How To Get The Main Idea of a paragraph and a passage ？ 如何获取段落及短文的 主旨大意 ?
Warming- up activity: Guessing three riddles. 1. Guessing a kind of drink: What can you swallow that can also swallow you ？ a. coffee b. tea c. water
2. Guessing a thing: It's round and it is bright. In the day it hangs in the sky and gives out light. But nobody can see it at night. the Sun
3. Guessing a place: It is in one of the major cities of China; It is in the east of China; It is one of the suburbs of Shanghai; It is said to be the root of Shanghai. Songjiang District
Go over the four types of questions in reading comprehension: 4. Questions about guessing the meaning of certain words,phrase or sentences. 1.Questions about facts/ details; 2.Questions on the main idea of a paragraph or a passage; 3. Questions about making inference or understanding the implied meanings;
Please identify the questions concerned with the main idea. （ Tick the right one ） 1.Why did Glenn run downstairs first? 2.The passage mainly tells the reader______? 3.The phrase “ the last straw” in the middle of the passage probably refers to_______. 4. Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the passage ? 5. Which of the following is probably the best title of the passage? 6. The passage is mainly concerned with ___________. Question on the detail Question on guessing the meaning
The common forms of questions concerned with the main idea in reading comprehension: 1.The passage mainly tells the reader______? (2004 上海高考 88 题） 2. Which of the following statements best summarizes the main idea of the passage ? (2003 上海高考 89 题） 3. Which of the following is probably the best title of the passage? (2007 上海高考 68 题） 4. The passage is mainly concerned with ___. （ 2006 上海高考 72 题 ; 2007 上海高考 79 题）
Pay attention to the structure of a paragraph! Generally speaking, there are three different types of sentences in a paragraph written in the form of an argumentation( 议论文 ): 1.Topic sentence; 2.Supporting sentences; 3.Concluding sentence. a sentence to tell the reader what the paragraph is mainly about. sentences to give more detailed information about the topic sentence. a sentence to end a paragraph or to summarize( 总结） the ideas. ( 主题句 ) ( 扩展句 / 阐述句 ) ( 结论句 / 结尾句 )
Please analyze the sentences in the following paragraph and tell apart the three different types of sentences :
Technology is making people lazy. Now when doing laundry, we switch on the washing machine instead of using our hands. We move on wheels instead of on foot. To calculate, we use the electronic calculator instead of our brains or abacus. Before the invention of TV, people walked miles in order to see a movie. But now we lie in bed enjoying TV programs right at home, showing no interest in the theater. Washing machines, cars, TV and some other modern inventions are keeping us away from exercise. Topic sentence Supporting sentences Concluding sentence
Different Types Of Paragraph Structures typeThe position of the topic sentence At the beginning of a paragraph At the end of a paragraph In the middle of a paragraph No clear topic sentence
Work in groups of four and find the topic sentence of each paragraph !
1 Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. Experiments show that cigarette smoking can cause cancer. Besides the most serious and terrible disease(illness) ---- cancer, cigarette smoking can also cause other health problems. For example, it can give one a “smoker’s cough”. Finally, studies have shown it is easy for cigarette smokers to catch colds. Whether you get an unimportant cold or terrible killer, cancer, smoking is harmful. Is it worth it?
2 Often no one looks more guilty than the innocent. On the other hand, nobody may look more innocent than a professional criminal. And the man who knows “everything” may really only be trying to hide his own weakness. So, it is foolish to try to judge a person only by his appearance.
3 Every bride wants her wedding to be the most wonderful day of her life. But perfect weddings require careful planning, whether the bride and bridegroom are planning a traditional wedding or just a registry office ceremony. Paying for the wedding, which is always a problem, will partly decide the choice.
Tom studied for four years at the University of Paris and decided to leave before his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. The main idea of this paragraph is that ______. A. Tom, who had studied at Paris Universities for four years, moved to another university. B. Tom became a lawyer since his graduation from Harvard Law School and later from Boston College. C. Tom was an excellent student when he studied at Berlin university. D. Tom received an excellent education. detail
Conclusion 1 ： How can we get the main idea of a paragraph ？ (1) We can get the main idea of a paragraph by finding _______________ ， which may appear at the beginning of 、 in the middle of or at the end of a paragraph ; (2) If we can’t find a topic sentence from the paragraph, we’ll have to generalize( 归纳） the main idea from the whole paragraph ourselves. the topic sentence
How to get the main idea of a passage ( an argumentation 议论 文 ) ?
Learning to swim takes time and effort but this is rewarded in many ways when one can swim. The fact is that it is a very good form of exercise. Doctors are strongly in favor of it because in swimming all the muscles of the body are used. In addition, swimming gives great pleasure. How nice it is,on a hot dusty day in summer, to take off one ’ s clothes, put on one ’ s bathing suit and plunge into the cool water of the sea, and to swim and float until one is tired. Please circle the main idea of the whole passage and try to find the topic sentence of each supporting paragraph. Main idea Topic sentence in supporting paragraph 1 Topic sentence in supporting paragraph 2
Moreover, swimming may sometimes mean all the difference between life and death. We never know when we may be in danger from water. We go on a voyage, and the ship is wrecked, or we slip as we are walking along the bank of a river and fall into the water. If we can swim the chances are that we can save our lives, but if we cannot swim, we are pretty certain to be drowned. Last but not least, if we can swim, we may be able to save other people from drowning. How fine it is to be able to save another ’ s life but how sad to see a friend drowning before our eyes, when we cannot help him because we cannot swim. Topic sentence in supporting paragraph 3 Topic sentence in supporting paragraph 4
A sense of humor, god ’ s greatest gift to mankind, is universally considered the most valuable personality. It is born within every person ’ s heart, but has to be cultivated. A person without humor is just like a spring without flowers, or like a dish without seasoning ( 调味品，作料 ). In a sense, your personality lies in your sense of humor. Humor can improve physical as well as mental well-being （健康）. It helps us bear our burdens, lessen our tension, overcome our frustration. With a piece of joke, all our worries and sadness disappear like smoke, and we are full of vigor once again. Topic sentence in supporting paragraph 1
Humor helps us live in harmony with others. It is unavoidable to have misunderstanding and tension with others during work and study. But humor can ease these problems quicker than angry words or quarrels. With it you can always keep on good terms with others. A sense of humor is really one of the keys to happiness. It gives fun and zest （乐趣） to life to make it worth living. Topic sentence in supporting paragraph 2
What is probably the best title for the passage ? A. Humor is born within everyone ’ s heart. B. It is important to have a sense of humor. C. Humor helps us live in harmony with others. D. Humor can improve physical as well as mental well-being. detail Main idea Tip 1: Avoid being taken in ( 蒙 蔽 )by some partially discussed facts, ideas or arguments ； detail Tip 2: Use the strategy( 策略） of generalizing （归纳 ) from all the facts, ideas, or arguments.
Conclusion 2 ： How to get the main idea of a passage ( an argumentation ) ? 1 ） To get the main idea of a passage, we should pay more attention to the structure of a passage. 2 ） Sometimes, we can get the main idea of an argumentation by finding the topic sentence. 3 ） But in many cases, if we can’t find the topic sentence, we may have to _________________________________ ________________________________. generalize( 归纳） the main idea from all the details of the passage ourselves
Supporting sentences(details) Paragraph ideas Passage idea Main idea How to get the main idea ? Tip: Pay more attention to the structure of a paragraph or a passage!
Homework: Reading comprehension. Read the passages in the paper and choose the best answer to each question, paying more attention to the questions concerned about the main idea of the passage.
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