Presentation on theme: "I can read all of these words!"— Presentation transcript:
1I can read all of these words! Word Recognition (Decoding and Sight Recognition) + Comprehension = ReadingI can read all of these words!
2Characteristics of Struggling Readers Over reliance on guessing strategiesMay have low language skillsLimited phonemic awarenessLimited understanding of phonicsMemory problemsRead slowly and hesitantly, or not at allLimited understanding about the text they readOften become frustrated and avoid readingMoats (1998)
3What Makes a Reader Proficient? Development of phonemic awarenessUnderstanding of letter-sound correspondenceFluency based on automatic recognition of letter-sound relationshipsAutomatic recognition of sight wordsRich vocabularyBecause of a solid foundation in reading skills, proficient readers have more cognitive resources to focus on comprehension.Moats (1998)
4What We Know About Reading Instruction Systematic and explicit approaches to instruction are consistently more effective than approaches that depend on student discovery and inference.The need for explicit instruction extends beyond phonics. We need to teach fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension strategies this way, too.
5Critical Elements in Reading Instruction PhonologicalAwarenessComprehensionPhonemicAwarenessOralLanguageReadingFluencyPhonicsVocabularyDevelopmentThese elements are taught through an integrated, balanced approach, and not in isolation.
6Receptive Language Strategies When providing information, use visuals such as pictures, charts, time lines, graphic organizers, webs, calendars, demonstrations, examples.Keep instructions concise & emphasize key information.Pre-teach new vocabulary.Link new content to prior knowledge.
7Expressive Language Strategies When child makes a grammatical error, restate information using correct structures.Use higher order thinking questions (explain, describe, evaluate, compare).Engage in story telling.Make scrapbooks of events, favorite things, or collections (discuss with child).
8Phonological Awareness is a general understanding that spoken words are made up of sounds.is based on processing the sounds of spoken language.
9Examples of Phonological Awareness This sentence has 5 words:The cat ran after me.These words rhyme: cat - bat.These words don’t rhyme: ran - bed.This word has 2 syllables: af-ter.These words start with the same sound:me - milk.
10Phonemic AwarenessThe specific understanding that spoken words are made up of individual phonemes.It is part of phonological awareness.Phonemes are the individual sounds in spoken words. They are the smallest units of meaningful speech.
11Examples of How Phonemic Awareness Relates to Reading Blending phonemes into words.Segmenting words into phonemes.Deleting a phoneme from a word.Say “sat” without the /s/.Adding a phoneme to a word.Add /m/ to the beginning of “at.”Manipulating phonemes in words.Say “bat.” Now change the /b/ to /k/.
12Phonemic awareness abilities in kindergarten (or in that age range) appear to be the best single predictor of successful reading acquisition.(A Position Statement from the Board of Directors of the International Reading Association, 1998)
13Phonemic Awareness Skills: Intervention Strategies Make RiddlesAsk students riddles that require them to manipulate sounds in their heads:What rhymes with pig and starts with /d/? (dig)What rhymes with at and starts with /f/? (fat)What rhymes with dog and starts with /f/? (fog)
14Phonics“Phonics is a way of teaching reading that conveys an understanding that there are correspondences between phonemes (the sounds of spoken language) and graphemes (the letters and spellings that represent those sounds in written language).”Reithaug (2002)The 26 letters of the English alphabet represent 44 phonemes.
15Phonics: Instructional Strategies Teach high frequency words – these are words that are often confused.e.g. were/where; was/saw; from/for.Teach patterns using onsets and rimes, also known as “word families.”e.g. -ack; -ice; -ock, etc.Teach chunking longer words into more manageable chunks.Teach prefixes, suffixes, and root words.Keep instruction in context.Beers (2003)
16“The twenty-five most common words make up about one-half of our written materials.” Fry, Kress & Fountoukidis, 2000“We have over a half-million words to communicate with, but half of everything we write and read depends on only 0.02 percent—on only those 100 most frequent words.”
