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1authors@asdAtoZ.com www.asdAtoZ.com www.readingautism.com Drawing a Blank: Improving Reading Comprehension in Good Decoders with Autism Spectrum Disorders Presented by Emily D. Iland, M.A. Educational Consultant
4Our Agenda Examine the reading process and comprehension Understand how features of ASD affect comprehensionDiscuss issues in evaluationIdentify skills that must be explicitly taughtShare intervention ideas and techniques tailored to the needs of readers ASD (new and used!)
5Anticipated OutcomesIntegrate theory and practice (what to know, what to do)Inform practice based on research findingsGain skills and to help students or clientsChoose from tools you already have to focus on this population
6View thru the ASD lens Be discerning & selective when reading comprehensionresearch, data, reports, techniques,recommendations, and strategies to determineThe Fit with ASDViewthru the ASD lens
7Based on the brand-new book Drawing A Blank: Improving Comprehension for Readers on the Autism SpectrumAutism Asperger Publishing Company
8Examining the Reading Process: What is Reading? Get on the same page to define, understand and measure reading!
9Defining ReadingOur definitions of reading guide our understanding and viewsDifferent reading assessments are based on different definitions of things like “comprehension”
10The Simple View of Reading R = D x C Reading is the product of the processes(x not +). It involves language and cognition.It is not as simple as it sounds, because the processes of decoding and understanding are complex and inter-relatedIf you can Decode and have Linguistic Comprehension, you are reading!Gough & Tunmer, 1986
11The Simple View of Reading R = D x C Problems can arise with D, C or both →Problems with “D only” can be called dyslexiaProblems with “C only” can be called hyperlexia(different than precocious hyperlexia)
12GOOD DECODING with POOR COMPREHENSION HYPERLEXIA“Strong mechanical word recognition with comparatively poor comprehension”GOOD DECODING with POOR COMPREHENSIONIN PEOPLE WITH ASDGrigorenko, E. L., Klin, A, Pauls, D. L., Senft, R., Hooper, C., & Volkmar, F. (2002). A descriptive study of hyperlexia in a clinically referred sample of children with developmental delays.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(1), 3-12.
13Hyperlexia is a learning disability Grigorenko, E. L., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Annotation: Hyperlexia: Disability or Superability? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(8),GOOD DECODINGwith POOR COMPREHENSIONIN PEOPLEWITH ASD
14A more complex definition of reading National Reading Panel (2005), p “A form of dynamic thinking [that] includesinterpreting information through the filter of one’s own knowledge and beliefs,using the author’s organizational plan to think about information (or imposing one’s own organization on ideas),inferring what the author does not tell explicitly,as well as many other cognitive actions.”
15The purpose and the essence of reading What is comprehension?The purpose and the essence of readingCR
16Understand the Reading Process and Comprehension… To recognize the skills good readers possessTo recognize where the comprehension breakdown can occurTo inform approaches to “repair”
17Comprehension= Constructing Meaning Understand the text at the word and sentence level, “word knowledge”Identify relevant information
18Comprehension= Constructing Meaning Relate, compare and integrate to what is already known a.k.a. “world knowledge” or prior knowledgeInternalize to own experience
19Comprehension= Constructing Meaning Create a new construct or idea, the gist or meaningStore the new ideaRetrieve upon demand
20Factors contributing to reading comprehension Fluent word recognition skillsVocabulary knowledgeWorld knowledgeComprehension monitoringActive use of comprehension strategiesPressley, M. (2001). Comprehension Instruction: What Makes Sense Now, What Might Make Sense Soon
21What good comprehenders do Know why they are readingUnderstand the pointRelate to prior knowledgeRelate to other textSee cause and effectInterpret characters’ actions and emotionsUnderstand the author’s intentions
22What good comprehenders do Monitor understandingUse strategies flexibly and in combinationRe-readLook backPredictRevise/repairInferSummarizeMark, highlight
235 types of reading comprehension All five types of reading comprehension may be challenges for readers with ASD who can decode but don’t understandLiteralInferentialCriticalAffectiveLexical(Adapted from Salvia & Ysseldyke, Assessment in inclusive and special education, ninth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.)
