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Thinking. Cognition Cognition – all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating – Example: Thinking how to solve.

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Presentation on theme: "Thinking. Cognition Cognition – all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating – Example: Thinking how to solve."— Presentation transcript:

1 Thinking

2 Cognition Cognition – all mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating – Example: Thinking how to solve the candle problem Cognitive psychologist – study how we create concepts, solve problems, make decisions and form judgments – Example: Helping a depressed person change their negative thinking

3 What is thought? Concepts – mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas and people – Example: Animals – Category hierarchies – collection of subordinate categories to a basic category – Example: Birds, Fish, Mammals, Reptiles, etc. Prototypes – mental image or best example of a category – Example: Prototype of a bird…A robin, of course! Our concept of men may include all of the following guys…. But they are based on our prototype (ideal) male…..

4 Concept and Prototype Practice Respond to the category with the very first example that comes to mind 1.A bird 2.A color 3.A triangle (drawing a picture is fine) 4.A motor vehicle 5.A sentence 6.A hero 7.A Heroic action 8.A game 9.A philosopher 10.A writer Provide a category hierarchy for the following concepts 1.People 2.Transportation 3.Animals 4.Classroom 5.Holiday

5 Problem Solving Strategies Types of problem solving strategies 1.Trial and Error 2.Algorithms 3.Heuristics 4.Insight Problem solving activity

6 Problem Solving Strategies Algorithm – step by step procedure that guarantees the right solution to a problem. – Usually by using a formula. – Work, but time consuming – Don’t work – subjective values or too many unknowns Example – calculating your GPA, PEMDA, finding the combination to a lock by trying every possible combination starting with

7 Problem Solving Strategies Heuristic - A rule of thumb that generally, but not always, can be used to make a judgment to solve a problem. – Fast, but prone to errors – Doesn’t guarantee a solution Two types of heuristics – Representative heuristic* – Availability Heuristic* Examples – “Always stick with your first answer”, “i before e except after c”

8 Types of Problem solving Insight – sudden realization of the solution to a problem – Doesn’t involve strategy based solutions Examples: – Did you hear about the guy whose whole left side was cut off? He's all right now. – Did you see the sign at the drug rehab center? It said keep off the grass sudden comprehension of a double meaning pun – Kohler’s chimpanzee

9 Trial and Error Trial and error - experimentation or investigation in which various methods or means are tried and faulty ones eliminated in order to find the correct solution

10 Problem Solving Strategies Give an example using each of the problem solving strategies to 1.Find granola bars in the Supermarket 2.Fix your Computer 3.Build a Bridge 4.Car doesn’t start

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12 When some one mentions hamburgers, Kyle automatically thinks of McDonalds 1.Prototype 2.Concept 3.Phoneme 4.Heuristic 5.Algorithm

13 When we use the word “automobile” to refer to a category of transport vehicles, we are using this word as a(n) 1.Algorithm 2.Heuristic 3.Prototype 4.Concept 5.Insight

14 Logical, methodical step-by-step procedures for solving problems are called 1.Prototype 2.Concept 3.Hierarchy 4.Algorithm 5.Heuristic

15 Unlike the use of algorithms or heuristics, insight does not involve 1.Cognition 2.Prototypes 3.Strategy based solutions 4.Concepts 5.Confirmation bias

16 The sound kw is only spelled this way qu is an example of 1.Trial and error 2.Heuristic 3.Insight 4.Algorithm 5.concept

17 Hurdles to problem solving Mental Set Fixation Functional fixedness Availability Heuristic Representative Heuristic Confirmation Bias Overconfidence Belief Perseverance Framing

18 Confirmation Bias We look for evidence to confirm our beliefs and ignore evidence that contradicts them. Example: believes that all Italians are in shape and go tanning, then they turn on MTV…oh its true or is it? Look…I knew it was true!!! But is it really?

19 Fixation Fixation - Inability to solve a problem from a new perspective – Examples 1. Matchstick problem 2. Functional Fixedness - The inability to see a new use for an object – Example: when solving the candle-mounting problem, you fail to recognize that the matchbox can have other functions besides holding matches

20 Mental Set Mental set –tendency to approach a problem with the same mind set that has worked in the past – Example: Mr. Gielink so often uses threats to get his children to do chores, he fails to recognize that rewards would be more effective Mental Set # 1 –There are 6 eggs in a basket. Six people take one of the eggs each. How is it that one egg can still be left in the basket? Mental Set #2 –What occurs once in June, twice in August, but never in October?

