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Research and Practice on Teaching ELLs in Middle and High Schools

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1 Research and Practice on Teaching ELLs in Middle and High Schools
Margarita Calderón Johns Hopkins University

2 Talking Points Why is vocabulary important? A science example for
-- How to select words to teach. -- How to teach words before reading, during reading and after reading? 3. Program implications and keeping track of student progress. 2

3 Why is Content Area Literacy Important?
Without reading instruction on content area literacy: SURFACE COMPREHENSION--Literal comprehension; students read on their own and answer questions; questions are low-level. With reading instruction integrated into content areas: DEEP COMPREHENSION --Critical comprehension; students learn new vocabulary continuously; associate new readings with prior knowledge; add new knowledge, discuss ideas, interpret facts and information, and apply critical thinking skills to text.

4 Statistical Trends in Secondary Schools
Nationally, over 6 million American students in grades 6 through 12 are at risk of failure because they read and comprehend below—often considerably below—the basic levels needed for success in high school, postsecondary education, and the workforce. About 60% of ELLs in middle and high school were born in the United States, that is, they are second- or third-generation immigrants - - and have been in U. S. schools since kindergarten! Newcomers, refugees -- are now mainly SIFE (Students with Interrupted Formal Education).

5 Why teach vocabulary before, during and after students read a content text?
Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension. Reading comprehension correlates with content knowledge. Content knowledge correlates with academic success. Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in a text. Knowing words means explicit instruction not just exposure.

6 FOR TRANSITION or ENGLISH-ONLY PROGRAMS: Teachers must balance comprehensible input with rich challenging vocabulary and reading in math, science and social studies in English. ESL Sheltered Instruction Comprehensible input Content Rich Challenging Vocabulary And Reading in Science, Social Studies & Math

7 SCIENCE Science can be very exciting or very dull.
Science texts need to be carefully parsed so that standards are met. A variety of texts can be used to learn science. Students need to become familiar with ways to read those texts and write in that genre. Science is ideally suited for Cooperative Learning. Scientific concepts and processes are highly dependent on specific vocabulary. 7

8 Scientific method and critical testing Creativity
Agreement on the following ideas or themes or salient features of science that should be taught: Scientific method and critical testing Creativity Historical development of scientific knowledge Science and questioning Diversity of scientific thinking Analysis and interpretation of data Science and certainty Hypothesis and prediction Cooperation and collaboration 8

9 Importance of Teaching Vocabulary
Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension. Reading comprehension correlates with content knowledge. Content knowledge correlates with academic success. Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in a text. An ELL needs explicit instruction and at least 12 production opportunities to own a word. 9

10 Explicit Instruction:

11 Vocabulary Tiers for ELLs
Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Simple More Content Words Words Sophisticated run sprinted foreshadow (literature) fell stumbled monarchy (history) mad rage vacuole (sciences) good firmly factor (math) run (42) run 11

12 Tier 2 words can also include polysemous words across academic content areas
ring table trunk prime round power cell right radical leg 12

13 Tier 2 words that nest academic content.
Transition Words, Connectors, Causation, Time Sequencing, Predictions. Some examples: Cause & Effect -- because, due to, as a result, since, for this reason, therefore, in order to, so that, thus… Contrast -- or, but, although, however, in contrast, nevertheless, on the other hand, while … Addition or comparison -- and, also, as well as, in addition, likewise, moreover, by the way … Giving examples -- for example, for instance, in particular, such as … 13

14 Tier 2 words that nest academic content according to their function.
Passive voice -- is found, is explored, was shown… Tentativeness or modals -- would improve, possibly, might be, would likely be … Word-family relationships -- drama, dramatic, dramatist, dramatize, and dramatization… Embedded clauses or complex sentences -- A growing number of studies suggest, however, that such an increase could have a big impact on life. … 14

15 Some science words shared with math have different technical meanings in the two disciplines. For instance in math we find: divide, density, solution, radical, variable, prism, degree, image, radian, simulation, experiment 15

