4The “Bad” News No one method or program has triumphed! Nearly two-thirds of low-income 4th graders cannot read at the proficient levelGrade 8 no gains in the past decadeGrade 12 scores have declined (NAEP, 2003)
5The “Good” News New Technologies: Brain’s internal structure -CAT Scan, MRIHow brain works (EEG, MEG, PET, fMRI, FMRS)
6The “Good” News EEG, MEG-How quickly something occurs in the brain PET-Observes brain functionsfMRI-pinpoints brain areas of greater and lesser activityfMRS-records levels of chemicals in brain while subject is thinking
7STUDIES SHOW:Novice readers use different cerebral pathways than proficient readersPeople with reading difficulties use different brain regions to decode written text than do typical readersThe brains of people with reading problems work harder than those of skilled readersEven though dyslexia is a brain disorder, it is treatable.Brains of young struggling and dyslexic readers can be rewired to more closely resemble those used by typical readersHow the Brain Learns to Read, David Sousa, p. 4-5
8AS A RESULT. . . It is now possible to: identify with a high degree of accuracy those children who are at greatest risk of reading problemsdiagnose the problems accuratelymanage the problems with effective and proven treatment programs.Shaywitz, S. E. Overcoming Dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Knopf, 2003
10SPOKEN LANGUAGEA single human voice can pronounce all the hundreds of vowel and consonant sounds that allow it to speak any of the estimated 6,500 languages that exist today.
11PROCESSING SPOKEN LANGUAGE Brain uses Broca’s and Wernicke’s areasAlso uses other neural networks in the left hemisphereAbility to acquire spoken language is encoded in our genesDiminishes around years of age
12GENDER DIFFERENCES Males-left hemisphere Females-BOTH hemispheres Corpus callosum allows communication between hemispheresLarger and thicker in females than in malesFunction follows form-information traveling between the two hemispheres is more efficient in females than in males
13LEARNING PHONEMES Units of sounds Combine to form syllables Infant’s brain can respond to allOnly those that are repeated get attentionBy age one, neural networks focus on sounds in the infant’s environment
14VOCABULARY w/Toddlers Vocabulary from parents/caregiversFrequent adult-to-toddler conversations lead to greater vocabulary developmentIncremental effect grows exponentially and can lead to huge word gaps in early years
15Study Results (Hart & Risley, 2003) Two-Part Longitudinal StudyPART ONE42 toddlersBased on family occupationWelfare child (525)Middle/low SES (749 wordsUpper SES (1,116 words)PART TWOSix years laterEarly scores strong predictor of scores at age 9-10 in vocabulary, listening, speaking, syntax, and semantics*SES: Socio-economic status
16SYNTAX AND SEMANTICSRecognize hierarchy of language-nouns, verbs rules of grammarPhonemes-soundsMorphemes-word partsVocabulary-levelSentence-level (grammar)Speaking/Understanding (explicit/inferred
18“Why is it that the hardest thing children are ever asked to do is the first thing they’re asked to do!?”Merryl Pischa, Reading Specialist
19LEARNING TO READ Relatively NEW phenomena Genes have not incorporated reading into their coded structureIf reading were a natural ability, everyone would be doing itBUT nearly 40 million adults (in US) are functionally illiterate.
20LEARNING TO READRight now, your mind is performing an astonishing feat. Photons are bouncing off these black squiggles and lines -- the letters in this sentence -- and colliding with a thin wall of flesh at the back of your eyeball..
21LEARNING TO READThe photons contain just enough energy to activate sensory neurons, each of which is responsible for a particular plot of visual space on the page. The end result is that, as you stare at the letters, they become more than mere marks on a page. You've begun to read.
22LEARNING TO READSeeing the letters, of course, is just the start of the reading processAlthough our eyes are focused on the letters, we quickly learn to ignore them. Instead, we perceive whole words, chunks of meaning.
24LEARNING TO READ(The irregularities of English require such flexibility. As George Bernard Shaw once pointed out, the word "fish" could also be spelled ghoti, assuming that we used the gh from "enough," the o from "women," and the ti from "lotion.")
25LEARNING TO READIn fact, once we become proficient at reading, the precise shape of the letters -- not to mention the arbitrariness of the spelling -- doesn't even matter, which is why we read word, WORD, and WoRd the same way.
