Presentation on theme: "Thinking Problem solving activities:"— Presentation transcript:
1Thinking Problem solving activities: There is a small room. There is a window in the room that is open. There is a table in the room. There is broken glass on the floor. There is also water all over the floor. There are two dead bodies on the floor. What happened?Matchstick problem – give each group 6 match sticks. How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles.Candle mounting problem: using the materials how would you mount the candle on a bulletin board?
2CognitionCognition – all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicatingExample: Thinking how to solve the candle problemCognitive psychologist – study how we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions and form judgmentsExample: Helping a depressed person change their negative thinkingCognition – all activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating –Cog. Psych – study these activities including ways we create concepts, solve problems , make decisions and form judgmentsCognitive psychologists are concerned about the ways in which we think.practical applications for cognitive research, such as improving memory, increasing decision-making accuracy and structuring educational curricula to enhance learning.
3Our concept of men may include all of the following guys…. What is thought?Concepts – mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas and peopleExample: AnimalsCategory hierarchies – collection of subordinate categories to a basic categoryExample: Birds, Fish, Mammals, Reptiles, etc.Prototypes – mental image or best example of a categoryExample: Prototype of a bird…A robin, of course!Concepts – mental groupings of similar objects, events, and people (common features)Category hierarchies – declaritive memories are organized into hierarchies (general to specific)Ex. Animal has several categories such as bird, fish, which can be divided further – canary, ostrich, shark salmonCan be concrete or abstract i.e.. Truth or love,When we use the term Hispanic to refer to a category of people, we are using this word as a(n) conceptBy dividing broad concepts into increasingly smaller and detailed subgroupings, we create category hierarchiesPrototypes – best example of a category (robin is closer to bird than a penguin)In the process of classifying objects, people are especially likely to make use of prototypesPrototypes are important to classifying objectsExample:When ________(name) thinks about an Ivy league school she thinks about HarvardAnimal is the category ______________is your prototype. IsCategory PrototypeCollege PoodleSport Cedar PointHolidayMammel (human)Nurse (female)Doctor (male)Have students come up with 2 prototypes and 2 categories and have their partner tell them what is the category or prototypeStudents – create a list of the different concepts in the classroom. Narrow down all of the concepts into the simplest concept possible – furniture, shelving, books, electronics, . Form different groups to come up with one class listBut they are based on our prototype (ideal) male…..
4Concept and Prototype Practice Respond to the category with the very first example that comes to mindA birdA colorA triangle (drawing a picture is fine)A motor vehicleA sentenceA heroA Heroic actionA gameA philosopherA writerProvide a category hierarchy for the following conceptsPeopleTransportationAnimalsClassroomHoliday
5Problem Solving Strategies Types of problem solving strategiesTrial and ErrorAlgorithmsHeuristicsInsightTrial and error – trying one thing and then another, until something succeedsThomas Edison tried thousands of light bulb filaments before finding one that worked.Problem solving activity
6Problem Solving Strategies Algorithm – step by step procedure that guarantees the right solution to a problem.Usually by using a formula.Work, but time consumingDon’t work – subjective values or too many unknownsExample – calculating your GPA, PEMDA, finding the combination to a lock by trying every possible combination starting with 0-0-0Algorithm – logical step by step method for solving a problemExamples : instructions for building a model airplane, calculate your GPA, figure your gas mileage, division, PEMDA (parenthesis..)Search for popcorn in the supermarket, you could search every single isle(algorithm), or go to the snack isle (heuristic)You car doesn’t start so you go through the repair checklist alphabetically to find the problem
7Problem Solving Strategies Heuristic - A rule of thumb that generally, but not always, can be used to make a judgment to solve a problem.Fast, but prone to errorsDoesn’t guarantee a solutionTwo types of heuristicsRepresentative heuristic*Availability Heuristic*Examples – “Always stick with your first answer”, “i before e except after c”Simple thinking strategy that allows us to make judgments faster, but prone to errorsHelp us solve problems quickly and efficientlyTrying to solve a complicated problem, we most likely turn to heuristicSimplestTrial and error, Rule of thumb, educated guess, intuitive judgment or common senseDon’t keep bananas in the frige, if it doesn’t work, see if it’s plugged in