21 Mental Set # 3 A hunter sees a bear 1 mile due south. He shoots and misses, and the bear runs off. The hunter walks the 1 mile south to where the bear had been, then 1 mile due east, then 1 mile due north—at which point the hunter is standing again at exactly the same spot from which the gun had been fired. What color was the bear?

22 Task #1 – Linda is 31, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in philosophy in college. As a student, she was deeply concerned with discrimination and other social issues, and she participated in antinuclear demonstrations. Which statement is more likely? A) Linda is a bank teller B) Linda is a bank teller and active in the feminist movement.

23 Representativeness Heuristic Representative Heuristic - Judging a situation based on how similar the aspects are to the prototypes the person holds in their mind. Like thinking everyone at Gilmore is preppy, or someone with glasses is nerdy, or a blonde is not smart…you better not think that! May lead us to disregard probability info that is relevant to our judgments If I tell you that Sonia Dara is a Sports Illustrated swimsuit model, you would make certain quick judgments (heuristics) about her…like about her interests or intelligence. She is an economics major at Harvard University. Who went to Harvard? Mr. Rivera is a smart dude, but did not go to Harvard (he looks like he did).

24 Availability Heuristic Availability Heuristic - Judging a situation based on how readily we remember instances of its occurrence Recent, vivid, or distinct examples in the news often cause an availability heuristic. Which place would you be more scared of getting mugged or even murdered? Cleveland New York, NY Example: The crime rate of Cleveland is MUCH higher than the New York. But when you think of crime, which town comes to mind?

25 Availability Heuristic Readily available images cause us to fear extremely rare events – Example: We fear swimming in water because we replay JAWS in our heads Leads us to forget about probability Fear immediate rather than future

26 Overconfidence Overconfidence – tendency overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgment – Example: – Freshman who say they will never gain the “Freshman 15” – Underestimating how long it will take you to do your vocab

27 Belief Perseverance Belief Perseverance – sticking with our beliefs even after they’ve been discredited – Elaborating on your own personal views can contribute to belief perseverance – To eliminate – consider the opposite – Example: Cleveland Browns fans who continue to believe the Brownies will win a title

28 Intuition Intuition – Automatic, immediate feeling or thought (gut feel) – Valuable – quick decisions, but can cause irrational decision

29 Framing Examples: 90% of the population will be saved with this medication…..or 10% of the population will die despite this medication. You should not drink more than two drinks per day….or You should not drink more than 730 drinks a year. 20 percent chance of rain or an 80% chance that it won’t rain Framing – The way an issue is posed. – can drastically effect the way we view it.

30 Obstacles to Problem Solving You are the commissioner of a state lottery system that sponsors daily and weekly drawings. Lottery tickets have not been selling well over the past few months. Describe two ways you could take advantage of the power of the availability heuristic and framing to boost sales.

31 Solving Problems Creativity – the ability to create novel and valuable ideas – Little correlation between creativity and intelligence. – Example : Eiffel Tower, Ferris Wheel, Convergent Thinking – generating a single correct answer (parietal lobe) – Example: AP Psych Exam Divergent Thinking – generating multiple possible answers to a problem (frontal lobe) – Example: Uses for a paper clip

32 Creativity Strernberg’s five components – Expertise – Imaginative thinking skills – A venturesome personality – Intrinsic motivation Overjustification Effect – when extrinsically motivated to do something that you are already intrinsically motivated to do, you lose interest in the task – A creative environment

33 Creativity Your friend complains, “I wish I could be more creative, but I don't think there's anything I can do about it.” Use the components of creativity described by Robert Sternberg to advise your friend about at least two of the behaviors associated with increased creativity.

34 Kevin so frequently uses threats to get his children to help with household chores that he fails to recognize that using rewards would be more effective in gaining their cooperation. Kevin's shortsightedness best illustrates 1.The Representative heuristic 2.The Confirmation bias 3.The Availability heuristic 4.The Framing Effect 5.A fixation

35 Business managers are more likely to track the career achievements of those they once hired than the accomplishments of those they once rejected. This best illustrates 1.Representative Heuristic 2.Functional fixedness 3.Framing effect 4.Confirmation Bias 5.Belief Bias

36 A single, memorable case of welfare fraud has a greater impact on estimates of the frequency of welfare abuse than do statistics showing that this case is actually the exception to the rule. This illustrates that judgments are influenced by the 1.Confirmation bias 2.Representative heuristic 3.Belief perseverance 4.Framing effect 5.Availability heuristic

37 The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver illustrates the use of 1.The availability heuristic 2.Confirmation bias 3.The framing effect 4.Belief perseverance 5.The representative heuristic

