Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

U3AEA04 ELEMENTS OF AERONAUTICS Mr. SYED ALAY HASHIM Assistant Professor Department of Aeronautical Engineering VEL TECH Dr. RR & Dr. SR TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "U3AEA04 ELEMENTS OF AERONAUTICS Mr. SYED ALAY HASHIM Assistant Professor Department of Aeronautical Engineering VEL TECH Dr. RR & Dr. SR TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY."— Presentation transcript:

1 U3AEA04 ELEMENTS OF AERONAUTICS Mr. SYED ALAY HASHIM Assistant Professor Department of Aeronautical Engineering VEL TECH Dr. RR & Dr. SR TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY Chennai INDIA

2 I to V UNIT POWER POINT PRESENTATION I to V UNIT POWER POINT PRESENTATION

3 AIRCRAFT COMPONENTS

4 TYPES OF WING 1.Monoplane 2.Biplane 3.Tandem wing 4.Triplane 5.Quadruplane 6.Multiplane 7.Canard wing

5 SWEEP WING

6 Leading edge extensions of various kinds

7 AIRCRAFT HISTORICAL RECORDS

8

9

10

11

12 Introduction AEROSPACE ENGINES Comprehend the basic components of gas turbine engines and their basic operations Comprehend the thermodynamic processes occurring in a gas turbine engines Comprehend the support systems associated with gas turbine engines

13 GAS TURBINE CYCLE Single stage Ideal gas turbine cycle Two stage turbine cycle Gas Turbine Cycle

14 Two stage Compressor and Turbine cycle

15 Jet Propulsion Cycle In practical or actual cycle Entropy is not constant

16 Jet Engine Basic Components

17 Compressor Supplies high pressure air for combustion process centrifugal flow and Axial flow Centrifugal Compressor Adv: simple design, good for low compression ratios (5:1), strong Disadvantage: Difficult to stage, less efficient, high frontal area

18 Compressor Axial flow Good for high compression ratios (20:1) Most commonly used

19

20 Turbine Convert the kinetic energy into expansion work It is used to drive the compressor as well as propeller shaft

21 Comparison of Gas Turbine and Piston Engine

22 Classification of Engine Jet EnginesReciprocating Engines ( Propulsive thrust is produced by jet ) Air Breathing Engine Non-Air Breathing Engine ( Using atm air to produced Power ) Engine Gas Turbine EngineNon-Gas Turbine Engine TurbojetTurbopropTurbofanTurbo-shaft RamjetScramjetPulsejet ( Presents of Fuel and absents of Air instead of Air + Oxidizer. Hypersonic vehicles, Operating Mach No : 15 to 20 ) (Available moving parts like Compressor and Turbine) ( No moving parts ) Rocket Engine ( No moving parts )

23

24 Turbojet  Chemical energy is converted into mechanical energy  100% Thrust produced by Nozzle  Operating Mach No: 1 to 2  Supersonic Aircraft (1 to 5)

25

26 Turbofan  20 to 40% of Thrust produced by Nozzle  60 to 80% of Thrust produced by Fan  Operating Mach No: 0.4 to 0.8  High Subsonic Aircraft (0.3 to 0.8)

27

28 Turboprop  20 to 25% of Thrust produced by Nozzle  75 to 80% of Thrust produced by Propeller  Operating Mach No: 0.4 to 0.65  Subsonic Aircraft (0.1 to 0.8)

29 Turbo Shaft  High pressure turbine is used to rotate HP & LP Compressor  Low pressure turbine is used to rotate output Shaft  No Thrust produced in the exit turbine gas

30 Turbo Shaft  Kinetic energy is converted to Shaft power  100% Thrust produced by Shaft  Operating Mach No: 0.4 to 0.8  High speed Subsonic helicopter (0.3 to 0.8)

31

32 Pulse Jet  Made up of few moving parts  Valved engines use a mechanical valve to control the flow of expanding exhaust, forcing the hot gas to go out the back of the engine through the tailpipe  Starting the engine usually requires forced air and an ignition method such as a spark plug for the fuel-air mix.  It can operate statically

33 Rocket Engines  A rocket is a machine that develops thrust by the rapid expulsion of matter  A rocket is called a launch vehicle when it is used to launch a satellite or other payload into space  Rocket engines are reaction engines  The highest exhaust velocities  It is used in missile

34 Passenger airplanes Sl. No.DescriptionLessModerateHigh 1Specific fuel consumptionTurbofanTurbopropTurbojet 2Noise LevelTurbofanTurbopropTurbojet 3Operating Mach NoTurbopropTurbofanTurbojet 4Take off ThrustTurbojetTurbofanTurboprop 5AltitudeTurbopropTurbofanTurbojet 6Load Carrying capacityTurbojetTurbopropTurbofan 7Specific ImpulseTurbojetTurbopropTurbofan

35 Thrust Equation Total Thrust = Momentum Thrust + Pressure Thrust  mi=mj (mass flow rate)  Inlet pressure = Exit pressure  Thrust force is the forward motion of engine

36 Factors Affecting Thrust  PRESSURE  TEMPERATURE  DENSITY  HUMIDITY  ALTITUDE  FORWARD VELOCITY

37 Methods of Thrust Augmentation  After burning  High thrust for short duration  It is used only in take-off (or) for high climbing rates  Additional fuel is burning in the tail pipe between the turbine and exhaust nozzle  It is increased the jet velocity  Oxidizer-Fuel Mixture  Increase the mass flow rate  Evaporative cooling which produces higher pressure and higher mass flow rate  Increase the compressor pressure ratio due to reduced compressor air flow  Water and menthol or alcohol Mixture

38

39 After burner

40 Oxidizer-Fuel Mixture  Evaporative cooling which produces higher pressure and higher mass flow rate

41 Advantages of Gas turbine Engines Weight reduction of 70% Simplicity Reduced manning requirements Quicker response time Faster Acceleration/deceleration Modular replacement Less vibrations More economical

42 Disadvantages of Gas Turbine Engines Many parts under high stress High pitched noise Needs large quantities of air Large quantities of hot exhaust (target) Cannot be repaired in place

43 TYPES OF FUSELAGE STRUCTURE

44

45

46

47 FUSELAGE DESIGN

48 WING STRUCTURE

49 Thank you


Download ppt "U3AEA04 ELEMENTS OF AERONAUTICS Mr. SYED ALAY HASHIM Assistant Professor Department of Aeronautical Engineering VEL TECH Dr. RR & Dr. SR TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google