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Credential of Competency for Paraeducators Standard # 4: Instructional Strategies Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network (PaTTAN)

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Presentation on theme: "Credential of Competency for Paraeducators Standard # 4: Instructional Strategies Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network (PaTTAN)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Credential of Competency for Paraeducators Standard # 4: Instructional Strategies Pennsylvania Training and Technical Assistance Network (PaTTAN)

2 Local Policy Your local district’s policies regarding Paraeducator job descriptions, duties, and responsibilities prove the final word!

3 Agenda Introduction, learner outcomes and definitions Basic instructional and remedial strategies and materials Assistive technology for individuals with exceptional learning needs How students learn reading How students learn mathematics

4 Standard # 4 Knowledge Areas K1 Basic instructional and remedial strategies and materials K2 Basic technologies appropriate to individuals with exceptional learning needs K3 How students learn reading K4 How students learn mathematics

5 Standard # 4 Skill Areas S1 Use strategies, equipment, materials, and technologies, as directed, to accomplish instructional objectives S2 Assist in adapting instructional strategies and materials as directed S3 Use strategies as directed to facilitate effective integration into various settings. S4 Use strategies that promote the learner’s independence as directed. S5 Use strategies as directed to increase the individual’s independence and confidence.

6 Learner Outcomes Participants will be able to: List principles of effective instruction. Identify basic instructional strategies. Discuss issues related to using appropriate assistive technology with students in special education programs. Describe the “big ideas of reading instruction.” Describe how students learn mathematics.

7 Basic Instructional and Remedial Strategies and Materials

8 Basic Terms Instructional Strategies support students’ acquiring knowledge or skills. Effective Instruction means knowing how to approach a task, what we want to teach within that task, and the most effective ways for a student to learn.

9 Instructional Strategies

10 Examples of Instructional Strategies Antecedents Reinforcement Scaffolding Modeling Shaping Wait time Active student responding Grouping Instructional Prompts Skill Generalization

11 Instructional Strategies Antecedents - o What actions or events that occur before a behavior o Used to set a child up for success o Examples include: Structuring the environment Setting clear expectations Avoiding “triggers” for negative behaviors

12 Instructional Strategies Reinforcement – o A consequence for a behavior or activity that increases the likelihood that the behavior will occur again. o As an instructional strategy, specific feedback increases the likelihood of another correct response or a response closer to the desired response.

13 Instructional Strategies Scaffolding - o Interactions with students in which an adult guides and supports the student’s learning by building on what the student is able to do.

14 Instructional Strategies Modeling – o The strategy of teaching a child to do something by demonstrating the task. What something looks like or sounds like.

15 Instructional Strategies Shaping - o The strategy of accepting closer and closer approximations of a behavior until the correct response is demonstrated.

16 Instructional Strategies Wait time - o Providing sufficient time between when a question is asked or a request is made and when the student responds.

17 Instructional Strategies Active Student Responding - o Occurs each time a student makes a detectable response to ongoing instruction

18 Instructional Strategies Flexible Grouping – o The strategy of grouping students according to the intended outcome of the lesson. Groups should be flexible and changing.

19 Instructional Strategies Instructional Prompts – o Types: Verbal prompt Pictorial prompt Gestural prompt Model prompt Partial physical prompt Full physical prompt

20 Instructional Strategies Instructional Prompts (cont.)- o Fading Prompts: As the student acquires skill with prompts, decrease the level of assistance you provide. Use the prompt hierarchy to gradually withdraw support until the student becomes independent.

21 Instructional Strategies Skill Generalization - o Allows the student to use a skill in more than one setting and/or with different people.

22 Instructional Strategies Skill Generalization (cont.) - o After the student has learned the skill in one environment : gradually fade out reinforcement for correct skill performance. provide practice opportunities in a variety of settings and with a variety of different people.

23 Assistive Technology For Students With Learning Needs

24 Instructional vs. Assistive Technology Assistive Technology (AT)... is for students who have functional access needs. Consideration of need for AT tools required by IDEA. If required by the student’s IEP to access his/her curriculum, AT tools are not optional. Instructional Technology... does not require an IEP. may be selected by a teacher to enhance and expand the educational experience. use as a teaching tool is optional.

25 What is Assistive Technology? Assistive Technology Device: any item, piece of equipment, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified or customized, that is used to “increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities” (IDEA ‘04, Section 602) Assistive Technology Services: any service that “directly assists a child with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device”

26 And that means….. Assistive Technology can be any tool that helps to accommodate a student’s needs

27 When does the student need to use AT?.... When student needs to: communicate: question, answer, repeat, tell turn on, click, highlight, point to write, type, check off read, look at, see, comprehend, define listen to, process, find walk, change classes interact with, remember

28 AT Continuum from No/Low Tech to High Tech

29 No/Low Tech

30 Mid Tech

31 High Tech

32 When you need help with AT…. Tell somebody !!!

33 Regular Instructional Technology also comes with benefits….

34 How Students Learn to Read

35 Literacy Development oLanguage and reading/writing are NOT age or grade dependent. oWe need to teach students from where they are, building on what they know, along the steps toward where they need to be. “Language is natural; reading is not.”

36 Building Literacy Skills Storybook Reading (reading, listening) Print Awareness (book knowledge) Language Play (songs, poems)

37 The Five Essential Components of Reading Instruction ( 5 Big Ideas)

38 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction

39 Phonemic Awareness Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate individual sounds in spoken words

40 Phonemic Awareness Skills Less Complex to More Complex Rhyming Sentence Segmentation Syllable Blending & Segmentation Onset-rime blending & Segmentation Blending & Segmenting Individual Phonemes Phoneme Deletion & Manipulation

41 Elkonin Boxes: Hearing Sounds Activity

42 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction

43 Phonics Phonics instruction teaches children the relationships between the letters of written language and the individual sounds (phonemes) of spoken language.