8Types of Problem solving Insight – sudden realization of the solution to a problemDoesn’t involve strategy based solutionsExamples:Did you hear about the guy whose whole left side was cut off? He's all right now.Did you see the sign at the drug rehab center? It said keep off the grasssudden comprehension of a double meaning punKohler’s chimpanzeeSudden realization to a problemComprehension of the double meaning of a punWorking on a problem for a long time, you finally give up..then the solution to the problem just pops into your headKohler placed a piece of fruit and a long stick beyond the chimps reach and short stick in his cage. Tried to reach fruit with short stick, but was unsuccessful. After sudden realization he grabbed the short stick and used it to pull in the long stick, which he then used to reach the fruit. Showed that there was evidence to animal cognition
9Trial and ErrorTrial and error - experimentation or investigation in which various methods or means are tried and faulty ones eliminated in order to find the correct solution
10Problem Solving Strategies Give an example using each of the problem solving strategies toFind granola bars in the SupermarketFix your ComputerBuild a BridgeCar doesn’t start
12When some one mentions hamburgers, Kyle automatically thinks of McDonalds PrototypeConceptPhonemeHeuristicAlgorithm123456789101112131415161718192021222324
13When we use the word “automobile” to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n)AlgorithmHeuristicPrototypeConceptInsight123456789101112131415161718192021222324
14Logical, methodical step-by-step procedures for solving problems are called PrototypeConceptHierarchyAlgorithmHeuristic123456789101112131415161718192021222324
15Unlike the use of algorithms or heuristics, insight does not involve CognitionPrototypesStrategy based solutionsConceptsConfirmation bias123456789101112131415161718192021222324
16The sound kw is only spelled this way qu is an example of Trial and errorHeuristicInsightAlgorithmconcept123456789101112131415161718192021222324
17Hurdles to problem solving Mental SetFixationFunctional fixednessAvailability HeuristicRepresentative HeuristicConfirmation BiasOverconfidenceBelief PerseveranceFraming
18Confirmation BiasWe look for evidence to confirm our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts them.Example: believes that all Italians are in shape and go tanning, then they turn on MTV…oh its true or is it?Look…I knew it was true!!!But is it really?People have a tendency to search for information that supports their preconceptionsI think that boys cause more trouble than girls in class. In my 6th period, I have a group of boys that I have to constantly watch their behavior, the girls could be texting, passing notes and I would never know.Watson’s university student’s – rule for (were sure it was counting by 2’s), rule was any 3 ascending numbers.Bush and WMD in Iraq – sources denying were lying, those confirming provided valuable infoPearl Harbor – Admiral Kimmel ignored valuable info (incoming plans were our returning pilots, not the Japanese)Women are bad drivers. Overlook the fact that insurance companies give a bigger discount to femalesScientists are trained to observe and record information that is inconsistent with their hypothesis to reduce confirmation bias
19FixationFixation - Inability to solve a problem from a new perspectiveExamples1. Matchstick problem2. Functional Fixedness - The inability to see a new use for an objectExample: when solving the candle-mounting problem, you fail to recognize that the matchbox can have other functions besides holding matchesFixation - Inability to take a new perspective on a problemExample : to solve the matchstick problem, you must view it from a different perspective—you must break the fixation of limiting solutions to 2 dimensionalBrainstorming sessions that encourage people to spontaneously suggest new and unusual solutions to a problem are designed to avoidSome people are unable to arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles because they fail to consider a three-dimensional arrangement. This best illustrates the effects of fixation on problem solving.Mental set – tendency to approach a problem with the same mind set that has worked in the pastFunctional fixedness – tendency to think of only the familiar functions for objects without imagining alternative uses.Having a picnic and it starts to rain, you don’t think to use you the plastic tablecloth as a temporary rain shelter
20Mental SetMental set –tendency to approach a problem with the same mind set that has worked in the pastExample: Mr. Gielink so often uses threats to get his children to do chores, he fails to recognize that rewards would be more effectiveMental Set # 1There are 6 eggs in a basket. Six people take one of the eggs each. How is it that one egg can still be left in the basket?Mental Set #2What occurs once in June, twice in August, but never in October?