26EARLY STAGES OF READING Awareness that speech is composed of sounds (phonemes)Recognition that written spellings represent sounds (alphabetic principle)Understanding that phonemes can be manipulatedPhonemic awareness strong predictor of reading success in later grades
27TERMS Phonemes-distinct unit of sounds Phonological Awareness-oral language can be divided into smaller components-eg. sentences-words-syllables-phonemes
28TERMSPhonemic Awareness-understanding that words are made up of individual sounds and can be manipulated to create new wordsGraphemes-symbols that correspond to sounds
29Strategies“Same or different” game-generating pairs of words that are identical or differ in some subtle way (e.g. glow-grow)Provide sentences with key word missing-child supplies words; link sentences together
30Sounds to LettersGuess which orthography category English falls into?You’re right! Deep orthography-our alphabet does NOT have an ideal one-to-one correspondence between its phonemes and graphemes!Brain must memorize a set of squiggles (alphabet)Rules of spelling called orthographyShallow orthography-close correspondence between letters and soundsDeep orthography-poor correspondence between how a word is pronounced and spelled
31Alphabetic Principle Learning the alphabetic principle is NOT easy! The letters are abstract and unfamiliar to the new readerThere are about 44 English phonemes but only 26 letters-each phoneme is not coded with a unique letter.There are over a dozen vowel sounds but only five letters-a,e,i,o,u- to represent them
32Alphabetic PrincipleThe reader needs to recognize that how a letter is pronounced depends on the letters that surround it-e.g.-the letter “e” in dead, deed, dikeThen there are consonant digraphs-combinations of two consonants (ch, sh, ph)Also trigraphs-tch, thr
33Poem by AnonymousI take it you already know Of touch and bough and cough and dough? Others may stumble, but not you On hiccough, thorough, slough, and through? Well done! And now you wish, perhaps, To learn of less familiar traps? Beware of heard, a dreadful word That looks like beard and sounds like bird. And dread; it’s said like bed, not bead; Watch out for meat and great and threat. (They rhyme with suite and straight and debt). A moth is not a moth in mother, Nor both in bother, broth in brother.Proust and the Squid, Maryanne Wolf, p
34Poem by AnonymousAnd here is not a match for there, And dear and fear and bear and pear, And then there’s dose and rose and lose— Just look them up --- and goose and choose, And cork and work and card and ward, and font and front and word and sword, And do and go, then thwart and cart. Come, come, I’ve hardly made a start. A dreadful language? Why, man alive, I’d learned to talk it when I was five And yet to read it, the more it tried, I hadn’t learned it at fifty-five!Proust and the Squid, Maryanne Wolf, p
35A Common MantraIn the first three grades, a child learns to read while in the next grades a child reads to learnUnfortunately most 4th grade teachers do not take a course in teaching reading to children who have not acquired fluency**Recommendation-grade 4 and above teachers take fluency course
36LETTERS TO WORDS-DECODING Research* indicates that a child must be able to decode with accuracy and fluency in order to read proficiently.Learn letter names vs. sounds; research is mixed*Moats, Furry, and Brownell, 1998
38MORPHEMESSmallest word elements that can change a word’s meaning dog=1,dog+s=2, doggedly=?Break words apart; hate-fulBegins to surpass phonemic awareness by grade 3 in developing decoding skillsHelpful in decoding/meaning/ grammardog+ed+ly=3
39READING COMPREHENSION: Words to sentences Syntax and comprehensionSimple-”The boy rowed the boat.”Compound-”The boy rowed the boat while his mother watched.”Complex-”The boy who rowed the boat waved to his mother.
40Dealing with differences in Syntax Word orderMinimum-Distance PrincipleAnalysis of conjoined clausesPassive VoiceNegationEmbedding
41Morphology and Comprehension Morphology-how words are put together from pieces and how these pieces can change the meaning of words OR create new ones.MeaningSyntactic propertiesPhonological propertiesRelational properties
43MEMORYTWO TEMPORARY MEMORIES IMMEDIATE-holds data for about 30 seconds; subconscious WORKING-conscious; captures our focus; minutes to days. -few items at a time
44WORKING MEMORY HELPS COMPREHENSION Understanding complex structure; working memory holds the first part while the visual cortex processes the rest.Preserving syntax (word order)E.g. The driver of the blue car, not the red car, honked his horn.
45WORKING MEMORY HELPS COMPREHENSION As reading progresses, the meaning of each sentence must be held in memory so they can be associated with each other to determine meaning of paragraphWorking memory must then link paragraphs together.Practice leads to more comprehension
46Intelligence is a function of experience. HET PRINCIPLEIntelligence is a function of experience.