241. Literal comprehension Understanding explicit material in text
252. Inferential comprehension Understanding ideas beyond the literal text by interpreting, synthesizing and extending meaning
263. Critical comprehension Meaning derived by evaluating, analyzing, and making judgments about material that was read.
274. Affective comprehension Relating to the material at a personal and emotional level.
285. Lexical comprehension Making sense of text by knowing the meaning of key vocabulary words.
29What is ASD? How does ASD affect reading comprehension? The use of this slide pattern is a comprehension strategyThis visual cue helps you follow the author’s organization of ideas.
30The Autism SpectrumUnderstanding why people with ASD have difficulty with reading comprehension is helpful in determining how to help them.Interventions tailored to the needs of learners with ASD are more effective!Efforts to remediate the core deficits and support other features can also improve the literacy skills that are affected by them.
32Autism Spectrum Disorders Affect S= social interaction and reciprocityB= Behavior, limited focus, interests or motor mannerismsC= Communication, verbal and non-verbalGlobal= Sensory response to the world around themASD affects the ability to spontaneously learn these things, but they can be taught
33The Autism Spectrum1234People are affected severely or less severely in the core areas & have different areas of strength.The features of ASD can have pervasive effects on reading, learning, and applying what is learned though reading.
34Autistic Disorder (299.00): Diagnostic Criteria: A total of 6 of 12 featuresSocialBehaviorCommunication34
35Qualitative impairments in communication at least one of these four: (a) Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative mode of communication such as gesture or mime)(b) In individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others35
36Qualitative impairments in communication at least one of four: (c) Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language(d) Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level
37Communication The language-literacy link Understanding oral languageLanguage processingAuditory processingDifficulties with speaking, listening and understanding affect literacy:reading and writing
38The language-literacy link A different timeline/uneven developmentReceptive and Expressive Vocabulary(number of words)Vocabulary GapLiteral and concrete vs. figurative, abstract and inferredDifficulty with images, imagination & imagery
46Shades of Meaning Activity Not all synonyms are created equal! Teaches synonyms, expands vocabularyReveals the hidden meaning behind wordsTeaches connotation: the emotion and intention attached to specific wordsClarifies the perspective and intention of characters or the author (social thinking)
47Shades of Meaning Activity - + = Words can be positive, negative or neutral.The added, hidden meaning can be light or heavy.The “heavy” meaning can be heavily positive or heavily negative
48Rating & Ranking Synonyms: Example Thrifty, frugal, stingy, economicalRate +, –, or = (judgment or inferred meaning)Rank from lightest to heaviest “emotional load”Have the student write the words on a paint chip,neutral words first,then light meaningthen heavy meaning (either heavily positive or heavily negative)
49Shades of Meaning Comprehension Activity Form a group for this activity, 3-4 people.In a moment you will be given four words. Copy them down.The Group will RATE EACH WORD as, positive, negative or neutral by giving ita rating +, –, or =Decide together how to RANK YOUR WORDS on the paint chip in order from the “lightest” to the “deepest” shade or intensity of meaning
50Shades of Meaning RATE (+ – or =) & RANK (light to heavy) RED GROUPSLENDERANOREXICTHINSKINNYYELLOW GROUPPLUMPCURVYOBESEPLUS-SIZEDGREEN GROUPUGLYUNATTRACTIVEUNSIGHTLYPLAINBLUE GROUPINTELLECTUALSHREWDCLEVERASTUTE
51Autism and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria: Qualitative impairment in social interaction (two of four features):marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction
52Autism and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria b) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level
53Autism and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria (c) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing or pointing out objects of interest)
54Autism and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria (d) lack of social or emotional reciprocityShared emotion, social pacingReciprocity: give and take
61Comprehension Idea Don’t ask “IF,” ask “WHEN” Relate to the KNOWNAvoid the Unknown
62Comprehension Activity: Two True Social Thinking and Theory of Mind In random order, write down two things about yourself that are true, AND one “believable lie” on an index card.Find a partner. Exchange Cards.Try to guess which statement is not true. Talk about it!Come back to order when the signal is given.These instructions are written in a way that supports your comprehension.
633) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, at least one of four(a) Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus(b) Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals63
64(d) Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects 3) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, at least one of four(c) Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements)(d) Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
65R & R Behavior/intense interests: Range from typical but young, to eccentricMove thru different ones, simple to complexFocus on objects over people
66R &R affects C Poverty of Experience is not experienced only by the poor Perseveration: The knowledge and experience base in ASD are narrow and deep instead of shallow and wideLimited background knowledge and exposure to a wide range of topics…and the language that goes with it.Affects vocabulary, word knowledge, world knowledge and conversationDisinterest in stories about non-preferred topics, less motivation, less reading:The MATTHEW EFFECT
68Specialists in a generalist world May get stuck on a preferred topic.Know less about other topics or subjects to relate toLimits activities and interests to share with others (world knowledge, word knowledge, social understanding).Unexpected depth of knowledge in a specific area of interest may limit conversation and cause social isolation
73Positives of “R&R” Comprehension IDEA Favorite and preferred topics and activities can be usefulPreferred subjects can be chosen to illustrate points and practice skills.Focusing first on the preferred may be highly motivating.Benefit of rules, routines, and lists.
74Comprehension IDEA: Roots, Suffixes and Affixes= apply a formula to words Teach how to break words into parts and memorize roots, affixes and suffixesOf all the strategies we used, Tom reported that this was the breakthrough for him.As always, it is wise to start by breaking down the parts of words from the person’s area of intense interest, whether it is Star Wars or weather or trains
75Combine R&Rs with M&Ms memory & manipulatives fulsourcereRoots, suffixes and affixes
76The DISSECT mnemonic, (Lenz & Hughes, 1990) To understand multi-syllabic words and learn new vocabularyUseful in content-specific texts such as science or social studies for longer and more complex wordsSeven steps include:D discover the word's context.I isolate the prefix.S separate the suffix.S say the stem or root word.E examine the stem or root word.C check with someone.T try the dictionary.See Bremer, Clapper and Deshler in “Improving Word Identification Skills Using Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) Strategies,” found at
77Cognitive/learning profile Understand how people with autism think to intervene effectivelyBe aware of common difficulties in the cognitive/learning profile to guide the search for answers
78The obvious & hidden sides of ASD Outward, observable behaviors described in the diagnostic criteria = developmental differencesNeurological evidence = explains causes & brain- based reasons for the developmental differences78
79Autism as a Disorder of Information Processing Minshew & Williams, 2008 ComplexityInformation Processing
80Difficulty Processing Information Complexity of InformationAmountStructureTime constraintsMultiple simultaneous demands
81Autism as a Disorder of Complex Processing Processing multiple modalitiesMulti-taskingSocial engagement, communication and thinking are complex processesHighest demands= greatest difficultyDifficulty integrating a variety of information at once (central coherence, comprehension)
82Associated Features Affect C Central Coherence Getting the Big PictureIntegrating the parts and the whole: SynthesisThe GIST: getting the pointSeparating relevant from irrelevantUnderstanding cause and effectPredicting, Inferring
83Associated Features Affect C ExecutiveFunctionOrganize a goal-directed activityFocusPay attention (to the right things)Shift attentionSense the order in the materialSequenceRe-tell
84Other Cognitive Processes Affect C Higher Level thinking SkillsMetacognition(thinking about thinking and learning about learning)Problem solvingCognitive flexibilitySelf monitoringSelf-regulationActive use of strategies
85Associated Features Affect C VisualOver-StimulationLoses place easily when readingCan’t follow along when others readHas trouble finding answers to questions in text or with “Look Backs”
86Text organization Teach to preview text before diving into the book. Find the visual clues- boldfaced words, definitions. chapter headings, pictures, the type of textShow the organization of text within chapters (show the author’s order)
87Review: 5 types of reading comprehension All five types of reading comprehension may be challenges for readers with ASD who can decode but don’t understandLiteral comprehension – understanding explicit material in text.Inferential comprehension – understanding ideas beyond the literal text by interpreting, synthesizing and extending meaning.Critical comprehension – meaning derived by evaluating, analyzing, and making judgments about material that was read.Affective comprehension – relating to the material at a personal and emotional level.Lexical comprehension – making sense of text by knowing the meaning of key vocabulary words.(Adapted from Salvia & Ysseldyke, Assessment in inclusive and special education, ninth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.)