21Mental Set # 3A hunter sees a bear 1 mile due south. He shoots and misses, and the bear runs off. The hunter walks the 1 mile south to where the bear had been, then 1 mile due east, then 1 mile due north—at which point the hunter is standing again at exactly the same spot from which the gun had been fired. What color was the bear?
22Task #1 – Linda is 31, single, outspoken, and very bright Task #1 – Linda is 31, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy in college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Which statement is more likely? A) Linda is a bank teller B) Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement.Suggestive of a performer and thus a trapeze artist, however, the base rate of any of the other options is significantly higher, making it more likely that Rudy is a member of any one of the other occupations.
23Representativeness Heuristic Representative Heuristic - Judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to the prototypes the person holds in their mind.Like thinking everyone at Gilmore is preppy, or someone with glasses is nerdy, or a blonde is not smart…you better not think that!May lead us to disregard probability info that is relevant to our judgmentsWho went to Harvard?Mr. Rivera is a smart dude, but did not go to Harvard (he looks like he did).Representativeness Heuristic is our tendency to judge the likelihood of category membership by how closely an object or event resembles a particular prototype.Person who reads poetry is more likely to be a college classics professor rather than a truck driver (chances of being truck driver are higher)Someone who is neat, orderly, quiet and shy and likes to read books is a librarian rather than a real estate agentForgetful acts of an older person are because of alzeimersThinking Matt Smorel is a basketball player because he’s 6’8” instead of baseball playerIf I tell you that Sonia Dara is a Sports Illustrated swimsuit model, you would make certain quick judgments (heuristics) about her…like about her interests or intelligence.She is an economics major at Harvard University.
24Availability Heuristic Which place would you be more scared of getting mugged or even murdered?Availability Heuristic - Judging a situation based on how readily we remember instances of its occurrenceRecent, vivid, or distinct examples in the news often cause an availability heuristic.Cleveland29.14 Crime index v (New York is in the top 5 safest cities)Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its occurrence is called the availability heuristicRemember the memorable instead of the unmemorableDean overestimates the proportion of family chores for which he takes sole responsibility because it's easier for him to recall what he has done than to recall what other family members have done.A televised image of a starving child had a greater impact on Mr. White's perception of the extensiveness of world hunger than did a statistical chart summarizing the tremendous scope of the problem. This suggests that his assessment of the world hunger problem is influenced by availability heuristicBy encouraging people to imagine their homes being destroyed by a fire, insurance salespeople are especially successful at selling large homeowners' policies.Many people overestimate how long they actually remain awake during restless nights because their moments of wakefulness are easier to recall than their moments of sleep.Noticing the publicity on abducted children, a parent won’t let a child walk across the street to a friends9/11 led people to incorrectly inflate the risk of air travel9/11 led people to incorrectly estimate the # of middle easterners that are terroristsExample: The crime rate of Cleveland is MUCH higher than the New York. But when you think of crime, which town comes to mind?New York, NY
25Availability Heuristic Readily available images cause us to fear extremely rare eventsExample: We fear swimming in water because we replay JAWS in our headsLeads us to forget about probabilityFear immediate rather than futureEach one of my children do way more of the chores than anyone else (how’s that possible)…it’s easier for them to recall what they have personally done, than what anyone else has done.We frear risks that are immediate rather than in the future (an airlplane ride vs. dying of smoking)Carjackings vs. wearing seatbelt
