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**Understanding CCSS and the SBAC Summative Assessment**

Shannon Wells Sara Shore

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**Common Core State standards**

CCSS Common Core State standards

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**What are the Common Core State Standards?**

A voluntary state-led effort coordinated by the State Superintendents and the National Governors’ Association Development included parents, educators, content experts, researchers, national organizations and community groups from 48 states, 2 territories and the District of Columbia Developed from several members of the community throughout the county.

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**The Common Core Standards**

Rigorous, research-based standards for English language arts and mathematics for grades K-12 Designed to prepare the nation’s students with the knowledge and skills needed for success in college and the workforce A clear and consistent educational framework Internationally benchmarked to ensure that students will be globally competitive When the author’s of the CCSS came together they had some goals in mind. Also, they decided to start with the end in mind. We want all students to graduate HS prepared for college and the workforce. A collaborative effort that builds on the best of current state standards Standards primarily from California and Massachusetts

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**http://engageny. org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/instructional_shifts**

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**Shift from Literary Text to Informational**

Reading/Language Arts Grade Literary Text Informational Text Elementary School 50% Middle School 45% 55% High School 30% 70% This hits on the first shift, Building Knowledge through content-rich non-fiction. Throughout life much of what we know about the world around us comes from informational text. Currently, the overwhelming majority of what students are typically expected to read in ELA are stories. As a set of Standards grounded in expectations for college and career readiness, it is important for students to attend to the skills of reading informational text. It is the majority of what they will be expected to read in both college and workplace settings. Current language arts typically consist of 80% literary text and 20% informational text

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**http://engageny. org/wp-content/uploads/2011/08/instructional_shifts**

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**Organization of the CCSS in Mathematics**

The CCSS for Mathematics are organized by grade level in Grades K–8. At the high school level, the standards are organized by conceptual category showing the body of knowledge students should learn in each category to be college and career ready, and to be prepared to study more advanced mathematics, these categories are: Number and quantity Algebra Functions Geometry Modeling and Probability Statistics

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**K-8 Mathematics Sequence**

As an example of coherence, the Common Core State Standards takes a different approach to preparing students for success in algebra. This is coherence is very specific and deliberate. Previous approaches moved topics of pre-algebra and algebra earlier and earlier in the grade sequence rather than attend to careful progressions of conceptual development that in fact prepare students for algebra. Current standards address all strands throughout the K-7 sequence CCSS now has standards for grade 8 math Designed to prepare students for Algebra 1 and higher level math

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**Appendix A of the CCSS Math**

The Pathways U.S. traditional consists of two algebra courses and a geometry course, with some data, probability and statistics included in each course. An approach typically seen internationally (integrated) that consists of sequence of three courses, each of which includes number, algebra, geometry, probability and statistics. Appendix A of the CCSS Math

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**The Pathways -Traditional**

“Traditional” –An approach typical within the U.S. Grade 8: Grade 8 CCSS math Grade 9: Algebra I Grade 10: Geometry Grade 11: Alg II A “compacted” Traditional pathway where no content is omitted but will enable students to take Alg I in their 8th grade year Grade 7: Grade 7 and 8 CCSS math Grade 8: Algebra I Grade 9: Geometry Grade 10: Alg II Four model course pathways which are intended to significantly increase the coherence of high school mathematics. The compacted traditional pathway is available on page 92 of appendix A for math.

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**The Pathways -Integrated**

“Integrated” an approach typical outside of the U.S., sequence of spiraling courses, each of which includes number sense, algebra, geometry, probably and statistics. Grade 8: Grade 8 CCSS math Grade 9: Math I Grade 10: Math II Grade 11: Math III A “compacted” version of the integrated pathway where no content is omitted but will enable them to reach Calculus or other college level course by their senior year Grade 7: Grade 7 and 8 CCSS math Grade 8: HS Math I Grade 9: Math II Grade 10: Math III

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**Discussion Questions When do students take Algebra I?**

What are the implications for placement, pacing, curriculum, course development, and course offerings?

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**Smarter balanced assessment consortium**

SBAC Smarter balanced assessment consortium

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**Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC)**

One of two multistate consortia awarded funding to develop an assessment system based on the new Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Measurement of current student achievement and growth across time, with progress toward being college and career ready Current information is still mostly in draft form

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SBAC Assessment Goals Students leave high school prepared for postsecondary success in college or in a career Summative assessments are to be operational across the consortium states in the school year

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**New Assessments Opportunities and Challenges**

Richer assessment of and for learning Use of technology as a tool Adaptive testing National expertise Preparation for 21st century skills College and Career ready students

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**SBAC Assessment Summative Assessment**

Administered in grades 3-8 and in grade 11 in the last 12 weeks of the year Two parts Computer adaptive SR, CR and TE items Performance task ER and PT Computer adaptive consists of approximately questions, per content area. There could be a total of 4 performance tasks per year one in reading, writing, and two in mathematics. CA will be able to add assessments, if they see a need.