16 When teachers are explaining / presenting a lesson, look out for words such as:
sum some facts fats axis exes 16

17 Cognates Tier 1 & 2 piano educación familia radio cámara televisión
sofisticada 17

18 Cognates in Science Tier 2 and 3
hypotheses hipótesis observations observaciones classification clasificación predictions predicciones tentative conclusions concluciones tentativas evaluate - evaluar experiment experimento experimentation experimentación investigation investigación inferences inferencias process proceso 18

Activity -- Read the text: Select 2 Tier 1 words Select 2 Tier 2 words or clauses Select 2 Tier 3 words Template item # 2: Pre-teaching concepts/vocabulary 19

20 Observations? Questions?
IMPLICATIONS for our text books and instruction: 3 Key Concepts So Far: 1. 2. 3. 20

21 Teaching Tiers 2 and 3 Words
Geologists/Geologos Sediments/Sedimentos

22 1.Geologist “Geologist”
Sentence- “These are all clues geologists use to figure out how this breathtaking landscape came to be.” Repeat- “Geologist, geologist, geologist!” Dictionary Definition- “A scientist who studies the solid parts of Earth such as its rocks.” Student Friendly Definition- A person who can understand and know about our planet the Earth. Touch your nose if the word applies- “Volcanoes!” “Classroom!” “Plants, mountains!” Prefix? “Geologist!”

23 2.Sediments “Sediments!”
Sentence- “The layers look a bit like a pile of sandwiches. Each layer was made from sediments- bits of sand, mud, clay, and plant and animal remains. Repeat- “Sediments, sediments, sediments!” Dictionary Definition- “Solid material that settles to the ocean floor or other surface.” Kid-friendly Definition- Dirt, mud that falls inside of water. Please say the word- sediments – if the word applies- “Oceans, clay, dirt! “ “Sandwiches, lunchroom, milk!” “Lakes, rocks, hard pressure!” 7. What type of word is “Sediments?”

24 Consolidation Activity
Create a poster size postcard using the new Tier 2 and 3 vocabulary words. Make sure to use the Rubric to guide you and work in groups!

25 Postcard Rubric 4 3 2 1 Each group member has a specific role and had equal participation in creating postcard 3 out of 4 group members collaborated and participated in creating postcard Less than 2 members completed postcard Group did not or was not able to collaborate together Postcard follows the sample postcard and includes all elements- greeting, salutation – closing Postcard follows most of the elements of the sample postcard- might be missing 1 element Postcard does not follow all of the elements of sample postcard- Needs revision Project is not a completed postcard- incomplete- needs revision Postcard uses 2 newly introduced Tier 2 words elaborately Postcard uses 2 newly introduced Tier 2 Words basically Postcard does not correctly use 2 newly introduced Tier 2 Words basically Postcard did not use newly introduced words- did not successfully complete group project

26 What is Academic Literacy?
Includes reading, writing, and oral discourse for school Varies from subject to subject Requires knowledge of multiple genres, purposes for text use and text media Is influenced by students’ literacies in contexts outside school Is influenced by students’ personal, social, and cultural experiences (Short & Fitzsimmons, 2007) 26

27 Before Reading Hook the Reader Build Background
Connect with Prior Knowledge Pre-teach Vocabulary Implicitly Preview Text Set Purpose for Reading 27

28 Clues to the Past Agree Disagree
Support for your opinion from the text The earth is the same as it was millions of years ago All rocks are the same Fossils are animals or plants that have been left behind as clues to the past 28

29 Read Aloud Fluency MODEL MODEL Self-correction Fix it strategies
Why Teacher Read-Alouds in Secondary? Fluency MODEL MODEL Self-correction Fix it strategies Extend comprehension Teach more words 29 29

30 During Reading Read-Aloud: Model and build reading strategies
Partner Reading: Students practice and apply strategies Coach students Help students organize and retain information 30

31 Cause and Effect 31

32 After Reading Model summarizing and synthesizing information
Help organize information and develop reading memory Students apply text Reflect and consolidate knowledge 32

33 Complete the graphic to show the relationship between vocabulary and academic literacy.
Vocabulary & Literacy 33

34 Reading for Domain Knowledge
Without reading comprehension, students cannot learn math, science, social studies and literature (NRC Commission on Teacher Preparation). English language learners (ELLs) are learning English at the same time they are studying core content through English. They must perform double the work of native speakers to keep up, and at the same time be accountable for AYP (Carnegie Panel on ELL Literacy).