44 Phonics Skills Letter-Sound Correspondence Irregular Word Reading Reading in Texts Regular Word Reading Advanced Word Analysis Skills Adapted from Reading and Language arts (2002)

45 Elkonin Boxes: Hearing Sounds Activity

46 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction

47 Fluency The ability to read text with speed, accuracy, and expression.

48 Take a Deep Breath.nworb emoceb seye eht, detisoped si tnemgip elbaredisnoc fI.roloc evitinifed sti semussa siri eht,ecafrus roiretna eht no raeppa ot snigeb tnemgip eht sA.roloc yarg-etals ro hsiulb a fo tceffe eht gnivig yllausu, eussit tneculsnart eht hguorht swohs reyal tnemgip roiretsop ehT.siri eht of ecafrus roiretna eht no tnemgip on ro elttil si ereht htrib tA.

49 Fluency Skills oAutomatic recognition of words oSpeed oAccuracy oExpression

50 Modeling Fluency What do we know of these people who lived so long ago? Today, archeologists call these people Mound Builders. This general category includes various groups of Native Americans who lived at different times and had different cultures.

51 Fluency Sample Activities o Repeated Reading with a purpose First reading to become familiar with passage Second reading to identify storyline, make predictions Third reading to build speed, accuracy, and expression

52 Fluency Sample Activities oGuided Oral Reading (with corrective feedback) oRead Aloud (with teacher modeling) oShared Reading (teacher/student) oTaped Reading (listening and following along with the text)

53 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction

54 Oral and Reading Vocabulary Learning, as a language-based activity, is fundamentally and profoundly dependent on vocabulary knowledge. (Baker, Simmons, & Kame’enui, 1998)

55 Vocabulary Activities oDefinition Mapping oFrayer Model oSemantic Mapping

56 Vocabulary: Definition Mapping What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™

57 rodent What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary: Definition Mapping

58 mammal rodent What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary: Definition Mapping

59 mammal rodent 2 sharp front teeth Gnaws on hard objects Smooth, short fur What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary: Definition Mapping

60 mammal rodent 2 sharp front teeth Gnaws on hard objects Smooth, short fur mouseratsquirrel What is it? DefinitionWhat is it like? What are some examples? The Word ™ Vocabulary: Definition Mapping

61 Vocabulary: Frayer Model Word Definition ExamplesNon-examples Characteristics

62 Word Polygon Definition A mathematical shape that is a closed plane Figure bounded by 3 or More line segments. Examples Hexagon Square Trapezoid Rhombus Non-examples Circle Cube Sphere Cylinder Cone Characteristics Closed Plane Figure More than 2 straight sides 2-dimensional Made of line segments Vocabulary: Frayer Model

63 Vocabulary: Semantic Mapping

64 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction

65 Comprehension Comprehension is the ultimate goal of reading. It involves extracting ideas from text and integrating them with relevant prior knowledge in order to construct meaning.

66 Comprehension Skills oPrimary Grade Skills (K-3) Literal comprehension Sequencing Summarization

67 Comprehension Skills oSkills Grades 4-12 Connecting ideas within the reading Comprehending complicated sentences Critically reading passages

68 Comprehension Activities oPrereading oDuring reading oPostreading

69 Comprehension: Pre-reading Activities Preview the text Make predictions Connect to prior knowledge

70 Comprehension: During Reading Activities Stop periodically and summarize what you have read. Focus on the main idea and supporting details in each paragraph. Visualize

71 Comprehension: After Reading Activities Delete trivial information Delete redundant information Use single category labels to replace a list of smaller items/actions. Summarize paragraphs

72 Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension The Five Big Ideas of Reading Instruction

73 How Students Learn Mathematics

74 oGoals for Students oFive Content Standards oFive Process Standards oEffective Mathematics Instruction oFive Strands of Proficiency

75 Goals for Students oLearn to value mathematics oBecome confident in their ability to do mathematics oBecome mathematical problem-solvers oLearn to communicate mathematics oLearn to reason mathematically

76 Content and Process Content Process Complete Mathematics Curriculum

77 Five Content Standards oNumbers and Operations oMeasurement oGeometry oAlgebraic Concepts oData Analysis and Probability

78 Five Process Standards oProblem-solving oReasoning and Proof oCommunication oConnections oRepresentation

79 Basic Idea in Math Mathematics makes sense!!

80 What do we mean by “making sense?” Let’s look at Handout #13

81 Effective Mathematics Instruction Function of three elements: 1.Teacher’s knowledge and use of mathematical content 2.Teacher’s ability to work with diverse learners 3.Students engagement in and use of mathematical tasks

82 Effective Mathematics Instruction Highly Effective Teaching Strategies: oExplicit teacher modeling oEnsuring a quick pace with varied instructional activities and high levels of engagement oStudent verbal rehearsal of strategy steps oProvide corrective feedback

83 Five Strands of Mathematical Proficiency oUnderstanding Concepts oUsing Procedures quickly, accurately, and appropriately oApplying Strategies to various problems and situations oDeveloping Reasoning Skills oSeeing Math as Sensible, Useful and Worthwhile

84 Learner Outcomes Participants will be able to: List principles of effective instruction. Identify basic instructional strategies. Discuss issues related to using appropriate assistive technology with students in special education programs. Describe the “big ideas of reading instruction.” Describe how students learn mathematics.


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