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**Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT)**

Allows for a testing experience that is tailored to a student’s ability which is measured during the test Increased measurement precision relative to fixed form assessments; more accurate growth estimates Shortened test length than paper-pencil Faster results

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**Evidence-Centered Design**

The SBAC assessment is being developed using the principles of Evidence-Centered Design (ECD). Three basic elements of ECD are: Stating the claims to be made about test takers Deciding on the evidence that is required to support the claims Administering the test items that provide the required evidence

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**Evidence-Centered Design**

Item/Task Evidence Assessment Target Claim Content Standard Evidence-Centered Design corrects this shortcoming. While alignment between standards and items or tasks remains important, strong emphasis is also placed on ensuring that {+} each item and task {+} elicits evidence {+} about the target of assessment {+} that can be used to support a claim about students’ development of the knowledge, skill, and/or ability {+} contained in a content standard. Central to Evidence-Centered Design is the idea of collecting evidence through a student’s response to an item or task that supports a claim about the extent to which a student has developed the knowledge, skill, and ability that is contained in a content standard.

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**6 Key Concepts of Evidence-Centered Design**

1. Define the domain Common Core Standards Math/ELA 2. Define claims to be made 4 ELA & 4 Math Claims Content Specifications The process of designing items and tasks using an Evidence-Centered Design approach involves six key steps. {+} The first step focuses on clearly defining the content area or domain that is to be measured. For Smarter Balanced, the content areas to be assessed are defined by the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics and the Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts. {+} Once the domains to be measured are defined, the next step is to define the claims that will be made about the domains. A claim is a statement about what a student knows or is able to do. After carefully analyzing the Common Core State Standards and thinking about what students must know and be able to do in order to be prepared for college and career paths, Smarter Balanced has identified four claims specific to English Language Arts and four claims for mathematics that focus on what students are expected to be able to do at each grade level. Let’s take a moment to look at an example of a claim.

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**English Language Arts Literacy Claim #1**

Example of a Claim English Language Arts Literacy Claim #1 Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. As an example, one English Language Arts claim focuses on student’s ability to read closely and analytically to comprehend literary and informational texts. The full set of claims are found in the Content Specifications and will be examined in greater detail in a future module that focuses on these specifications.

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**6 Key Concepts of Evidence-Centered Design**

1. Define the domain Common Core Standards Math/ELA 2. Define claims to be made 4 ELA & 4 Math Claims Content Specifications 3. Define assessment targets Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities Once the domain is defined and the claims to be made are defined, {+} the third step is to clearly define the knowledge, skills, and abilities that form the domain. For Smarter Balanced, the knowledge, skills, and abilities that are intended to be measured within each domain are called “assessment targets”. An assessment target defines the specific knowledge, skill, or ability that students should be able to demonstrate within the domain. The content specifications define a large number of assessment targets that will be measured by the Smarter Balanced assessment system.

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**Example of an Assessment Target**

Grade 11 – Assessment Target Analyze the figurative (e.g., euphemism, oxymoron, hyperbole, paradox) or connotative meanings of words and phrases used in context and the impact of these word choices on meaning and tone. As an example, one English Language Arts assessment target focuses on the analysis of figurative and connotative meanings of words and phrases and the impact of word choice on meaning and tone. Assessment targets were developed by carefully examining the Common Core State Standards and identifying the specific knowledge, skills, and abilities that form the standards. Assessment targets will be examined in greater detail in a separate module that focuses on the Content Specifications.

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**6 Key Concepts of Evidence-Centered Design**

1. Define the domain Common Core Standards Math/ELA 2. Define claims to be made 4 ELA & 4 Math Claims Content Specifications 3. Define assessment targets Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities 4. Define evidence required Evidence to be Elicited from Student Once assessment targets are defined, {+} the fourth step focuses on identifying the types of information that need to be collected from students to allow educators to say something meaningful about the student’s achievement of the assessment targets. The information Smarter Balanced aims to elicit from students is considered to be evidence that can be used to support or refute a claim about the student’s achievement of the assessment target.

