2Understanding Language Read the following sentences:The student forgot the solutionwas in the back of the book.While Agnes dressed the babyspit up on the bed.Known as garden path sentencesAmbiguous nature helps us to understand complexity within language.
3Reading Bottom-up processing Top-down processing Recognizing letters and wordsTop-down processingMeaning of wordsExpectations and prior knowledge about material
4Dyslexia Difficulty in reading and comprehending text Processes that can be impaired in dyslexiaPhonological awarenessPhonological readingPhonological codingLexical access
5Impaired Processes in Dyslexia Phonological awarenessHow many phonemes are in a word?Problems attaching sounds to lettersCannot attach the sound "cuh" to the letter "c" in the word "cat"
6Impaired Processes in Dyslexia Phonological ReadingDifficulty telling if two words rhymed or started with the same soundDifficulty in sounding out the entire word and then repeating the sounds rapidly so that the word can be identified
7Impaired Processes in Dyslexia Phonological CodingUsing working memoryConfuse phonemes like t & b, z, v or gLexical AccessDifficulty retrieving phonemes from long term memory
8Consider Idioms All the rage Cook the books The full meaning of a idiom is not the composition of the idiom’s elementary parts.Illustrating the complex processes involved with comprehending English in context.Images taken from Microsoft office clipart
10Lexical Processes in Reading SaccadesEyes pause on individual words or pairs of wordsFixations last 1/4 to 1/2 of a second
11Research on Saccades O’Regan (1979) Recorded saccades of participants Examined whether length or a syntactic feature led to a word being skippedRead a pair of sentences that began in the same way but ended differentlyThe dog that growled the most was friendlyThe dog that growled ate many biscuitsHe claimed the ladies the maid knew lived in New YorkHe claimed the ladies met many times to discussO'Regan, J.K. (1979). Moment to moment control of eye saccades as a function of textual parameters in reading. In P.A. Kolers, M.E. Wrolstad, & H. Bouma (Eds.), Processing of visible language (vol. 1). New York: Plenum.
12O’Regan (1979) Results“ the” was skipped substantially more often than three-letter verbsExample: the first pair of sentences given, the was more likely to be skipped in the first sentence than ate in the secondThe dog that growled the most was friendlyThe dog that growled ate many biscuitsEvidence that the syntactic and semantic components of words play a role in determining whether fixation occurs
13Carpenter & Just (1983) Recorded eye-movements 14 college students Asked to read normally 15 short excerpts from Time and NewsweekAsked to recall what they could of each paragraph after it was finishedCarpenter, P.A., & Just, M.A. (1983). What your eyes do while your mind is reading. In K. Rayner (Ed.), Eye movements in reading: Perceptual and language processes. New York: Academic.
14Carpenter & Just (1983) Results Found that readers fixated on an average of 67.8 percent of the wordsContent words were fixated on 83% of the timeFunction words were fixated on 38% of the timeEvidence that the syntactic and semantic components of words play a role in determining whether fixation occurs
15Lexical AccessRetrieving the meaning of a word from our lexicon
16Demonstration Based on Reicher (1969) On the next several slides, a row of six letters will appear.You will then see two letters, one above and one below a letter that appearedGuess which of the two letters actually appeared in the appropriate locationThis word superiority effect demonstration was created by Thomas Pusateri (2003) for Thomson/ Wadsworth.Each demonstration starts with a row of XXXXXX as a fixation point for students. Prepare students by saying “Ready, set, go” and click on the presentation to display the letters. Ask students to identify which of the two letters appeared in the location between the letters, and call for a show of hands for each of the two letters. Afterwards, you can right-click on the slide and select “Previous” to show students the letters that were displayed. The first, second, fourth, and sixth displays are not words; approximately half of the students should guess correctly on these displays. The third, fifth, seventh, and eighth display are words; almost all of the students should guess correctly on these displays.
42Word Superiority Effect Letters are more easily recognized in the context of a word than aloneWords are also more easily recognized after processing a sentenceThis demonstrates the importance of the interaction between top-down and bottom-up processing
43Interactive-Activation Model of Word Recognition Interactive-activation model from Sternberg text.Fig. 10.1: David Rumelhart and James McClelland used this figure to illustrate how activation at the feature level, the letter level, and the word level may interact during word recognition. In this figure, lines terminating in arrows prompt activation, and lines terminating in dots (blue circles) prompt inhibition. For example, the feature for a solid horizontal bar at the top of a letter leads to activation of the T character but to inhibition of the N character. Similarly, at the letter level, activation of T as the first letter leads to activation of TRAP and TRIP but to inhibition of ABLE. Going from top down, activation of the word TRAP leads to inhibition of A, N, G, and S as the first letter but to activation of T as the first letter.
