Presentation on theme: "Drawing a Blank: Improving Reading Comprehension in Good Decoders with Autism Spectrum Disorders Presented by Emily D. Iland, M.A. Educational Consultant."— Presentation transcript:
Drawing a Blank: Improving Reading Comprehension in Good Decoders with Autism Spectrum Disorders Presented by Emily D. Iland, M.A. Educational Consultant authors@asdAtoZ.com www.asdAtoZ.com www.readingautism.com
A personal & professional perspective
Tom Iland, age 3 “In cannis corpore transmuto”
Our Agenda 1.Examine the reading process and comprehension 2.Understand how features of ASD affect comprehension 3.Discuss issues in evaluation 4.Identify skills that must be explicitly taught 5.Share intervention ideas and techniques tailored to the needs of readers ASD (new and used!)
Anticipated Outcomes Integrate theory and practice (what to know, what to do) Inform practice based on research findings Gain skills and to help students or clients Choose from tools you already have to focus on this population
Be discerning & selective when reading comprehension research, data, reports, techniques, recommendations, and strategies to determine The Fit with ASD View thru the ASD lens
Based on the brand-new book Drawing A Blank: Improving Comprehension for Readers on the Autism Spectrum Autism Asperger Publishing Company
Examining the Reading Process: What is Reading? R Get on the same page to define, understand and measure reading!
Defining Reading Our definitions of reading guide our understanding and views Different reading assessments are based on different definitions of things like “comprehension”
The Simple View of Reading R = D x C Reading is the product of the processes (x not +). It involves language and cognition. It is not as simple as it sounds, because the processes of decoding and understanding are complex and inter-related If you can Decode and have Linguistic Comprehension, you are reading! Gough & Tunmer, 1986
The Simple View of Reading R = D x C Problems can arise with D, C or both → Problems with “D only” can be called dyslexia Problems with “C only” can be called hyperlexia (different than precocious hyperlexia)
HYPERLEXIA “Strong mechanical word recognition with comparatively poor comprehension” GOOD DECODING with POOR COMPREHENSION IN PEOPLE WITH ASD Grigorenko, E. L., Klin, A, Pauls, D. L., Senft, R., Hooper, C., & Volkmar, F. (2002). A descriptive study of hyperlexia in a clinically referred sample of children with developmental delays. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 32(1), 3-12.
Hyperlexia is a learning disability Grigorenko, E. L., Klin, A., & Volkmar, F. (2003). Annotation: Hyperlexia: Disability or Superability? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(8), 1079-1091. GOOD DECODING with POOR COMPREHENSION IN PEOPLE WITH ASD
A more complex definition of reading National Reading Panel (2005), p.28 “A form of dynamic thinking [that] includes interpreting information through the filter of one’s own knowledge and beliefs, using the author’s organizational plan to think about information (or imposing one’s own organization on ideas), inferring what the author does not tell explicitly, as well as many other cognitive actions.”
What is comprehension? The purpose and the essence of reading C R
Understand the Reading Process and Comprehension… To recognize the skills good readers possess To recognize where the comprehension breakdown can occur To inform approaches to “repair”
Comprehension= Constructing Meaning 1.Understand the text at the word and sentence level, “word knowledge” 2.Identify relevant information
Comprehension= Constructing Meaning 3.Relate, compare and integrate to what is already known a.k.a. “world knowledge” or prior knowledge 4.Internalize to own experience
Comprehension= Constructing Meaning 5.Create a new construct or idea, the gist or meaning 6.Store the new idea 7.Retrieve upon demand
Factors contributing to reading comprehension Fluent word recognition skills Vocabulary knowledge World knowledge Comprehension monitoring Active use of comprehension strategies Pressley, M. (2001). Comprehension Instruction: What Makes Sense Now, What Might Make Sense Soon http://www.readingonline.org/articles/handbook/pressley /
What good comprehenders do Know why they are reading Understand the point Relate to prior knowledge Relate to other text See cause and effect Interpret characters’ actions and emotions Understand the author’s intentions
What good comprehenders do Monitor understanding Use strategies flexibly and in combination – Re-read – Look back Predict Revise/repair Infer Summarize Mark, highlight
5 types of reading comprehension All five types of reading comprehension may be challenges for readers with ASD who can decode but don’t understand 1.Literal 2.Inferential 3.Critical 4.Affective 5.Lexical (Adapted from Salvia & Ysseldyke, 2004. Assessment in inclusive and special education, ninth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.)