88What can we learn about the issues in Comprehension from research about ASD? DATARC
89The problems Smith-Myles, 2002 Independent and silent reading comprehension 1-6 grade levels behindfrustration with independent reading & grade-level textsloss of motivation to readNation & Norbury, 200565% of students with ASD had a comprehension deficit of at least 1 standard deviation and one-third had severe impairments.O’Conner & Klein, 2004Below age-level comprehension
90Holman, 2004Holman’s subjects with hyperlexia and those with autism scored near the mean on standardized tests; the controls scored approximately 1.5 SDs higher.While the standardized tests showed “average” comprehension near the mean, informal curriculum-based measures showed that the students with autism and hyperlexia were functioning at the frustration level in reading.(understanding of 70% or less of the material).
91How do we assess and reveal comprehension issues in readers with hyperlexia? ASDWe must find out where they struggle!
92Comprehension problems are masked by: Good decoding and fluencyUnderstanding of concrete factsGood memorySuperficial understandingUse of safe and borrowed responsesHow comprehension is measuredBeing re-taught at home
93The Matthew EffectIn addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). CDEThe rich get richer and the poor get poorerSo TRUE for readers with ASD, especially at risk around grade 3 to 4
94View thru the ASD lens Be discerning & selective choosing evaluation materials and methodsto identify the comprehension gapViewthru the ASD lens
95Read the Test Manual! How is reading defined? How is comprehension defined?Does the test measure what you want to measure?What else can you do?Review records to see how comprehension was measured in the past to understand why the problem was not revealed
96WJ-III Test 9 Reading Comprehension Manual pp.80-81. “An independent measure requires reasonable expectation that subjects have prior familiarity with the words used in the passages and have knowledge of any concepts that are prerequisite for processing the passage contents.If these conditions are not met the so-called passage comprehension is confounded with word recognition skills and knowledge.Some tests of reading comprehension are actually tests of information processing that happen to use reading as the medium of communication.Asking a subject to study a passage and then answer questions about the content, such as to state the author’s purpose or to predict what may happen next, does not tap into skills specific to reading. It taps language processing and cognitive skills…”
97WJ-III Test 9 Reading Comprehension Test Manual pp.80-81. “However scores from such tests do not measure the essence of reading comprehension, but instead reflect performance on a confounded language processing task with indeterminate diagnostic results.A program of remedial instruction planned for a subject may be ineffective if it is assumed that the problem is the subject’s reading skill when the problem is actually a symptom of a broader language processing skill.”EMILY NOTES: (Reading this, and knowing that students with ASD may perform in the average range in this test makes me wonder if maybe we should be measuring broader language skills to get to the bottom of the comprehension issue in ASD!).
98Cloze procedureDoes a cloze procedure really reveal how well a person reads and understands authentic text?Full pages?Chapters?Whole books?
99Comprehension problems, revealed Problems understanding what was heardDifficulty with abstract concepts and inference (beyond concrete and personal)Not being able to summarize, identify the main idea, retell events, or sequence textDifficulty answering questions, expanding on answers, finding the answers in textNot being able to write about what was read or said (including doing homework)Drawing a Blank
100Comprehension problems, revealed Difficulty following directionsInformal measures or the right standardized assessmentsLanguage testing vs. academic testingWhen we don’t average results!WJIII Passage Comprehension PR 1Reading Vocabulary PR 81“Tom’s performance is average in reading comprehension.”Look at Standards and Expectations for several grades
101REVIEW STATE STANDARDS Source: CA Dept of Education Standard 2.0 Reading ComprehensionStudents read and understand grade-level-appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
102REVIEW STATE STANDARDS Structural Features of Informational Materials2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text.Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text2.2 State the purpose in reading (i.e., tell what information is sought).2.3 Use knowledge of the author’s purpose(s) to comprehend informational text.2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition (e.g., why, what if, how).2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas.2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text.2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs.2.8 Follow two-step written instructions.California Department of Education Standards for Language Arts, Grade 3Found at
103Dibels Data System- Vocabulary Instruction for K https://dibels
104Dibels Data System- Vocabulary Instruction Map for grade 3 https://dibels.uoregon.edu/c_maps.php#2_comp
105Dibels Data System https://dibels.uoregon.edu/c_maps.php Download a PDF version of the curriculum maps for Kindergarten - Third GradeAdapted Curriculum maps in Drawing A Blank
107Comprehension problems revealed in the use of context Homographs. The dove circled the pool and dove into the water.Poor ability to effectively identify the correct pronunciation of homographs while reading sentences (Frith & Snowling, 1983; Happe, 1997).Difficulty resolving ambiguity, including with pronouns: Sarah said hello to her mother when she came in and put her purse on her sofa. (anaphoric cueing).