47Theory of Temporary and Permanent Memories IncomingInformation (from our senses*)Immediate Memory(seconds)Working Memory(minutes to days)Long-Term Storage Sites(years)* HET: Being There and Pathways to Understanding
48HET PRINCIPLELearning is a two-step process: Step One: Making meaning through pattern-seeking
49HET PRINCIPLEStep Two: Developing a mental program for using what we understand and wiring it into long-term memory
50Pattern of ReadingAa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa Aa
51More Patterns of Reading Left-to-rightFront to backTop-to-bottomWorking vs. long-term memoryDecodingMorpehemesSyntax/ComprehnsionFluency
52There once was a beautiful bear who sat on a seat near to breaking and read by the hearth about how the earth was created. She smiled beautifully, full of ideas for the realm of her winter dreams.
53There once was a beautiful bear who sat on a seat near to breaking and read by the hearth about how the earth was created. She smiled beautifully, full of ideas for the realm of her winter dreams.
54Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteers be at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe."
55IMPORTANCE OF VOCABULARY “When one realizes that children have to learn about 88,700 written words during their school years and that at least 9,000 of these words need to be learned by the end of grade 3, the huge importance of a child’s development of vocabulary becomes crystal-clear.”Proust and the Squid, Maryanne Wolf, p. 123
56Learning Words and Morphemes FrontImage-Loaded WordsVerbal (Abstract) WordsLearning Words and MorphemesParents slip into a different speech patternStudies show that image-laden words produce more activity in frontal lobe (visual imagery)Abstract words produce ERPs in parietal/occipital areasERPs (Event-related potentials)
57IMPLICATIONS FOR TEACHERS Use concrete images when presenting an abstract or multi-meaning word.justice
58STRATEGIES ~ Comprehension Comprehension MonitoringUsing graphic (visual organizers) and semantic (spider web) organizerscowhumanwhalecatsheepdogWhere does difficulty occurWhat is the difficultyRestating in own wordsLooking back through textLooking ahead in textGrapgic –visual toolsMammal
59STRATEGIES ~ Comprehension Generating/Answering questionsRecognizing story structureSummarizingMental Imagery (exposure to technology provides images-students need to have directions for how to do this)ParaphrasingTHEMING* (when varied classroom activities center around a theme, students can more easily comprehend their related readings)Where does difficulty occurWhat is the difficultyRestating in own wordsLooking back through textLooking ahead in textGrapgic –visual tools*How the Brain Learns to Read-Sousa, p.101-NIFL, 2001
60DEVELOPING CRITICAL READING STRATEGIES in OLDER STUDENTS PreviewingContextualizing (own experiences)Questioning to Understand and RememberChallenges to Students’ Beliefs and ValuesEvaluating an ArgumentOutlining and SummarizingCompare and Contrast Related Readings*How the Brain Learns to Read-Sousa, p.106-NIFL, 2001
62Reading before speaking? It is generally counterproductive to hasten young non-English-speaking children into reading English without adequate preparation in speaking English*How the Brain Learns to Read-Sousa, p
63Speaking Before Reading!!! Reading in any language requires a solid, mental lexicon of spoken vocabularyLearning to speak English should be the first priority!
64Ideal Situation Taught to read in native language first If can’t be done, then learn to speak English FIRST!Other option? Bilingual approach-lesson in native tongue, then in EnglishCooperative Learning increases ELL student achievement*How the Brain Learns to Read-Sousa, p , BCIRC-15 steps
65Resources Maryanne Wolf Stanislas Dehaene David A. Sousa Article: Dyslexia:
66“I feel certain that if I could read my way back, analytically, through the books of my childhood. The clues to everything could be found. The child lives in the book; but just as much the book lives in the child.”~Elizabeth Bowen~
67BASIC BRAIN INFORMATION WELCOMEBASIC BRAIN INFORMATIONThe Brain Learns to ReadREFLECTIONSPOKENLANGUAGEELL/ESLSTUDENTSTHE READING PROCESSMEMORY AND READING
68WEBINAR GOALS TO: Promote deeper understanding of reading process Provide strategies to use with both “traditional” students and ELL students
69NEXT STEPSIdentify 3 steps you can take to further your understanding of the reading process.How will you apply this information?Which strategies will you try?Who would you like to share this information with?
70Schools Exceeding Expectations “Making a Difference in the World”Excellence in EducationApril 26-28, 2011Site: Lone Tree, COOn-Site District: Lone Tree Elementary SchoolSelect Lone TreeVisit:
71“OPEN” Model Teaching Week June 18-22, 2011OPEN to allInexpensive way for a school district to introduce modelHuntington County Community Schools Corporation-SEE 2010Chuck Grable and Adam DrummondChoose “Events”, then MTW
72HET SUMMER INSTITUTE July 15-18, 2012 All levels of HET model Granlibakken Conference Center, Lake Tahoe, CAAppropriate for ALL educators4 days of interactive sessions in pristine environmentChoose “Events”, then Summer Inst.
73The Center for Effective Learning Sue PearsonThe Center for Effective Learning