1. Literal comprehension Understanding explicit material in text
2. Inferential comprehension Understanding ideas beyond the literal text by interpreting, synthesizing and extending meaning
3. Critical comprehension Meaning derived by evaluating, analyzing, and making judgments about material that was read.
4. Affective comprehension Relating to the material at a personal and emotional level.
5. Lexical comprehension Making sense of text by knowing the meaning of key vocabulary words.
What is ASD? How does ASD affect reading comprehension? ASD RC The use of this slide pattern is a comprehension strategy This visual cue helps you follow the author’s organization of ideas.
The Autism Spectrum Understanding why people with ASD have difficulty with reading comprehension is helpful in determining how to help them. Interventions tailored to the needs of learners with ASD are more effective! Efforts to remediate the core deficits and support other features can also improve the literacy skills that are affected by them.
Autism Spectrum Disorders Affect S= social interaction and reciprocity B= Behavior, limited focus, interests or motor mannerisms C= Communication, verbal and non-verbal Global= Sensory response to the world around them ASD affects the ability to spontaneously learn these things, but they can be taught
The Autism Spectrum People are affected severely or less severely in the core areas & have different areas of strength. The features of ASD can have pervasive effects on reading, learning, and applying what is learned though reading. 1234
Autistic Disorder (299.00): Diagnostic Criteria: A total of 6 of 12 features Social Behavior Communication
Qualitative impairments in communication at least one of these four: (a) Delay in, or total lack of, the development of spoken language (not accompanied by an attempt to compensate through alternative mode of communication such as gesture or mime) (b) In individuals with adequate speech, marked impairment in the ability to initiate or sustain a conversation with others
Qualitative impairments in communication at least one of four: (c) Stereotyped and repetitive use of language or idiosyncratic language (d) Lack of varied, spontaneous make-believe play or social imitative play appropriate to developmental level
Communication The language-literacy link Understanding oral language Language processing Auditory processing Difficulties with speaking, listening and understanding affect literacy: reading and writing
The language-literacy link A different timeline/uneven development Receptive and Expressive Vocabulary (number of words) Vocabulary Gap Literal and concrete vs. figurative, abstract and inferred Difficulty with images, imagination & imagery
Shades of Meaning Activity Not all synonyms are created equal! Teaches synonyms, expands vocabulary Reveals the hidden meaning behind words Teaches connotation: the emotion and intention attached to specific words Clarifies the perspective and intention of characters or the author (social thinking)
Shades of Meaning Activity - + = Words can be positive, negative or neutral. The added, hidden meaning can be light or heavy. The “heavy” meaning can be heavily positive or heavily negative
Rating & Ranking Synonyms: Example Thrifty, frugal, stingy, economical Rate +, –, or = (judgment or inferred meaning) Rank from lightest to heaviest “emotional load” Have the student write the words on a paint chip, – neutral words first, – then light meaning – then heavy meaning (either heavily positive or heavily negative)
Shades of Meaning Comprehension Activity Form a group for this activity, 3-4 people. 1.In a moment you will be given four words. Copy them down. 2.The Group will RATE EACH WORD as, positive, negative or neutral by giving it a rating +, –, or = 3.Decide together how to RANK YOUR WORDS on the paint chip in order from the “lightest” to the “deepest” shade or intensity of meaning
Shades of Meaning RATE (+ – or =) & RANK (light to heavy) RED GROUP – SLENDER – ANOREXIC – THIN – SKINNY YELLOW GROUP – PLUMP – CURVY – OBESE – PLUS-SIZED GREEN GROUP – UGLY – UNATTRACTIVE – UNSIGHTLY – PLAIN BLUE GROUP – INTELLECTUAL – SHREWD – CLEVER – ASTUTE
Autism and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria: Qualitative impairment in social interaction (two of four features): a)marked impairment in the use of multiple nonverbal behaviors such as eye-to-eye gaze, facial expression, body postures, and gestures to regulate social interaction
Autism and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria b) failure to develop peer relationships appropriate to developmental level
Autism and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria ( c) a lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment, interests, or achievements with other people (e.g., by a lack of showing, bringing or pointing out objects of interest)
Autism and Asperger Syndrome Diagnostic Criteria (d) lack of social or emotional reciprocity Shared emotion, social pacingReciprocity: give and take
Comprehension Idea Don’t ask “IF,” ask “WHEN” Relate to the KNOWN Avoid the Unknown
Comprehension Activity: Two True Social Thinking and Theory of Mind 1.In random order, write down two things about yourself that are true, AND one “believable lie” on an index card. 2.Find a partner. Exchange Cards. 3.Try to guess which statement is not true. Talk about it! 4.Come back to order when the signal is given. These instructions are written in a way that supports your comprehension.
3) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, at least one of four (a) Encompassing preoccupation with one or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest that is abnormal either in intensity or focus (b) Apparently inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines or rituals
3) restricted repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities, at least one of four (c) Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (e.g., hand or finger flapping or twisting, or complex whole-body movements) (d) Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects
R & R Behavior/intense interests: Range from typical but young, to eccentric Move thru different ones, simple to complex Focus on objects over people
R &R affects C Poverty of Experience is not experienced only by the poor Perseveration: The knowledge and experience base in ASD are narrow and deep instead of shallow and wide Limited background knowledge and exposure to a wide range of topics…and the language that goes with it. Affects vocabulary, word knowledge, world knowledge and conversation Disinterest in stories about non-preferred topics, less motivation, less reading: – The MATTHEW EFFECT
Specialists in a generalist world May get stuck on a preferred topic. Know less about other topics or subjects to relate to Limits activities and interests to share with others (world knowledge, word knowledge, social understanding). Unexpected depth of knowledge in a specific area of interest may limit conversation and cause social isolation
Positives of “R&R” Comprehension IDEA Favorite and preferred topics and activities can be useful Preferred subjects can be chosen to illustrate points and practice skills. Focusing first on the preferred may be highly motivating. Benefit of rules, routines, and lists.
Comprehension IDEA: Roots, Suffixes and Affixes= apply a formula to words Teach how to break words into parts and memorize roots, affixes and suffixes Of all the strategies we used, Tom reported that this was the breakthrough for him. As always, it is wise to start by breaking down the parts of words from the person’s area of intense interest, whether it is Star Wars or weather or trains
Combine R&Rs with M&Ms memory & manipulatives re source ful Roots, suffixes and affixes
The DISSECT mnemonic, (Lenz & Hughes, 1990) To understand multi-syllabic words and learn new vocabulary Useful in content-specific texts such as science or social studies for longer and more complex words Seven steps include: Ddiscover the word's context. Iisolate the prefix. Sseparate the suffix. Ssay the stem or root word. Eexamine the stem or root word. Ccheck with someone. Ttry the dictionary. See Bremer, Clapper and Deshler in “Improving Word Identification Skills Using Strategic Instruction Model (SIM) Strategies,” found at http://www.ncset.org/publications/printresource.asp?id=720 http://www.ncset.org/publications/printresource.asp?id=720
Cognitive/learning profile Understand how people with autism think to intervene effectively Be aware of common difficulties in the cognitive/learning profile to guide the search for answers
The obvious & hidden sides of ASD Outward, observable behaviors described in the diagnostic criteria = developmental differences Neurological evidence = explains causes & brain- based reasons for the developmental differences
Autism as a Disorder of Information Processing Minshew & Williams, 2008 Complexity Information Processing
Difficulty Processing Information Complexity of Information AmountStructure Time constraints Multiple simultaneous demands
Autism as a Disorder of Complex Processing Processing multiple modalities Multi-tasking Social engagement, communication and thinking are complex processes Highest demands= greatest difficulty Difficulty integrating a variety of information at once (central coherence, comprehension)
Associated Features Affect C Central Coherence Getting the Big Picture Integrating the parts and the whole: Synthesis The GIST: getting the point Separating relevant from irrelevant Understanding cause and effect Predicting, Inferring
Associated Features Affect C Executive Function Organize a goal-directed activity Focus Pay attention (to the right things) Shift attention Sense the order in the material Sequence Re-tell
Other Cognitive Processes Affect C Higher Level thinking Skills Metacognition (thinking about thinking and learning about learning) Problem solving Cognitive flexibility Self monitoring Self-regulation Active use of strategies
Associated Features Affect C Visual Over-Stimulation Loses place easily when reading Can’t follow along when others read Has trouble finding answers to questions in text or with “Look Backs”
Text organization Teach to preview text before diving into the book. Find the visual clues- boldfaced words, definitions. chapter headings, pictures, the type of text Show the organization of text within chapters (show the author’s order)
Review: 5 types of reading comprehension All five types of reading comprehension may be challenges for readers with ASD who can decode but don’t understand 1.Literal comprehension – understanding explicit material in text. 2.Inferential comprehension – understanding ideas beyond the literal text by interpreting, synthesizing and extending meaning. 3.Critical comprehension – meaning derived by evaluating, analyzing, and making judgments about material that was read. 4.Affective comprehension – relating to the material at a personal and emotional level. 5.Lexical comprehension – making sense of text by knowing the meaning of key vocabulary words. (Adapted from Salvia & Ysseldyke, 2004. Assessment in inclusive and special education, ninth edition. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.)