26OverconfidenceOverconfidence – tendency overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgmentExample:Freshman who say they will never gain the “Freshman 15”Underestimating how long it will take you to do your vocabStockbrokers often believe that their own expertise will enable them to select stocks that will outperform the market averageYou think you got an “A” on the AP psych exam and you end up getting a CUnderestimate how long it will take you to complete the memory bookAn unwillingness to give up our beliefs even when the evidence proves us wrong is called belief perseverancePeople believing that Joe Paterno had no responsibility in the Penn State scandle even after he was fired from his jobEncouraging people to elaborate on why their own personal views on an issue are correct is most likely to promote belief perseveranceVery difficult to get someone to change his or her unrealistically negative self –image = belief perseverancePeople with opposing views of capital punishment reviewed mixed evidence regarding its effectiveness as a crime deterrent. As a result, their opposing views differed more strongly than ever.Very thin, but believe too fatBest advice to avoid belief persistence is to consider the oppositeWhy its important to have a good 1st impression
27Belief PerseveranceBelief Perseverance – sticking with our beliefs even after they’ve been discreditedElaborating on your own personal views can contribute to belief perseveranceTo eliminate – consider the oppositeExample: Cleveland Browns fans who continue to believe the Brownies will win a title
28IntuitionIntuition – Automatic, immediate feeling or thought (gut feel)Valuable – quick decisions, but can cause irrational decisionOpposite of conscious reasoning our automatic feelings/thoughts are intuitionCan hinder rationality, but valuable bcs facilitates quick decisions.Reactions to others may be influenced by intuition. Someone else looks like someone who hurt us in the past
29Framing Examples: Framing – The way an issue is posed. 90% of the population will be saved with this medication…..or 10% of the population will die despite this medication.You should not drink more than two drinks per day….or You should not drink more than 730 drinks a year.20 percent chance of rain or an 80% chance that it won’t rainFraming – The way an issue is posed.can drastically effect the way we view it.Way in which a problem is worded or phrasedPolitical polesters who want to present a particular point of view are likely to use framing effectsPeople told that a chemical in the air is projected to kill 10 out of every 10 million people feel more frightened than if told the fatality risk isA television advertisement for lotion claims that it is made of 75 percent organic materials, not that it contains 25 percent artificial ingredients.Ojinska sold many more raffle tickets when she told potential buyers they had a 10 percent chance of winning a prize than when she told them they had a 90 percent chance of not winning.On Monday, the meteorologist forecast a 20 percent chance of rain, so Sheryl took her umbrella to work. On Friday, he reported an 80 percent chance that it would not rain, so Sheryl left her umbrella at homeA $100 coat marked down from $150 can seem like a better deal than the same coat priced regularly at $100Consumers respond more positively to ground beef advertised as “75 percent lean” than to ground beef described as “25 percent fat.”Companies are being encouraged to enroll their employees in a 401(k) plan automatically while allowing them to choose to raise their take-home pay by “opting out” of the plan. The previous plan had asked employees to “opt-in” to participate in the plan. Under the “opt-out” rather than “opt-in” system, enrollments in 401(k) plans soared.
30Obstacles to Problem Solving You are the commissioner of a state lottery system that sponsors daily and weekly drawings. Lottery tickets have not been selling well over the past few months. Describe two ways you could take advantage of the power of the availability heuristic and framing to boost sales.Students should describe how they could increase the chances that people will remember someone winning a large lottery prize (e.g., they could film commercials showing someone accepting a lottery prize). This might result in more people entering the lottery because the memory of someone winning is more available in their memory (availability heuristic). The commissioner of the lottery system could also frame the advertising wording in a way that will encourage people to buy lottery tickets. For example, an ad that says, “Someone is guaranteed to win every month!” is more likely to encourage sales than an advertisement such as, “Each person has a one in 1.2 million chance of winning!”
