Presentation on theme: "Research and Practice on Teaching ELLs in Middle and High Schools"— Presentation transcript:
1 Research and Practice on Teaching ELLs in Middle and High Schools Margarita CalderónJohns Hopkins University
2 Talking Points Why is vocabulary important? A science example for -- How to select words to teach.-- How to teach words before reading, during reading and after reading?3. Program implications and keeping track of student progress.2
3 Why is Content Area Literacy Important? Without reading instruction on content area literacy:SURFACE COMPREHENSION--Literal comprehension; students read on their own and answer questions; questions are low-level.With reading instruction integrated into content areas:DEEP COMPREHENSION --Critical comprehension; students learn new vocabulary continuously; associate new readings with prior knowledge; add new knowledge, discuss ideas, interpret facts and information, and apply critical thinking skills to text.
4 Statistical Trends in Secondary Schools Nationally, over 6 million American students in grades 6 through 12 are at risk of failure because they read and comprehend below—often considerably below—the basic levels needed for success in high school, postsecondary education, and the workforce.About 60% of ELLs in middle and high school were born in the United States, that is, they are second- or third-generation immigrants - - and have been in U. S. schools since kindergarten!Newcomers, refugees -- are now mainly SIFE (Students with Interrupted Formal Education).
5 Why teach vocabulary before, during and after students read a content text? Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension.Reading comprehension correlates with content knowledge.Content knowledge correlates with academic success.Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in a text.Knowing words means explicit instruction not just exposure.
6 FOR TRANSITION or ENGLISH-ONLY PROGRAMS: Teachers must balance comprehensible input with rich challenging vocabulary and reading in math, science and social studies in English.ESLSheltered InstructionComprehensible inputContentRich Challenging VocabularyAnd Reading in Science, Social Studies & Math
7 SCIENCE Science can be very exciting or very dull. Science texts need to be carefully parsed so that standards are met.A variety of texts can be used to learn science. Students need to become familiar with ways to read those texts and write in that genre.Science is ideally suited for Cooperative Learning.Scientific concepts and processes are highly dependent on specific vocabulary.7
8 Scientific method and critical testing Creativity Agreement on the following ideas or themes or salient features of science that should be taught:Scientific method and critical testingCreativityHistorical development of scientific knowledgeScience and questioningDiversity of scientific thinkingAnalysis and interpretation of dataScience and certaintyHypothesis and predictionCooperation and collaboration8
9 Importance of Teaching Vocabulary Vocabulary knowledge correlates with reading comprehension. Reading comprehension correlates with content knowledge. Content knowledge correlates with academic success.Comprehension depends on knowing between 90% and 95% of the words in a text.An ELL needs explicit instruction and at least 12 production opportunities to own a word.9
10 Explicit Instruction: STEP 1SELECT VOCABULARY TO PRE-TEACH BEFORE PRESENTING CONTENT, TEACHER READ ALOUD, OR STUDENT READING OF ANY TEXT.STEP 2TEACH VOCABULARY USING 7 STEPS WITH AMPLE STUDENT INTERACTION.STEP 3STUDENTS READ, DISCUSS, AND WRITE USING NEW VOCABULARY10
12 Tier 2 words can also include polysemous words across academic content areas ringtabletrunkprimeroundpowercellrightradicalleg12
13 Tier 2 words that nest academic content. Transition Words, Connectors, Causation, Time Sequencing, Predictions. Some examples:Cause & Effect -- because, due to, as a result, since, for this reason, therefore, in order to, so that, thus…Contrast -- or, but, although, however, in contrast, nevertheless, on the other hand, while …Addition or comparison -- and, also, as well as, in addition, likewise, moreover, by the way …Giving examples -- for example, for instance, in particular, such as …13
14 Tier 2 words that nest academic content according to their function. Passive voice -- is found, is explored, was shown…Tentativeness or modals -- would improve, possibly, might be, would likely be …Word-family relationships -- drama, dramatic, dramatist, dramatize, and dramatization…Embedded clauses or complex sentences -- A growing number of studies suggest, however, that such an increase could have a big impact on life. …14
15 Some science words shared with math have different technical meanings in the two disciplines. For instance in math we find:divide, density, solution, radical, variable, prism, degree, image, radian, simulation, experiment15