17Instant (sight) recognition of words, especially high-frequency words, develops best when students read large amounts of text.The student who can read on sight 8 out of the 10 words in the sentence before them can read that sentence and can usually decode the remaining words by using phonics, context or picture cues. Most importantly, they can understand the meaning of what they are reading.Without adequate high frequency/sight word knowledge, a reader’s fluency, and therefore their comprehension, is impaired.
18Common High Frequency Word Lists DolchEdward Fry’s “Instant Word” ListsRebecca Sittons Core Words
19AssessmentHigh frequency/sight word knowledge needs to be assessed frequently and taught strategically.Students need to be able to read the word without sounding it out and with automaticity.
20Word Identification in a Balanced Reading Program Teaching letter/sound relationships helps children build fluency, automaticity and independence.Children are encouraged to use alphabetic, semantic and syntactic cues to identify unfamiliar words.Teacher modeling and multiple opportunities to interact with text leads to the development of word identification strategies.
21Becoming Aware of Language When beginning readers and writers explore written language, they develop critical concepts about print.When children explore oral language, they develop phonemic awareness and the ability to manipulate and play with the sounds of language.
22Becoming Aware of Language (cont.) Phonemic awareness is sequential. Children become aware of words, syllables, rhyme and eventually, to individual phonemes.A child who has phonemic awareness can identify the sounds he/she hears, segment words and blend sounds into words.
23(Adams, 1990; Anderson et al., 1985). What Does Research Say?Substantial evidence suggests that word identification skills should be taught directly rather than waiting for children to discover them on their own and that such skills should be taught early.Effective readers are also strategic; that is, they learn how and when to use combinations of word identification skills(Adams, 1990; Anderson et al., 1985).
24Who Is At-Risk?Children who overuse context clues and fail to attend to letter-sound associations may misidentify words, and that could cause them difficulty in constructing meaning for a passage (Simon & Leu, 1987).
25Who is At-Risk? (cont.)Children who do not effectively use meaning clues often sound out nonsense words or are so slow and laborious in word identification that they cannot simultaneously draw meaning from the words that they are reading (Biemiller, 1970; Samuels, 1985).
26Why Develop Automaticity? The first 300 words make up 65% of all written material. (Frye)Comprehension begins to break down when students are focused on trying to decode or sound out the words.
27What Are High Frequency Words? High frequency words are phonetic and can be decoded, but occur with such frequency that they often need to be learned before their specific phonics pattern is taught.Examples of frequently occurring words: the, in, I, a, go, to, that, with, about, please
28What Are Sight Words?Sight words are words, usually Anglo-Saxon in origin, that must be memorized because of their non-phonetic structure and high degree of usage.Examples of nonphonetic words: come, said, was, two and through
29What Are High Interest Words? High interest words are words with special interest or emotional overtones and are frequently used and recognized by students in their personal reading and writing.Examples of high interest words: mom, dad, dinosaur
30Importance of Recognizing Words for Independent Reading Enables use of context clues.Increases fluency and ease of readingChildren can read greater amounts and for longer periods.Focus can be more on comprehension than on decoding.
31California Language Arts Standards 1.0 Decoding and word recognitionKinder Read simple one syllable and high frequency words (i.e.: sight words)1st Read common, irregular sight words (e.g. the, have said, come give, of)2nd 1.6 Read aloud fluently and accurately with appropriate intonation and expression
32Instructional Implications Rhyme awareness activitiesSound awareness activitiesTeaching onset and rime/analogy strategyLetter-sound activitiesMulti-letter chunkingVisual discrimination and configurationBuilding words
33Instructional Implications (cont.) Word sortsCross-checking and self-monitoringContext cluesCloze ActivitiesWord Wall ActivitiesStructural AnalysisPhonetic cue strategies
34Ways to Classify and Sort Words There are many ways to sort and classify words on a word wall, in a literacy center, or in a whole or small group lesson:Words that start the same (beginning blend, consonant cluster or onset)Words that end the same (rime)Words that rhymeWords that contain the same number of syllables
35Ways to Classify and Sort Words (cont.) Long words, short wordsWords I know, words I think I know and words I don't know at allWords with long or short vowelsWords with schwa soundSynonyms, antonymsCompound words
36Word WallsUsing word walls is an effective classroom strategy for learning and practicing HFW/sight wordsAs new words are learned they are added to the wall in ABC orderHFW words walls are added to and utilized all yearIf it is on the wall, they are responsible for knowing how to read and spell it correctly!