44Linguistic Relativity Sapir-Whorf HypothesisStrong interpretationThoughts and behavior are determined by languageMore evidence against than forMilder interpretationThoughts and behavior are influenced by languageVariety of interesting studies, some for, some against
45Linguistic Relativity Studies Bilinguals maintain that they “think” differently in different languages (Wierzbicka, 1985)Differences in lexicons support lexical relativity when language differences lead to differing mental structures
46Linguistic Relativity Studies Carroll & Casagrande (1958)Noted that Navajo language focused more on form than the English languageTested Navajo & English dominant Navajo childrenShown a pair of objects varied in size and formYellow rope and blue stickChildren were then asked which of the two objects should they place with a blue rope?Study details provided in Hunt, E. & Agnoli, F. (1991) The Whorfian Hypothesis: A Cognitive Psychology Perspective. Psychological Review, 98,
47Linguistic Relativity Studies Carroll & Casagrande (1958)70% Navajo dominant selected the yellow rope (thus focusing on form)40% of English dominant selected the yellow ropeConcluded results support Whorfian-Sapir hypothesisStudy details provided in Hunt, E. & Agnoli, F. (1991) The Whorfian Hypothesis: A Cognitive Psychology Perspective. Psychological Review, 98,
48Linguistic Relativity Studies Carroll & Casagrande (1958)Also asked Caucasian children from Boston, Massachusetts the same question80% of these children choose the yellow rope (form)This component of the study goes against the Whorfian hypothesisHunt & Agnoli (1991) note this is an interesting study that needs to be redone to clarify whether the Whorfian-Sapir hypothesis is supported.Study details provided in Hunt, E. & Agnoli, F. (1991) The Whorfian Hypothesis: A Cognitive Psychology Perspective. Psychological Review, 98,
49Linguistic Relativity Studies Labels have been shown to lead to memory distortionKay & Kempton (1984)Used triads of colorsTwo items were clear examples of blue or green and a third lay between them
50Linguistic Relativity Studies Kay & Kempton (1984)Asked English speaking and Tarahumara speaking participants to determine if C was closer to A or BIn Tarahumara, there is no color distinction between blue and greenCAB
51Linguistic Relativity Studies Kay & Kempton (1984)English speakers showed categorical perception, made the color either blue or green (were able to create label)Tamahumara speakers did not show categorical perception (had no labels)Supports the idea of linguistic relativity
52Linguistic Relativity Studies Hoffman, Lau & Johnson (1986)Bilinguals fluent in Chinese & EnglishRead story about a worldly, experienced, socially skilled person who is devoted to his family, and somewhat reserved written in either English or ChineseChinese language has one word to describe such a person : shi gEEnglish speakers do not
53Linguistic Relativity Studies Hoffman, Lau & Johnson (1986)After, participants rated a variety of statements about the charactersSome asked about shi gE stereotypeIf passage was read in Chinese, a greater impact of the stereotype was present
54Bilingual Studies Bilingual Simultaneous bilingual People who can speak two languagesSimultaneous bilingualLearn two languages from birthSequential bilingualsFirst learn one language and then another
55Bilingual Studies Additive Bilinguals Subtractive Bilinguals Learn a second language without loss to the native languageSubtractive BilingualsLearn a second language that interferes with the native language
56Bilingual StudiesEarly research argued that learning two languages was harmfulProblems with early researchLower class bilinguals were compared to middle class monolingualsIQ and achievement tests were usually in the monolinguist’s language
57Bilingual Studies Research showing advantages Bilinguals acquire more expertise in their own languageBilinguals are sensitive to subtle aspects of languageBilinguals perform better on tests of nonverbal intelligence that require recognition of verbal patterns
58Factors Influencing Bilingualism Fluency AgeThe earlier in life a second language is learned, the more fluent the speaker will becomeBahrick & colleagues disagreeVocabulary and fluency is acquired just as well in older participants but not fluency
59Single-System or Dual? Single-system hypothesis Dual system hypothesis Two languages are represented in one systemDual system hypothesisTwo languages are represented by separate systems
60Pidgins & Creoles Pidgins Communication between two language groups Often used between immigrants and locals or missionaries and natives in order to be understood by each other without having to learn the language of the other group
61Pidgins & CreolesPidgin develops over time in such a way that it becomes a CreoleCreoles are complete languages, Pidgins are notDoes have native speakersHas developed through expansion form and grammarIs stable and autonomous in its norms