108Focused Intervention Define specific reading problems Find effective ways to address them.Tailor intervention to the learning style and needsUse known strengths: concrete, visual, spatial, routine
109Two types of comprehension instruction Comprehension instruction necessary for understanding the immediate storyComprehension instruction that teaches strategies learners can apply on their ownBoth are critical for learners with special needs, including ASD!Be very aware of pre-requisite skills!!!
113What Does Research Tell Us About Comprehension Intervention for Readers with ASD? DATARCASD
114National Reading Panel Report The recommendations are general, not specific to students with ASD.The NRP specifically eliminated all studies that focused on special needs populations from their analysis.The specific focus of the panel review, which can be considered a limitation of the Panel findings or application of recommendations.a chart of the data on comprehension strategies studied by the NRP
115Limited ResearchThere has been VERY LIMITED research into comprehension issues in autism, or in effective methods for improving comprehension.VERY FEW reading studies include subjects with autism or Asperger Syndrome.Studies including subjects with ASD have been SMALLIn a review of the literature about reading comprehension instruction, Chiang and Lin (2007) identified 754 articles potentially relevant to the topic.Of these, only 11 had at least 1 participant with ASD.No studies had participants with Asperger Syndrome.
116Tailoring intervention to ASD Strategies used with students with ASD must take into account both the general cognitive profile as well as individual variations (O’Connor and Klein, 2004).Methods helpful to students with other learning differences may be appropriate for some students with ASDSome methods that work for those with other learning differences will not be effective for those with ASD
117Avoid strategies that are NOT a good fit to ASD Not recommended:Dictionary definitionsHaving students read text and answer questions (not an instructional method)May not work (O’Connor and Klein, 2004)Activation of prior knowledgeCloze task
118Research says YES to… Informative title and primer passage (pre-teaching facts)- Wahlberg, Wahlberg & MaglianoRelated narratives- Colasent & GriffithAnaphoric Cuing- O’Conner & Klein
119Research says YES to…Pre-teaching basic factual concepts (primer passages)Informative title and primer (Wahlberg & Magliano)Related narratives (Colasent & Griffith)Anaphoric Cuing (O’Conner & Klein)
121Primer passages Primer passages- just the facts Tip: ELL materials often contain primer passages
122PRIMER PASSAGE Example: Basic facts about oceans (extracted from the passage, “Looking at the Seas”) Our Earth is a water plane. 71% of its surface is water. This is why earth is called the “water planet.”There are four main oceans, the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Arctic.Some people think there is a fifth ocean around Antarctica.All oceans and seas are connected and the same water travels through them all.A long time ago, all the land on our planet might have been grouped closely together.
123Looking at the SeasIf you look down at our planet from outer space, most of what you see is water; 71% of the planet’s surface is covered by ocean and it is because of this that the Earth is sometimes called “the water planet.” Only about three-tenths of our globe is covered with land.The ocean wraps the globe and is divided into four major regions: the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Some scientists consider the waters around Antarctica to be a separate, fifth ocean as well. These oceans, although distinct in some ways, are all interconnected; the same water is circulated throughout them all.
124Primer passage & informative title- Pre-reading Strategy Provide a clear title for a passage that does not have a title or is unclear.EXAMPLE: rename a passage about the Olympics with an ambiguous title such as “A Personal Best” to “Racing for the Gold.”2. Prepare a primer passage that contains all of the main ideas of the passage to be read.Wahlberg and Magliano (2004).
125Primer passage & informative title- Pre-reading Strategy 3. After reading a primer passage, ask readers to notice the title again, and make a link between the title of the selection to be read and the primer passage. This connection serves as an anchor to help readers focus on information relevant to the passage to be read.4. After reading, discuss with the reader how the primer passage, the title and the passage itself all relate to one another.Wahlberg and Magliano (2004).