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**Example of an Evidence Description**

Evidence for Assessment Target 1 When reading informational or argumentative texts, students analyze the figurative or implied meanings of words or phrases as they are used in a text and analyze how the choice of these particular words affects meaning and tone. As an example, for the English Language Arts grade eleven assessment target, one type of evidence comes from student responses in which they analyze the figurative and implied meanings of words or phrases and the effects that word choice has on meaning and tone. The evidence required for each assessment target is defined in the Item and Task Specifications. A separate module will explore evidence required to support claims for mathematics and for English language arts.

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**6 Key Concepts of Evidence-Centered Design**

1. Define the domain Common Core Standards Math/ELA 2. Define claims to be made 4 ELA & 4 Math Claims Content Specifications 3. Define assessment targets Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities 4. Define evidence required Evidence to be Elicited from Student Once types of evidence to collect are known, {+} the next step focuses on describing the characteristics of items and tasks that will elicit that evidence. The characteristics of an item or task are presented as a task model. A task model is a general description of an item or task. A task model can be thought of as a set of instructions that can be used to develop different versions of an item or task. What is important about a task model is that it is designed to collect evidence about the knowledge, skill, or ability that is contained in the standards. 5. Develop Task Models Methods for Eliciting Evidence

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**Example of a Task Model Task Model 1**

A constructed response for which the student is prompted to identify an example of figurative language, explain the meaning, and describe how it affects meaning and tone. Stimulus text should be on grade level. A task model is a narrative description of key features of an item or task. Each task model must be designed to elicit a specific piece of evidence about an assessment target through the student’s response. From one task model, several items can be created that share key features and allow for eliciting similar evidence but in different ways. As an example, this task model describes a situation in which students are presented with a text passage that is on grade level and are prompted to construct a response through which they identify an example of figurative language, explain the meaning of that language, and describe how the language affects meaning and tone. There will be more about task models in modules that focus on specific item types and item specifications.

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**6 Key Concepts of Evidence-Centered Design**

1. Define the domain Common Core Standards Math/ELA 2. Define claims to be made 4 ELA & 4 Math Claims Content Specifications 3. Define assessment targets Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities 4. Define evidence required Evidence to be Elicited from Student The final step {+} is to develop one or more items based on the task model. A task model might be thought of as a parent from which many items are developed, with common characteristics across these items. 5. Develop Task Models Methods for Eliciting Evidence 6. Develop Items or Performance Tasks

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**Assessment Claims for ELA**

Overall ELA Claim (Grades 3-8) “Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy.” Overall ELA Claim (High School) “Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in English language arts and literacy.” Claims are the broad statements of the assessment system’s learning outcomes.

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**Assessment Claims for ELA cont.**

Claim #1 Reading – Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Claim #2 Writing – Students can produce effective and well-grounded writing for a range of purposes and audiences. Claim #3 Speaking and Listening – Students can employ effective speaking and listening skills for a range of purposes and audiences. Claim #4 Research and Inquiry – Students engage in research/inquiry to investigate topics, and to analyze, integrate, and present information.

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**Reporting Categories for ELA**

Total ELA/Literacy score Claims 1-4 combined Total Reading score Claim #1 Literary Text sub-score Information Text sub-score Total Writing score Claim #2 Organization and Expression of Ideas sub-score Use of Evidence sub-score Conventions sub-score Total Listening and Speaking score Claim #3 Speaking (may not be assessed each year) Total Inquiry/Research score Claim #4

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**Assessment Claims for Math**

Overall math Claim (Grades 3-8) “Students can demonstrate progress toward college and career readiness in mathematics.” Overall math Claim (High School) “Students can demonstrate college and career readiness in mathematics.”

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**Assessment Claims for Math cont.**

Claim #1 Concepts & Procedures – Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedure with precision and fluency. Claim #2 Problem Solving – Students can solve a range of complex and well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies. Claim #3 Communicating Reasoning – Students can clearly and precisely construct viable arguments to support their own reasoning and critique the reasoning of others. Claim #4 Modeling and Data Analysis – Students can analyze complex, real-world scenarios and can construct and use mathematical models to interpret and solve problems.

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**Reporting Categories for Math**

Total Mathematics score Claims 1-4 combined Total Concepts and Procedures score Claim #1 Total Problem Solving score Claim #2 Total Communicating Reasoning score Claim #3 Total Modeling and Data Analysis score Claim #4 Total mathematics score will consist of all claims, 1-4 with 40% from the first claim and 20% for each additional claim. Will there be sub-scores below the claim level? Mathematics is not a collection of separate strands or standards, though it is often partitioned and presented in this manner. Rather, mathematics is an integrated field of study. Viewing mathematics as a whole highlights the need for studying and thinking about the connections within the discipline, as reflected both within the curriculum of a particular grade and between grade levels.