62Slips of the Tongue / Speech Errors Speech errors: we mean to say one thing, but utter anotherChipping the flannelFlipping the channelBox in the JackJack in the boxYour model is renosedYour nose is remodeled
63Slips of the Tongue / Speech Errors Errors seem to follow a structure and can be analyzed to assess what level of speech production was incorrectStages of speech productionMentally create meaning of utteranceChoose wordsPut words into right forms (add prefixes & suffixes)Organize into phrases for sentencePut together the phonemesErrors can occur at any stage
64Slips of the Tongue / Speech Errors Phoneme exchangeMixed up two soundsAt the lead of spiteSpeed of lightGo and shake a towerGo and take a shower
65Slips of the Tongue / Speech Errors Word level errorI have to fill up my gas with carI have to fill up my car with gasOnce I stop I cannot startOnce I start I cannot stopYour model is renosedYour nose is remodeledNote for nose example, prefixes and suffixes are already in place before word error occursError analysis can be done to tell us how speech production is planned
66Figurative Uses of Language MetaphorTwo nouns placed together to note similaritiesArgument is warTheories are buildingsIdeas are foodIdentify tenor, vehicle, ground and tension in the metaphors listed.Why speak of metaphors? Understanding how we can understand and process metaphors gives cognitive psychologists insights into how complex language processing is. Cognitive theories try to explain how we can understand metaphors.
67Theories about Metaphors Traditional ViewEmphasizes the similaritiesAnomaly ViewEmphasizes the differencesDomain InteractionCombination of the two
68PragmaticsKnowing what to say, how to say it, and when to say it or how to be around other people (Bowen, 2001)Study of discourse and conversational skillsSituational determinants of the use of languageSemantic and Pragmatic Difficulties 2001 Caroline Bowen accessed January 21, 2005 at
69Pragmatic Skills Establish common ground Maintaining a topic Introduce a topic in order for the listener to fully understandMaintaining a topicOr change topic appropriatelyOr interrupt politelyAppropriate eye-contactNot too much staringNot too much looking awaySemantic and Pragmatic Difficulties 2001 Caroline Bowen accessed January 21, 2005 at
70Pragmatic SkillsDistinguishing how to talk and behave towards different communicative partnersFormal with some,Informal with othersResponding to gestures and non-verbal aspects of languageSemantic and Pragmatic Difficulties 2001 Caroline Bowen accessed January 21, 2005 at
71Speech ActsFive basic categories of speech acts that reflect the intention of the utteranceRepresentative conveys infoI like Polar bears.Directive is order or request that causes behaviorTurn on the air conditioner.Commissive is a promise/agreement to do somethingI will make the cookies.Expressive conveys information about inner stateI enjoy spending time with you.Declaration is a statement that brings about new situationI am now a vegetarian.
72Speech Acts Different ways to get someone to do something For example: You want someone to open a window.Direct Speech ActsOpen the window.Indirect Speech ActsCould you open the window?It sure is hot in here.Explain to students that with indirect speech acts, the first sentence is a literal question of whether they have the ability to open the window, not a direct request to do so. However, when people say that sentence, they mean, they would like for them to open the window. The second sentence is even more indirect indicating the need for an open window.
73Research on Speech Acts Holtgraves (1986) examined the impact of status on the use of direct and indirect speech actsParticipants were asked to read scenarios that had either the high or low status person asking about a speech they gaveBob is a junior executive for a fairly large corporation. He is on friendly terms with John, the company president, and they occasionally have lunch together. A few days earlier they had both attended a company board meeting during which John had made a presentation. The presentation had not gone well and was obviously not well thought out. A few days later, Bob and John are alone and having lunch together when John says to Bob “What did you think of the presentation that I gave to the board the other morning?”
74Research on Speech Acts After the scenarios were presented, participants had to select which of the following responses they would give if in that situationDirect and true: I really didn’t think your presentation was very good.Direct and false: I really thought your presentation was very good.Indirect evasive question: Don’t you think we should have our board meeting on some other day than Monday?Evasive assertion: I think we should have our board meeting on some day other than Monday.Indirect irrelevant question: Wasn’t that latest stock market rally sure a surprise?Irrelevant assertion: The latest stock market rally was sure a surprise.
