

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Scoring Rubric 61

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Item Information Grade 3 Claim 2 –Problem Solving – Students can solve a range of complex and well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies. (Claim 1 –secondary claim) Target –2A: Apply mathematics to solve well-posed problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. –1I: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition. Standard –3.MD.7 Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition. DOK 3 62

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Performance Tasks Provides a measure of a student’s ability to integrate knowledge and skills across multiple standards SBAC defines this as a key component of college and career readiness Used to better measure depth of understanding, research skills, and complex analysis, which cannot be adequately assessed with SR or CR items. 63

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Performance Tasks Reflect real-world problems Multiple approaches are possible Presents content that is relevant and meaningful to students Address 21 st century skills Focus on big ideas rather than facts Up to 120 minutes to administer 64

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Discussion Questions Look at the performance task within your packet and consider the following questions: –How do the items and tasks from SBAC differ from what we are doing now? –How are these differences going to affect the schools, classrooms, including teachers and students? 65

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DEPTH OF KNOWLEDGE DOK 66

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Depth of Knowledge Measures the degree to which the knowledge elicited from students on assessments is as complex as what students are expected to know and do as stated in the standards 67

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Where Did DOK Come From? Developed by Dr. Norman Webb, senior research scientist at the National Institute for Science Education. Several other states (at least 20) use DOK to evaluate the rigor of their state assessments. 68

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Levels of DOK 69 Level One – Recall –Recall of a fact, information, or procedure Level Two – Skill/Concept –Use information or conceptual knowledge Level Three – Strategic Thinking –Reasoning, developing a plan Level Four – Extended Thinking –Requires an investigation, collection of data and analysis of results

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DOK and Bloom’s ELA 70 Figure 1: A Snapshot of Cognitive Rigor Matrix (Hess, Carlock, Jones, & Walkup; 2009)

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DOK and Bloom’s Math 71

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DOK and Bloom’s Math Cont. 72

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CCSS and SBAC Resources CCSS website –http://www.corestandards.org/http://www.corestandards.org/ CCSS Math Appendix A –http://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Mathematics_Appe ndix_A.pdfhttp://www.corestandards.org/assets/CCSSI_Mathematics_Appe ndix_A.pdf SBAC website –http://www.smarterbalanced.org/http://www.smarterbalanced.org/ CDE SBAC website –http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sa/smarterbalanced.asphttp://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/tg/sa/smarterbalanced.asp New York State Department of Education –http://engageny.org/http://engageny.org/ 73

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Performance Task Workshops October 22, 2012 (Riverside) March 4, 2013 (Riverside) 74

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Questions? 75

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