What can we learn about the issues in Comprehension from research about ASD? DATA RC
The problems Smith-Myles, 2002 – Independent and silent reading comprehension 1-6 grade levels behind – frustration with independent reading & grade-level texts – loss of motivation to read Nation & Norbury, 2005 65% of students with ASD had a comprehension deficit of at least 1 standard deviation and one- third had severe impairments. O’Conner & Klein, 2004 Below age-level comprehension
Holman, 2004 Holman’s subjects with hyperlexia and those with autism scored near the mean on standardized tests; the controls scored approximately 1.5 SDs higher. While the standardized tests showed “average” comprehension near the mean, informal curriculum-based measures showed that the students with autism and hyperlexia were functioning at the frustration level in reading. (understanding of 70% or less of the material).
How do we assess and reveal comprehension issues in readers with hyperlexia? RC ASD ? We must find out where they struggle!
Comprehension problems are masked by: 1.Good decoding and fluency 2.Understanding of concrete facts 3.Good memory 4.Superficial understanding 5.Use of safe and borrowed responses 6.How comprehension is measured 7.Being re-taught at home
The Matthew Effect In addition to their regular school reading, by grade four, students read one-half million words annually, including a good representation of grade-level-appropriate narrative and expository text (e.g., classic and contemporary literature, magazines, newspapers, online information). CDE The rich get richer and the poor get poorer So TRUE for readers with ASD, especially at risk around grade 3 to 4
Be discerning & selective choosing evaluation materials and methods to identify the comprehension gap View thru the ASD lens
Read the Test Manual! How is reading defined? How is comprehension defined? Does the test measure what you want to measure? What else can you do? Review records to see how comprehension was measured in the past to understand why the problem was not revealed
WJ-III Test 9 Reading Comprehension Manual pp.80-81. “An independent measure requires reasonable expectation that subjects have prior familiarity with the words used in the passages and have knowledge of any concepts that are prerequisite for processing the passage contents. If these conditions are not met the so-called passage comprehension is confounded with word recognition skills and knowledge. Some tests of reading comprehension are actually tests of information processing that happen to use reading as the medium of communication. Asking a subject to study a passage and then answer questions about the content, such as to state the author’s purpose or to predict what may happen next, does not tap into skills specific to reading. It taps language processing and cognitive skills…”
WJ-III Test 9 Reading Comprehension Test Manual pp.80-81. “However scores from such tests do not measure the essence of reading comprehension, but instead reflect performance on a confounded language processing task with indeterminate diagnostic results. A program of remedial instruction planned for a subject may be ineffective if it is assumed that the problem is the subject’s reading skill when the problem is actually a symptom of a broader language processing skill.” EMILY NOTES: (Reading this, and knowing that students with ASD may perform in the average range in this test makes me wonder if maybe we should be measuring broader language skills to get to the bottom of the comprehension issue in ASD!).
Cloze procedure Does a cloze procedure really reveal how well a person reads and understands authentic text? – Full pages? – Chapters? – Whole books?