16 When teachers are explaining / presenting a lesson, look out for words such as: sum somefacts fatsaxis exes16
17 Cognates Tier 1 & 2 piano educación familia radio cámara televisión sofisticada17
18 Cognates in Science Tier 2 and 3 hypotheses hipótesisobservations observacionesclassification clasificaciónpredictions prediccionestentative conclusions concluciones tentativasevaluate - evaluarexperimentexperimentoexperimentation experimentacióninvestigation investigacióninferencesinferenciasprocessproceso18
19 SELECTING WORDS TO PRE-TEACH Activity -- Read the text:Select 2 Tier 1 wordsSelect 2 Tier 2 words or clausesSelect 2 Tier 3 wordsTemplate item # 2: Pre-teaching concepts/vocabulary19
20 Observations? Questions? IMPLICATIONS for our text books and instruction:3 Key Concepts So Far:18.104.22.168
21 Teaching Tiers 2 and 3 Words Geologists/GeologosSediments/Sedimentos
22 1.Geologist “Geologist” Sentence- “These are all clues geologists use to figure out how this breathtaking landscape came to be.”Repeat- “Geologist, geologist, geologist!”Dictionary Definition- “A scientist who studies the solid parts of Earth such as its rocks.”Student Friendly Definition- A person who can understand and know about our planet the Earth.Touch your nose if the word applies-“Volcanoes!”“Classroom!”“Plants, mountains!”Prefix? “Geologist!”
23 2.Sediments “Sediments!” Sentence- “The layers look a bit like a pile of sandwiches. Each layer was made from sediments- bits of sand, mud, clay, and plant and animal remains.Repeat- “Sediments, sediments, sediments!”Dictionary Definition- “Solid material that settles to the ocean floor or other surface.”Kid-friendly Definition- Dirt, mud that falls inside of water.Please say the word- sediments – if the word applies-“Oceans, clay, dirt! ““Sandwiches, lunchroom, milk!”“Lakes, rocks, hard pressure!”7. What type of word is “Sediments?”
24 Consolidation Activity Create a poster size postcard using the new Tier 2 and 3 vocabulary words.Make sure to use the Rubric to guide you and work in groups!
25 Postcard Rubric4321Each group member has a specific role and had equal participation in creating postcard3 out of 4 group members collaborated and participated in creating postcardLess than 2 members completed postcardGroup did not or was not able to collaborate togetherPostcard follows the sample postcard and includes all elements- greeting, salutation – closingPostcard follows most of the elements of the sample postcard- might be missing 1 elementPostcard does not follow all of the elements of sample postcard- Needs revisionProject is not a completed postcard- incomplete- needs revisionPostcard uses 2 newly introduced Tier 2 words elaboratelyPostcard uses 2 newly introduced Tier 2 Words basicallyPostcard does not correctly use 2 newly introduced Tier 2 Words basicallyPostcard did not use newly introduced words- did not successfully complete group project
26 What is Academic Literacy? Includes reading, writing, and oral discourse for schoolVaries from subject to subjectRequires knowledge of multiple genres, purposes for text use and text mediaIs influenced by students’ literacies in contexts outside schoolIs influenced by students’ personal, social, and cultural experiences (Short & Fitzsimmons, 2007)26
27 Before Reading Hook the Reader Build Background Connect with Prior KnowledgePre-teach Vocabulary ImplicitlyPreview TextSet Purpose for Reading27
28 Clues to the Past Agree Disagree Support for your opinion from the textThe earth is the same as it was millions of years agoAll rocks are the sameFossils are animals or plants that have been left behind as clues to the past28
29 Read Aloud Fluency MODEL MODEL Self-correction Fix it strategies Why Teacher Read-Alouds in Secondary?FluencyMODELMODELSelf-correctionFix it strategiesExtend comprehensionTeach more words2929
30 During Reading Read-Aloud: Model and build reading strategies Partner Reading: Students practice and apply strategiesCoach studentsHelp students organize and retain information30
32 After Reading Model summarizing and synthesizing information Help organize information and develop reading memoryStudents apply textReflect and consolidate knowledge32
33 Complete the graphic to show the relationship between vocabulary and academic literacy. Vocabulary & Literacy33
34 Reading for Domain Knowledge Without reading comprehension, students cannot learn math, science, social studies and literature (NRC Commission on Teacher Preparation).English language learners (ELLs) are learning English at the same time they are studying core content through English. They must perform double the work of native speakers to keep up, and at the same time be accountable for AYP (Carnegie Panel on ELL Literacy).