31Solving ProblemsCreativity – the ability to create novel and valuable ideasLittle correlation between creativity and intelligence.Example : Eiffel Tower, Ferris Wheel,Convergent Thinking – generating a single correct answer (parietal lobe)Example: AP Psych ExamDivergent Thinking – generating multiple possible answers to a problem (frontal lobe)Example: Uses for a paper clipDivergent – write down as many words as you can that start with the letter DHow many uses for a paper clipIntrinsic motivation is an important componentConvergent – solution to a long division problem
32Creativity Strernberg’s five components Expertise Imaginative thinking skillsA venturesome personalityIntrinsic motivationOverjustification Effect – when extrinsically motivated to do something that you are already intrinsically motivated to do, you lose interest in the taskA creative environmentWhenever Arlo reminded himself that his musical skills could earn him fame and fortune, he became less creative in his musical performance.Most creative people are those who are intrinsically motivated.
33CreativityYour friend complains, “I wish I could be more creative, but I don't think there's anything I can do about it.” Use the components of creativity described by Robert Sternberg to advise your friend about at least two of the behaviors associated with increased creativity.Expertise (increasing expertise through extensive practice in an area is associated with increased creativity), imaginative thinking skills (thinking about situations in novel ways), a venturesome personality (outgoingness is associated with creativity), intrinsic motivation (working on tasks that are intrinsically rewarding), and a creative environment (immersing oneself in a context in which creativity is encouraged by others).
34The Representative heuristic The Confirmation bias Kevin so frequently uses threats to get his children to help with household chores that he fails to recognize that using rewards would be more effective in gaining their cooperation. Kevin's shortsightedness best illustratesThe Representative heuristicThe Confirmation biasThe Availability heuristicThe Framing EffectA fixation123456789101112131415161718192021222324
35Representative Heuristic Functional fixedness Framing effect Business managers are more likely to track the career achievements of those they once hired than the accomplishments of those they once rejected. This best illustratesRepresentative HeuristicFunctional fixednessFraming effectConfirmation BiasBelief Bias123456789101112131415161718192021222324
36Representative heuristic Belief perseverance Framing effect A single, memorable case of welfare fraud has a greater impact on estimates of the frequency of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by theConfirmation biasRepresentative heuristicBelief perseveranceFraming effectAvailability heuristic123456789101112131415161718192021222324
37The availability heuristic Confirmation bias The framing effect The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver illustrates the use ofThe availability heuristicConfirmation biasThe framing effectBelief perseveranceThe representative heuristic123456789101112131415161718192021222324
38Generating the single correct answer to an intelligence test question illustrates Factor analysisConvergent thinkingDivergent thinkingConfirmation BiasHeuristic123456789101112131415161718192021222324
39LanguageLanguage – our spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
42All languages contain…. PhonemesMorphemesThe smallest units of sound in a language.English has about 44 phonemes.The smallest unit of meaningful sound.Examples :Can be words like a or but.prefixes or suffixes…”ed” at the end of a word means past tenseHow many phonemes in cats?How many morphemes in cats?Example: How many phonemes does platypus have?
43How many phonemes and morphemes? RichHat Knock Bring Through StrictStretchBatsCalledNightlyLuck, lucky, unluckyCoolnessZebrasDefroster
44Language Structure Grammar: The rules of a language. Example: Subject/verb agreement - singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb.Semantics - rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.Examples:Arms race means weapons race, not body parts raceStalk (celery or follow?)ed on the end of a word makes it past tenseSyntax: the order of words in a language.Adjectives come before nounsIs this the White House or the House White?