38 Generating the single correct answer to an intelligence test question illustrates 1.Factor analysis 2.Convergent thinking 3.Divergent thinking 4.Confirmation Bias 5.Heuristic

39 Language Language – our spoken, written or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning

40 Language can be…..

41 Language Structure Phonemes Morphemes Grammar – Semantics – Syntax

42 All languages contain…. Phonemes The smallest units of sound in a language. English has about 44 phonemes. Morphemes The smallest unit of meaningful sound. Examples : – Can be words like a or but. – prefixes or suffixes…”ed” at the end of a word means past tense How many phonemes in cats? How many morphemes in cats? Example: How many phonemes does platypus have?

43 How many phonemes and morphemes? Phonemes Rich Hat Knock Bring Through Strict Stretch Morphemes Bats Called Nightly Luck, lucky, unlucky Coolness Zebras Defroster

44 Language Structure Grammar: The rules of a language. – Example: Subject/verb agreement - singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb. – Semantics - rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences. Examples: – Arms race means weapons race, not body parts race – Stalk (celery or follow?) – ed on the end of a word makes it past tense – Syntax: the order of words in a language. Examples: – Adjectives come before nouns Is this the White House or the House White?

45 Language Acquisition Receptive language – Ability to comprehend speech – Begins 4 months – Can read lips – 7 mo. Can segment spoken sounds into individual words – Can listen to an unfamiliar language Productive language – Ability to produce words with meaning – Starts around 4 months of age with babbling

46 Language Acquisition Stages that we learn language… 1.Babbling Stage – make speech sounds both in and out of native language – First able to discriminate speech sounds – Example: Ba da ta 2.Holophrastic Stage/one word stage – Productive language begins (speaking meaningful words) – Receptive language (comprehension of meaning) – Example: Momma, dada, dog 3.Telegraphic Stage/two word stage – Grammatically correct 2 word saying – Contains mostly nouns and verbs – Follows rules of syntax – Example: Want juice – Overgeneralization - extending the application of a rule to items that are excluded from it in the language norm, Example: Mommy holded the baby 4. Speaking in Complete Sentences

47 How many morphemes are in the word footballs

48 How many phonemes are in the word football

49 The ability to comprehend the meaning of speech is called 1.Productive speech 2.Receptive speech 3.Syntax 4.Semantics 5.Grammar

50 How do we learn language? 1.Behaviorist Theory 2.Nativist Theory

51 Behaviorist Theory B.F. Skinner Association – sights and sounds Imitation – modeling others Reinforcement- by smiles and hugs

52 Chomsky’s Theory Inborn Universal Grammar Universal language acquisition device – In born (innate)readiness to learn grammatical rules – The stages of language development occur at about the same ages in most children, even though different children experience very different environments. Universal grammar – common grammatical building blocks that all languages share (inborn). Children use nouns first before they learn verbs or adjectives All languages have nouns and verbs, subjects and objects, negations and questions If there is a word purple in a language it will also have a word for red

53 Overgeneralization Overgeneralization - Applying a grammatical rule too widely and thereby creating incorrect forms – Supports Chomsky’s Universal Grammar Example: “I goed to the store to get cookies”, “I rided my bike”

54 Statistical Learning and Critical Periods Statistical Learning – discerning word breaks, analyzing which syllables most often go together Infants up to the age of 10 months can do this, after that they become functionally deaf to other languages Critical Period – sensitive period for mastering certain aspects of language Children not exposed to language by age 7 gradually lose ability to master any language Learning a language as an adult you will always speak with an accent Most easily master language as a child

55 Your little sister says: “Taked cupcake!” Explain how this utterance may illustrate the following language concepts: phoneme, morpheme, telegraphic speech, language acquisition device.

56 Whorf’s Linguistic Determination Hypothesis The idea that language determines the way we think. The Hopi tribe has no past tense in their language, so Whorf says they rarely think of the past. Underestimates how much thinking occurs without language

57 Thinking and Language Bilingual advantage Thinking and images Thinking affects language, which then affects our thoughts.

58 Chomsky's theory of language development suggests that children have an inborn 1.Prototype 2.Category hierarchy 3.Concept 4.Language acquisition device 5.Linguistic relativity

59 Leland's language does not distinguish between “family love” and “romantic love,” so he has difficulty realizing that he deeply loves his sister. Which of the following is most relevant to Leland's difficulty? 1.Critical periods 2.Telegraphic speech 3.Inborn universal grammar 4.Statistical linguistics 5.The linguistic determinism hypothesis


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