75Holtgraves (1986) ResultsIf of low status, evasive replies were perceived as more likely and polite than a direct replyOne demonstration of how social context affects speech act choices
76Speech ActsDirect speech acts are often considered rude because of their directness, and tend to be avoided in formal situations/conversationsI’d be grateful if you opened the window.Could you open the window?It would help to have the window open.It’s getting hot in here.Open the window. (direct)
78Gender Differences in Language Differences between what men and women talk aboutDo men interrupt more?Is a woman more likely to ask for directions?
79Tannen Girls tend to talk about one topic Boys tease, tell jokes, notice things around the room, talk about finding games to playGirls talk face to faceBoys talk at angles, eyes straight ahead
80Tannen Women tend to overlap and finish each others sentences Men perceive this as an interruption, intrusion or lack of attention
81Understanding Discourse Research focuses on how we obtain the meaning from stories, lectures, and readingIdentify the processes underlying reading and factors that lead to successful comprehension
82Reading Comprehension Processes Semantic encodingAcquiring vocabularyComprehending ideasCreating mental modelsImpact of context on comprehensionImpact of perspective on comprehension
83Semantic EncodingThe relationship between knowing what a word means and using that knowledge when processing new materialResearch has found that a strong relationship between vocabulary (word-meaning knowledge) and the ability of students to construct meaning existsNow the issue becomes what is the best way to create a strong vocabulary?Beck, Isabel L., Charles A. Perfetti, and Margaret G. McKeown Effects of long-term vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology.
84Acquiring Vocabulary Readers acquire vocabulary in a variety of ways Through wide readingFrom the use of contextThrough use of the dictionaryDirect instruction
85Comprehension of Ideas Kintsch’s ModelUse propositions in working memoryMacropropositionsMacrostructure
86Evidence for Propositions A sentence can be decomposed into many meaning units called propositionsDonna gave Lucy a bone(GIVE (SUBJECT Donna)(RECIPIENT Lucy)(OBJECT bone))
87Evidence for Propositions Ratcliff & McKoon (1978)Participants were asked to learn the following sentences:Geese crossed the horizon as wind shuffled the clouds.The chauffeur jammed the clutch when he parked the truck.After a 20-minute delayShown single words and were asked if word was in sentences previously studiedReaction time to answer was notedDiscuss how each sentence contains two propositions, may want to diagram on the board.
88Ratcliff & McKoon (1978)Geese crossed the horizon as wind shuffled the clouds.The chauffeur jammed the clutch when he parked the truck.Results StimuliReaction timeSame propositiongeese-horizon709 msecDifferent propositiongeese-cloud752 msecDifferent sentencegeese-clutch847 msecInterest was in how quickly participants responded to sequences of words. Discuss how the results support the propositional model.
89Kintsch & Keenan (1973) Participants read different sentences All sentences had the same number of conceptsSentences differed in terms of the number of propositions containedThe crowded passengers squirmed uncomfortably. (3 propositions)The horse stumbled and broke a leg. (2 propositions)
90Kintsch & Keenan (1973)The greater the number of propositions, the longer the reading timeConclusion: propositions, not single words, are the units of comprehension
91Text ComprehensionInvolves constructing and storing a related set of propositions that describe details of text or story
92Van Dijk & Kintsch (1983) Model Surface form is the superficial and short-lived representation of textPropositional textbase is an interconnected propositional network holding the core meaning of what is readMacrostructure is comprised of the summarized main points of the textA situational model of the material is created as propositions are processed and understood
93InferencesAdditional concepts that are added to the explicit concepts in a textBridging inferenceAn inference that is necessary to connect two sentencesA car sped around the corner out of control. The vehicle smashed into some empty boxes.Text requiring inferences leads to longer processing time
94Controversy Across Text Comprehension Models How many and what type of inferences are madeMinimalist position posits that only two classes of inferences occurInferences based on easily available informationInferences required for local coherenceConstructivist models of text comprehension (like Kintsch’s) propose there are many potential inferences that are automatically generated during reading.
95Neuropsychology of Language AphasiaImpaired language function due to brain damageWernike’sBroca’sGlobalAnomic
96Neuropsychology of Language AutismDevelopmental disorderAbnormal social, language and cognition behaviors
97Theories of Autism Sex differences in brains “extreme male brain”Executive Dysfunction TheoryProblem with frontal lobes
98Brain Research Lesion Studies ERP Research fMRIs Localization of language functioning