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Discussion Questions How do the claims and assessment targets identify what the student expectations are and how those expectations relate to the Summative Assessment? How do the SBAC reporting categories for ELA and math differ from the current reporting categories?

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Break

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SBAC Item Types Summative assessment will include a variety of question types: Selected response Short constructed response Extended constructed response Technology enhanced Performance tasks

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**Selected Response Items**

Series of options from which the student must choose a correct response(s) Will measure one or more content standard(s) Something else that is different, SBAC is assessing multiple standards within one question.

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**Selected Response Items**

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**Non-Traditional SR Items**

Let’s identify the correct answers. Both 1a and 1c are correct. 1c reduces to 2/5. Outline that if the student selects 1c, but not 1a, they receive no credit.

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**Item Information Grade 3 Claim 1 Target Standard DOK 2**

Concepts & Procedures – Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedure with precision and fluency. Target F: Develop understanding of fractions as numbers. Standard 3.NF.1 – Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. DOK 2 NF –Number and Operations –Fractions.

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**Selected Response Items**

D –Correct answer This sentence from the story is the details that the fox used to explain how he knew the lion wanted to hurt him. Grade 3 Claim 1 T1 RL-1 and RL-3 DOK 2

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**Item Information Grade 3 Claim 1 Target Standards DOK 2**

Reading – Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Target 1 Key Details: Use explicit details and information from the text to support answers or basic inferences. Standards RL-1 Ask and answer questions to demonstrate understanding of a text, referring explicitly to the text as the basis for the answers. RL-3 Describe characters in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events. DOK 2

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Discussion Questions How are the SBAC selected response questions equivalent to what students are currently expected to do? When thinking about the key shifts for CCSS, what are the implications for selected response questions and how will those shifts affect classroom instruction?

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**Constructed Response Items**

Allows assessment of claims and targets that are of greater complexity Typically requires more analytical thinking and reasoning than a SR item Eliminate the “guessing” factor associated with typical SR items Administered during the CAT portion of the Summative Assessment Artificial Intelligence (AI) will be used for scoring AI Type of automated scoring which uses computer algorithms

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**Constructed Response Items**

Grade 3 Claim 1 Target 1A and 1E Standard 3.OA.2, 3.OA.7, 3.NBT.3 Key 6

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**Item Information Grade 3 Claim 1 Targets**

Concepts & Procedures – Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and interpret and carry out mathematical procedure with precision and fluency. Targets A: Represent and solve problems involving multiplication and division. E: Use place value understanding and properties of arithmetic to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

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**Item Information cont. Standards DOK 1**

3.OA.2 Interpret whole-number quotients of whole numbers, e.g., interpret 56 ÷ 8 as the number of objects in each share when 56 objects are partitioned equally into 8 shares, or as a number of shares when 56 objects are partitioned into equal shares of 8 objects each. For example, describe a context in which a number of shares or a number of groups can be expressed as 56 ÷ 8. 3.OA.7 Fluently multiply and divide within 100, using strategies such as the relationship between multiplication and division (e.g., knowing that 8 × 5 = 40, one knows 40 ÷ 5 = 8) or properties of operations. By the end of Grade 3, know from memory all products of two one-digit numbers. 3.NBT.3 Multiply one-digit whole numbers by multiples of 10 in the range 10–90 (e.g., 9 × 80, 5 × 60) using strategies based on place value and properties of operations. DOK 1 OA –Operations and algebraic thinking. NBT –Numbers and operations in base ten,

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**Constructed Response Items**

Grade 4 Claim 1 T1 RL-1 RL-3 DOK 3

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Sample Responses

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**Item Information Grade 4 Claim 1 Target Standards DOK 3**

Reading – Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Target 4 Reasoning & Evaluation: Use supporting evidence to justify/explain inferences (character development/actions/traits; first or third person point of view; theme; author’s message). Standards RL-2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. RL-3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions). RL-6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. DOK 3

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**Technology Enhanced Items**

Used when SR and CR items cannot produce sufficient evidence for mathematical practices SBAC’s hope is that the use of TE items on the Summative Assessment will encourage classroom use of technology as part of instruction

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**Technology Enhanced Items**

Grade 3 3.NF.1, 3.NF.2 DOK 2

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**Item Information DOK 3 Grade 3 Claim 1 Target Standards**

Concepts and Procedures – Students can explain and apply mathematical concepts and carry out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency. Target F: Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering. Standards 3.NF.1 Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b. 3.NF.2 Understand a fraction as a number on the number line; represent fractions on a number line diagram. DOK 3 NF –Numbers and operations –Fractions.