126Activities Related to Primer Passages Prepare questions to guide readingSearch for evidence to questions
127Related narrative passages (Colasent and Griffith, 1998). Adolescent students with autism were more successful with recall and oral retelling when thematic stories were used as content.Drawing and writing about the stories improved retelling even more.The students were able to relate information from one rabbit story to another (text to text).Thematic stories, multiple exposures, and reading aloud may also benefit individuals with poor verbal skills or weak auditory comprehension.
128Comprehension IDEA Who? Whom? Whose? Teaching Anaphoric Cueing Addresses these comprehension skills…Difficulty with pronounsSelf-monitoring of understandingAsking questionsClarification of ambiguity
129ExamplesMy mother and I are baking a birthday cake. We want to surprise grandma. Geraldo and Scott have been friends for a long time. They are on the same baseball team. The teacher saw that Emily did not bring a lunch and asked, “Do you have money to buy lunch?”
130Who? Whom? Whose? Teaching Anaphoric Cueing Teach the skillHighlight possessive pronouns in a short text.Decide what noun or person is referred to in each example.Read the passage together AFTER clarificationPractice the skillStop while reading to clarifyIndependent practiceMonitor use of the strategy while reading
131Next steps Practice the skill Stop while reading to clarify (think aloud)Independent practiceMonitor use of the strategy while reading
132Comprehension IDEA Who. Whom. Whose Comprehension IDEA Who? Whom? Whose? Teaching Anaphoric Cueing- Word® VersionCut and paste the same text into a Word ® document 3 timesUse “find and replace” to substitute names and possessives for subject pronouns and possessive pronouns
133What are some other promising intervention ideas based on research and evidence about ASD?
134Promising Practices: How is Vocabulary Best Taught to students with ASD? Direct, explicit instruction of unfamiliar or key words BEFORE reading (during or after are second choices).Choose KEY words important to understanding that will be encountered often.Focus on words with multiple meanings.Homographs: Words that look alike but don’t sound alike.She had a tear in her eye when she got a tear in her dress.
135Comprehension IDEA The Synonym Strategy Grows vocabulary, self-monitoring, pre-reading skills, multiple meanings, parts of speechA tool to instantly clarify word meanings- without a “dictionary”User-friendly and fastTakes the dic-straction out of the equation
136The Synonym StrategyType a selected text (paragraph or passage) into a word processing document. (The student may also be the typist).The boys were uncertain about what to do next. They had never seen a cadaver, much less had one blocking their egress.
137The Synonym Strategy2. Ask the student to pre-read the text and use the computer to highlight any words he or she does not know.The boys were uncertain about what to do next. They had never seen a cadaver, much less had one blocking their egress.
138The Synonym StrategyFor each highlighted word, have the student right click the computer mouse. The computer will offer a synonym. Have the student click on a word that he or she recognizes and knows the meaning of; it will automatically be substituted into the text.The boys were unsure about what to do next. They had never seen a dead body, much less had one blocking their way out.
139The Synonym Strategy4. Have the student read the text with the substituted, familiar words in place of the unfamiliar words. See if the selected substitute words make sense.Check for understanding of the passage with the synonyms in place.The boys were unsure about what to do next. They had never seen a dead body, much less had one blocking their way out.
140The Synonym Strategy an original idea by EI Finally, ask the reader to read the original text and check for understanding.The boys were uncertain about what to do next. They had never seen a cadaver, much less had one blocking their egress.
141Benefits of the Synonym Strategy Defines words in contextLinks the unknown with the knownQuick and easyMaintains the train of thoughtA useful tool for life
145While reading: Teach Self-monitoring of Understanding HighlightDrawFill in graphic organizersLook for answers to questionsHand graphic organizer free at
146Comprehension IDEA: Media Strategies Show movies before reading booksRead plays before reading booksSummarize and sequence the eventsAnalyze the plot, characters, themes & vocabulary before looking at the same elements in text.Turn on the closed captions on the TV “mapping of speech onto print”
147Our Accomplishments Today Examined the reading processUnderstand how features of ASD affect comprehensionIdentified skills to teach explicitlyPracticed strategies & techniquesHave more tools!Achieved a greater comprehension of the issue and What To Do
148Your View thru the ASD lens Integrate what you now know about comprehension, hyperlexia, & the person with ASDto select promising comprehensiontechniques and strategies!Your Viewthru the ASD lens