37Activities for Word Wall Practice Speed reading all words under one letterRead using different voices/expressionsGuess my wordRhyming wordsRead the entire wall forwards or backwardsPreposition/pronoun/noun/verb etc. hunt
38Whole Class HFW Practice Word wall gamesSlapI have_____, who has____?WordoWord wall cards in ABC orderPass the cards
39Slap that Word Associate and reinforce written and spoken words that have been introduced during your lessons. need Materials: fly swatter, word wall (words written on a chalkboard or white board). The goal of the activity is that given a spoken word, the student will quickly be able to recognize the word's written form.Aim: Building fluency and recognition skillsActivity: Slap words located on a 'word wall'Outline:Have your students gather near the word wall.Use the following introduction: We are going to attempt to locate words on the word wall quickly. When you hear the word, look for the word on the wall and then swat it as fast as you can with this fly swatter.Call out a word from the word wall and ask the first student whose turn it is to locate the word and swat it with the fly swatter.Lead the class in a cheer when the correct word is slapped. Aid students who are having trouble. When the first student's turn is over, repeat the process for the next student.
40Small Group HFW Practice SlapABC orderPass the cardGuess my word(s)ConcentrationWordo
41Individual Student Support Word cards on ringsWord lists on deskNew words added to individual spelling dictionariesWord hunts while readingPractice, practice, practice!
42Practice at Home Make sure you have directions to hand out to parents on Open School Night Flash cardsConcentrationWord hunts for focus wordsMake words with magnetic letters on fridgeWords posted around the houseRead, read, read!
43Beyond the Word BankMatch cards whose word begins with the same letter or syllable.Match cards whose word ends with the same letter or syllable.Match cards whose word is the same.Match cards whose words rhyme.Arrange cards according to alphabetical order.
44Beyond the Word Bank (cont.) Arrange cards according to the number of syllables in each word.Make up sentences using the words on the cards.Make up a story using all the words on the cards.Find synonyms, antonyms or homonyms.Find cards whose words have the same root or base word.
45Beyond the Word Bank (cont.) Find cards whose words have prefixes or suffixes.Find cards with compound or derived words.Arrange cards by the stress on the words.Make up a story or poem using all or most of the words on the cards.
46Designing Word Recognition Instruction Identify word recognition error types.Provide systematic word recognition instruction on specific skills.Pre-teach word types in the text prior to reading.Structure time for student to practice the text with a peer, adult, or tape.
47High frequency/site words: is, be, to, us, am, in High frequency phrases:by the dogfor the dayon the bedover the topSource: Building Fluency: Do It Well and Do It Right! Molly McCabe
48Vocabulary Development Part of the semantic cueing system (word meaning).Cannot be taken for granted that students understand all the words they read.Oral vocabulary supports the understanding of reading vocabulary.Reading vocabulary involves more than understanding individual words. It also depends on the sentence a word is in (its spelling, content, and pragmatics).
49Vocabulary Development: Instructional Strategies Read to students.Use material above students’ reading level.Elaborate on new vocabulary to create a deeper understanding of words.Create scenarios/simulations that allow students to practice using new vocabulary.
50Comprehension The goal of reading is to comprehend. Proficient readers:use a variety of strategies,use strategies before, during and after reading,use different strategies for different texts at different places along the reading development continuum,interact with the text in order to construct meaning.
51How Comprehension Relates to Reading Relate the content of the text to personal experience and activate prior knowledge:predict,develop questions before & during reading,clarify,summarize,visualize,monitor understanding,connect ideas to construct meaning,inference.
52An Example of a Reading Comprehension Strategy THE PREP STRATEGYPreview the readingRead key paragraphsExpress ideas in writingPrepare study cardsHock, Deshler, & Schumaker (2000)
53Fluency: Instructional Strategies Review high frequency words.Repeated Readings:- Have students reread passages that are at an independent reading level.- Reread passage until predetermined goal is achieved.- Record reading time and number of correct words.