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**Technology Enhanced Items**

Grade 4 Claim 1 Target 4 Standards RL-2, RL-3, RL-6 DOK 3

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**Item Information DOK 3 Grade 4 Claim 1 Target Standards**

Reading – Students can read closely and analytically to comprehend a range of increasingly complex literary and informational texts. Target 4 Reasoning and Evaluation: Use supporting evidence to justify/explain inferences (character development/actions/traits; first or third person point of view; theme; author’s message). Standards RL-2 Determine a theme of a story, drama, or poem from details in the text; summarize the text. RL-3 Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g., a character’s thoughts, words, or actions). RL-6 Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first- and third-person narrations. DOK 3

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**Extended Constructed Response**

In math, ER items will be part of the performance task portion of the Summative Assessment Generating a response rather than selecting one Will measure one or more content standard(s)

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**Extended Constructed Response**

Grade 3 claim 2 Target 2A and 1I Standard 3.MD.7 Worth 4-Points Top score response 15 2(3x5); 2x3 + 2x5; 2x15; 10x3 (words are also acceptable) 24x1; 12x2; 8x3; 6x4 I subtracted 54 – 30 and got 24. Then I found a length and width that multiplied to be 24.

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Scoring Rubric

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**Item Information Grade 3 Claim 2 Target Standard DOK 3**

Problem Solving – Students can solve a range of complex and well-posed problems in pure and applied mathematics, making productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies. (Claim 1 –secondary claim) Target 2A: Apply mathematics to solve well-posed problems arising in everyday life, society, and the workplace. 1I: Geometric measurement: understand concepts of area and relate area to multiplication and to addition. Standard 3.MD.7 Relate area to the operations of multiplication and addition. DOK 3 MD -Measurement and Data

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Performance Tasks Provides a measure of a student’s ability to integrate knowledge and skills across multiple standards SBAC defines this as a key component of college and career readiness Used to better measure depth of understanding, research skills, and complex analysis, which cannot be adequately assessed with SR or CR items.

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**Performance Tasks Reflect real-world problems**

Multiple approaches are possible Presents content that is relevant and meaningful to students Address 21st century skills Focus on big ideas rather than facts Up to 120 minutes to administer {Have them look at the performance task within their packet. How does this look different or similar to assessments we are using now?}

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Discussion Questions Look at the performance task within your packet and consider the following questions: How do the items and tasks from SBAC differ from what we are doing now? How are these differences going to affect the schools, classrooms, including teachers and students?

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DOK Depth of knowledge

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Depth of Knowledge Measures the degree to which the knowledge elicited from students on assessments is as complex as what students are expected to know and do as stated in the standards About Cognitive Rigor Used to analyze the cognitive expectation demanded by standards as well as items. Used to answer one question, how deeply do the students know the skills that are within the standards? 67

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Where Did DOK Come From? Developed by Dr. Norman Webb, senior research scientist at the National Institute for Science Education. Several other states (at least 20) use DOK to evaluate the rigor of their state assessments. Webb wanted to assess whether state tests assessed students at the rigor of the standards. He found that assessments unfortunately were not at the rigor or contained the cognitive rigor of the standards. If it’s not tested, do you think it is being taught? 68

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**Levels of DOK Level One – Recall Level Two – Skill/Concept**

Recall of a fact, information, or procedure Level Two – Skill/Concept Use information or conceptual knowledge Level Three – Strategic Thinking Reasoning, developing a plan Level Four – Extended Thinking Requires an investigation, collection of data and analysis of results

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DOK and Bloom’s ELA Bloom’s really is broken into a taxonomy, where one level is harder than the other were as Webb is more nominative and describes ways in which the student interacts with the content, not about difficulty. Figure 1: A Snapshot of Cognitive Rigor Matrix (Hess, Carlock, Jones, & Walkup; 2009)

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DOK and Bloom’s Math Bloom’s are linked to verbs where Webb’s DOK is about the students’ interaction with those verbs. Bloom’s really is broken into a taxonomy, where one level is harder than the other were as Webb is more nominative and describes ways in which the student interacts with the content, not about difficulty.

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**DOK and Bloom’s Math Cont.**

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**CCSS and SBAC Resources**

CCSS website CCSS Math Appendix A SBAC website CDE SBAC website New York State Department of Education

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**Performance Task Workshops**

October 22, 2012 (Riverside) March 4, 2013 (Riverside)

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**Shannon@KeyDataSys.com Sara@KeyDataSys.com**

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