Presentation on theme: "Fix-up Options and the Analogy of the Car A Way to Remember the Sixteen Fix-up Options for Regaining Comprehension By Judi Moreillon Coteaching Reading."— Presentation transcript:
Fix-up Options and the Analogy of the Car A Way to Remember the Sixteen Fix-up Options for Regaining Comprehension By Judi Moreillon Coteaching Reading Comprehension Strategies in Secondary School Libraries: Maximizing Your Impact (Chicago: American Library Association, 2012)
Why an analogy? Researchers who have studied intelligence and those who have studied achievement on standardized tests agree that people who can recognize and create analogies have more pathways in their brains that can help them understand new information. Marzano, Robert J., Debra J. Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock. Classroom Instruction That Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development,
What is an analogy? People (speakers and writers) use analogies to express relationships among things. Like similes and metaphors, analogies show similarities and differences. Analogy: Michael Jackson was to popular culture as Elvis Presley was to Rock ’n’ Roll. How were they similar? They both were called “The King.” How were they different? Let me count the ways!
Why a car? Connecting the parts of the car with analogies for fix-up options can help you remember the various options available to you to regain comprehension if you lose it. The parts of a car have functions that parallel the way readers use fix-up options. Just as new drivers must learn to use all the parts of the car to drive safely, readers must learn to use fix-up options to be effective, strategic readers.
How do you know when you’ve lost comprehension? What are the symptoms? Share your ideas. Then consider mine… The reader feels bored or confused starts to daydream starts to mentally do other tasks (think about after school or next weekend) starts to physically do something else (tap pen, shake foot, doodle, reach for phone, bother neighbor…)
The Analogy of the Car Using Fix-up Options 16 ways for readers to regain comprehension once they have lost it… Analogy: Brakes are to driving as fix-up options are to readers. When drivers realize they are going too fast or in the wrong direction, they apply the brakes to get the car under control or get back on track. Readers regain control of meaning making, they get back on track, by applying fix-up options.
Fix-up Option Reread.
Fix-up Option Read ahead.
Fix-up Option Stop to think.
Fix-up Option Try to visualize. Engage all five senses in “visualization.” Analogy: Headlights are to nighttime drivers as sensory images are to readers. When driving at night, drivers turn on their headlights so they can see where they are going. Using sensory images to support comprehension is best when it involves sight as well as the other four senses: hearing, taste, touch, and smell.
Fix-up Option Ask a new question. Does this make sense? Question the text and the author Analogy: The steering wheel is used by drivers the way questioning is used by readers. Drivers use the steering wheel to take charge and direct their journey. Readers use questioning to be active participants in meaning making; they use questions to determine the direction of their inquiry.
Fix-up Option Make a prediction. Read on to find out if the prediction was correct. Analogy: Accelerators are to drivers as predictions are to readers. When readers make predictions about what will happen next, they can read on to determine if they are correct. Predictions, like accelerators, help readers move faster and more confidently through texts.
Study the illustrations or other text features. Fix-up Option
Ask someone for help. Fix-up Option
Figure out unknown words. Fix-up Option
Look at the sentence structure. Fix-up Option
Make an inference. Evidence in the Text + Background Knowledge = Inference Analogy: Accelerators are to drivers as inferences are to readers. When readers make inferences and are able to read between the lines, they can derive more meaning from the texts they read. Inferences, like accelerators, help readers move faster and more confidently through texts. Fix-up Option
Connect to background knowledge. Text-to-self Text-to-text Text-to-world Analogy: Rearview mirrors are to drivers as background knowledge is to readers. Drivers should always look in their rearview mirrors before setting out on a journey; they have to know what is behind them before they go forward. Building and activating background knowledge supports comprehension just as knowing what is behind the car helps drivers safely navigate the roads. Fix-up Option
Read the author’s or illustrator’s note. Fix-up Option
Write about the confusing parts. Fix-up Option
Make an effort to think about the message. Another way to say this is to determine the “main ideas.” Analogy: Tires are to cars as main ideas are to readers. Drivers should always make sure a car’s tires are inflated; without tires, the car cannot go anywhere. Readers must know their purpose for reading and must be able to determine importance, the main ideas, so they can “get somewhere” in their reading. Fix-up Option
Define/redefine the purpose for reading this text. Fix-up Option
Putting It All Together Analogy: The car is to drivers as synthesis is to readers. When readers use all of the reading comprehension strategies and fix-up options effectively, they can synthesize ideas and information from many parts of a text and from multiple texts. Just as it takes all of the parts to make a functioning car, readers can use reading comprehension strategies to deeply comprehend what they read, view, and hear. Synthesis
They practice using all the options. They learn to pick the option or options that will work best for that text and for their purpose for reading. If one option doesn’t work, they try another. Sometimes it takes more than one option to regain comprehension. Strategic readers use fix-up options… when they lose comprehension.
Analogy by Judi Moreillon Car images by Jonathan Thompson 2012