35 New York City Schools, Montgomery County, Alaska, and others are finding that:
Literacy interventions for native English speakers will not work for ELLs. Adolescent ELLs generally need much more time focused on developing vocabulary and background schema than native English speakers do. Elementary-level programs do not work for adolescents. Phonics-only programs do not work. They commissioned focused comprehensive programs.

36 Interventions and Well-Prepared Teachers
ESL, reading, special education, bilingual teachers who can teach phonics, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension along with academic language and concepts. Mainstream teachers who can build on language, reading and writing skills in math, science, social studies, and language arts.


38 Evidence-based programs that help schools demonstrate that they are achieving AYP with English-language learners: ExC-ELL -- Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners (6th - 12th) -- professional development program for mainstream teachers on how to integrate language and literacy development along with subject matter. RIGOR -- Reading Instructional Goals for Older Readers (4th - 12th) -- Spanish and English curriculum -- lessons, leveled readers, ancillary materials, and professional development for ESL, dual-language, mainstream teachers.

TEACHERS WORK TOGETHER Social Studies teachers ExC-ELL ExC-ELL RIGOR Science teachers Emerging Literacy and Language teachers Math teachers ExC-ELL ExC-ELL Language Arts teachers

40 Settings for Implementation
Research clearly shows us that the more instructional time that we can give to our students, the more progress they will make. Ideally, we want to provide 90 minutes to two hours of instruction. But the reality is that this intervention needs to be flexible based on how each school can fit it into their days. In last year’s pilot, some schools used RIGOR during regular classroom instructional time. Others used RIGOR after school. Some schools IMPLEMENTED RIGOR THROUGH A COMBINATION OF ESL, AND AN 8TH PERIOD. THOSE SCHOOLS THAT IMPLEMENTED THE SPANISH RIGOR ALONG WITH THE ENGLISH RIGOR HAD GREATER STUDENT GAINS IN ENGLISH!! If you look at pages 2-3 of the flyer you have, you’ll see what a week of RIGOR instruction looks like within a 60- or 90-minute block of time.

41 Workshops on vocabulary
ASSESSING QUALITY INSTRUCTION - VOCABULARY INDICATORS: TRAINING EXAMPLE Workshops on vocabulary Reading and discussing research in TLCs Modeling / demos and observations on teaching vocabulary to ELLs TEACHER TRANSFER EXAMPLE Increases own use of vocabulary Uses 5-10 strategies to teach daily vocabulary Mentors other teachers on the strategies STUDENT IMPACT EXAMPLES Masters 5-10 Tier 1, 2, & 3 words daily Uses new words in daily speech, & in retells Increased reading fluency & comprehension Uses new words in writing

42 Coming in Spring: Logitech Digital Pen
Pen Docking Station: To store recorded data on the computer Camera: To record data as the user writes on the digital paper Ink Pen: To write observations on the digital paper


44 Observation Detail Report

45 Teacher and Student Profile Summary Report

46 ExC-ELL Observation Protocol (EOP) is used:
By teachers for designing / developing their lessons. By teachers for self-reflection. By teachers for observing and documenting student performance. By principals and supervisors for observing and coaching teachers. By coaches to give concrete feedback to teachers. By researchers to collect data on teacher and student growth and quality of implementation.

47 IN SUMMARY: Newcomers and Long-Term ELLs Need
ESL, reading, special education, bilingual teachers who can teach phonics, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension along with academic topics. ExC-ELL teachers to build on reading and writing skills in math, science, social studies, and language arts by integrating oracy and literacy into the content areas. With tools such as the ExC-ELL OP we can help expedite teacher and student success!

48 Margarita Calderón
CONTACT INFORMATION: Margarita Calderón (915)

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