35 New York City Schools, Montgomery County, Alaska, and others are finding that: Literacy interventions for native English speakers will not work for ELLs. Adolescent ELLs generally need much more time focused on developing vocabulary and background schema than native English speakers do.Elementary-level programs do not work for adolescents.Phonics-only programs do not work.They commissioned focused comprehensive programs.
36 Interventions and Well-Prepared Teachers ESL, reading, special education, bilingual teachers who can teach phonics, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension along with academic language and concepts.Mainstream teachers who can build on language, reading and writing skills in math, science, social studies, and language arts.
37 RICH LANGUAGE Practice INTEGRATION OF APPROACHESACDEMISUBJTDepth & Breadth ofWORDKNOWLEDGEGRAMMAR,SYNTAX,DISCOURSEVOICEWRITING IN THEDIFFERENTSUBJECT AREASRICH LANGUAGEPracticePHONEMIC,PHONOLOGICAL& SEMANTICAWARENESSREADINGCOMPREHESIONSTUDY SKILLS
38 Evidence-based programs that help schools demonstrate that they are achieving AYP with English-language learners:ExC-ELL -- Expediting Comprehension for English Language Learners (6th - 12th) -- professional development program for mainstream teachers on how to integrate language and literacy development along with subject matter.RIGOR -- Reading Instructional Goals for Older Readers (4th - 12th) -- Spanish and English curriculum -- lessons, leveled readers, ancillary materials, and professional development for ESL, dual-language, mainstream teachers.
39 RIGOR A MODEL WHERE ESL SPED AND ELA, MATH, SCIENCE, SOCIAL STUDIES TEACHERS WORK TOGETHERSocial Studies teachersExC-ELLExC-ELLRIGORScience teachersEmerging Literacy and Language teachersMath teachersExC-ELLExC-ELLLanguage Artsteachers
40 Settings for Implementation Research clearly shows us that the more instructional time that we can give to our students, the more progress they will make. Ideally, we want to provide 90 minutes to two hours of instruction. But the reality is that this intervention needs to be flexible based on how each school can fit it into their days.In last year’s pilot, some schools used RIGOR during regular classroom instructional time. Others used RIGOR after school. Some schools IMPLEMENTED RIGOR THROUGH A COMBINATION OF ESL, AND AN 8TH PERIOD.THOSE SCHOOLS THAT IMPLEMENTED THE SPANISH RIGOR ALONG WITH THE ENGLISH RIGOR HAD GREATER STUDENT GAINS IN ENGLISH!!If you look at pages 2-3 of the flyer you have, you’ll see what a week of RIGOR instruction looks like within a 60- or 90-minute block of time.
41 Workshops on vocabulary ASSESSING QUALITY INSTRUCTION - VOCABULARY INDICATORS:TRAINING EXAMPLEWorkshops on vocabularyReading and discussing research in TLCsModeling / demos and observations on teaching vocabulary to ELLsTEACHER TRANSFER EXAMPLEIncreases own use of vocabularyUses 5-10 strategies to teach daily vocabularyMentors other teachers on the strategiesSTUDENT IMPACT EXAMPLESMasters 5-10 Tier 1, 2, & 3 words dailyUses new words in daily speech, & in retellsIncreased reading fluency & comprehensionUses new words in writing
42 Coming in Spring: Logitech Digital Pen Pen Docking Station:To store recorded data on the computerCamera:To record data as the user writes on the digital paperInk Pen:To write observations on the digital paper
46 ExC-ELL Observation Protocol (EOP) is used: By teachers for designing / developing their lessons.By teachers for self-reflection.By teachers for observing and documenting student performance.By principals and supervisors for observing and coaching teachers.By coaches to give concrete feedback to teachers.By researchers to collect data on teacher and student growth and quality of implementation.
47 IN SUMMARY: Newcomers and Long-Term ELLs Need ESL, reading, special education, bilingual teachers who can teach phonics, decoding, vocabulary, and reading comprehension along with academic topics.ExC-ELL teachers to build on reading and writing skills in math, science, social studies, and language arts by integrating oracy and literacy into the content areas.With tools such as the ExC-ELL OP we can help expedite teacher and student success!