45Language Acquisition Receptive language Productive language Ability to comprehend speechBegins 4 monthsCan read lips7 mo. Can segment spoken sounds into individual wordsCan listen to an unfamiliar languageProductive languageAbility to produce words with meaningStarts around 4 months of age with babbling
46Language Acquisition Stages that we learn language… Babbling Stage make speech sounds both in and out of native languageFirst able to discriminate speech soundsExample: Ba da taHolophrastic Stage/one word stageProductive language begins (speaking meaningful words)Receptive language (comprehension of meaning)Example: Momma, dada, dogTelegraphic Stage/two word stageGrammatically correct 2 word sayingContains mostly nouns and verbsFollows rules of syntaxExample: Want juiceOvergeneralization - extending the application of a rule to items that are excluded from it in the language norm,Example: Mommy holded the baby4. Speaking in Complete Sentences
47How many morphemes are in the word footballs 12345123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
48How many phonemes are in the word football 45678123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
49The ability to comprehend the meaning of speech is called Productive speechReceptive speechSyntaxSemanticsGrammar123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
50How do we learn language? Behaviorist TheoryNativist Theory
51Behaviorist Theory B.F. Skinner Association – sights and sounds Imitation – modeling othersReinforcement- by smiles and hugs
52Chomsky’s Theory Inborn Universal Grammar Universal language acquisition device – In born (innate)readiness to learn grammatical rulesThe stages of language development occur at about the same ages in most children, even though different children experience very different environments.Universal grammar – common grammatical building blocks that all languages share (inborn).Children use nouns first before they learn verbs or adjectivesAll languages have nouns and verbs, subjects and objects, negations and questionsIf there is a word purple in a language it will also have a word for red
53OvergeneralizationOvergeneralization - Applying a grammatical rule too widely and thereby creating incorrect formsSupports Chomsky’s Universal GrammarExample: “I goed to the store to get cookies”, “I rided my bike”
54Statistical Learning and Critical Periods Statistical Learning – discerning word breaks, analyzing which syllables most often go togetherInfants up to the age of 10 months can do this, after that they become functionally deaf to other languagesCritical Period – sensitive period for mastering certain aspects of languageChildren not exposed to language by age 7 gradually lose ability to master any languageLearning a language as an adult you will always speak with an accentMost easily master language as a child
55Your little sister says: “Taked cupcake Your little sister says: “Taked cupcake!” Explain how this utterance may illustrate the following language concepts: phoneme, morpheme, telegraphic speech, language acquisition device.
56Whorf’s Linguistic Determination Hypothesis The idea that language determines the way we think.The Hopi tribe has no past tense in their language, so Whorf says they rarely think of the past.Underestimates how much thinking occurs without languageLanguage and Words shape the way people thinkEnglish = self-focused emotions (anger) Japanese = interpersonal emotionsThe isolated Piraha tribespeople of Brazil have no words for specific numbers higher than 2. If shown seven nuts in a row they find it difficult to lay out the same number from their own pile of nuts.If our capacity to form concepts depends on our verbal memory, this would best illustrate linguistic determinismIt has been suggested that Alaskan Eskimos' rich vocabulary for describing snow enables them to perceive differences in snow conditions that would otherwise go unnoticedSix-month-old Ohmar recognizes the difference between squares and circles just as accurately as his 3-year-old brother, who can correctly name the different shapes – challenges linguistic determinationLeland's language does not distinguish between “family love” and “romantic love,” so he has difficulty realizing that he deeply loves his sister.Bilingual children, who inhibit one language while using the other, can better inhibit their attention to irrelevant information.
57Thinking and Language Bilingual advantage Thinking and images Thinking affects language, which then affects our thoughts.
58Language acquisition device Linguistic relativity Chomsky's theory of language development suggests that children have an inbornPrototypeCategory hierarchyConceptLanguage acquisition deviceLinguistic relativity123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627
59Inborn universal grammar Statistical linguistics Leland's language does not distinguish between “family love” and “romantic love,” so he has difficulty realizing that he deeply loves his sister. Which of the following is most relevant to Leland's difficulty?Critical periodsTelegraphic speechInborn universal grammarStatistical linguisticsThe linguistic determinism hypothesis123456789101112131415161718192021222324252627