Comprehension problems, revealed 1.Problems understanding what was heard 2.Difficulty with abstract concepts and inference (beyond concrete and personal) 3.Not being able to summarize, identify the main idea, retell events, or sequence text 4.Difficulty answering questions, expanding on answers, finding the answers in text 5.Not being able to write about what was read or said (including doing homework) Drawing a Blank
Comprehension problems, revealed 6.Difficulty following directions 7.Informal measures or the right standardized assessments 8.Language testing vs. academic testing 9.When we don’t average results! WJIII Passage Comprehension PR 1 Reading Vocabulary PR 81 “Tom’s performance is average in reading comprehension.” 10.Look at Standards and Expectations for several grades
REVIEW STATE STANDARDS Source: CA Dept of Education Standard 2.0 Reading Comprehension Students read and understand grade-level- appropriate material. They draw upon a variety of comprehension strategies as needed (e.g., generating and responding to essential questions, making predictions, comparing information from several sources). The selections in Recommended Literature, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve illustrate the quality and complexity of the materials to be read by students.
REVIEW STATE STANDARDS Structural Features of Informational Materials 2.1 Use titles, tables of contents, and chapter headings to locate information in expository text. Comprehension and Analysis of Grade-Level-Appropriate Text 2.2 State the purpose in reading (i.e., tell what information is sought). 2.3 Use knowledge of the author’s purpose(s) to comprehend informational text. 2.4 Ask clarifying questions about essential textual elements of exposition (e.g., why, what if, how). 2.5 Restate facts and details in the text to clarify and organize ideas. 2.6 Recognize cause-and-effect relationships in a text. 2.7 Interpret information from diagrams, charts, and graphs. 2.8 Follow two-step written instructions. California Department of Education Standards for Language Arts, Grade 3 Found at http://www.cde.ca.gov/be/st/ss/
Dibels Data System- Vocabulary Instruction for K https://dibels.uoregon.edu/c_maps.php#2_comp https://dibels.uoregon.edu/c_maps.php#2_comp
Dibels Data System- Vocabulary Instruction Map for grade 3 https://dibels.uoregon.edu/c_maps.php#2_comp
Dibels Data System https://dibels.uoregon.edu/c_maps.php https://dibels.uoregon.edu/c_maps.php Download a PDF version of the curriculum maps for Kindergarten - Third GradeKindergarten - Third Grade Adapted Curriculum maps in Drawing A Blank
Comprehension problems revealed in the use of context Homographs. The dove circled the pool and dove into the water. Poor ability to effectively identify the correct pronunciation of homographs while reading sentences (Frith & Snowling, 1983; Happe, 1997). Difficulty resolving ambiguity, including with pronouns: Sarah said hello to her mother when she came in and put her purse on her sofa. (anaphoric cueing).
Focused Intervention Define specific reading problems Find effective ways to address them. Tailor intervention to the learning style and needs Use known strengths: concrete, visual, spatial, routine
Two types of comprehension instruction Comprehension instruction necessary for understanding the immediate story Comprehension instruction that teaches strategies learners can apply on their own Both are critical for learners with special needs, including ASD! Be very aware of pre- requisite skills!!!
What Does Research Tell Us About Comprehension Intervention for Readers with ASD? DATA R C ASD
National Reading Panel Report The recommendations are general, not specific to students with ASD. The NRP specifically eliminated all studies that focused on special needs populations from their analysis. The specific focus of the panel review, which can be considered a limitation of the Panel findings or application of recommendations. http://www.csun.edu/~hda75098/Comprehensionstrategiestable.html- a chart of the data on comprehension strategies studied by the NRP
Limited Research There has been VERY LIMITED research into comprehension issues in autism, or in effective methods for improving comprehension. VERY FEW reading studies include subjects with autism or Asperger Syndrome. Studies including subjects with ASD have been SMALL In a review of the literature about reading comprehension instruction, Chiang and Lin (2007) identified 754 articles potentially relevant to the topic. – Of these, only 11 had at least 1 participant with ASD. – No studies had participants with Asperger Syndrome.
Tailoring intervention to ASD Strategies used with students with ASD must take into account both the general cognitive profile as well as individual variations (O’Connor and Klein, 2004). Methods helpful to students with other learning differences may be appropriate for some students with ASD Some methods that work for those with other learning differences will not be effective for those with ASD
Avoid strategies that are NOT a good fit to ASD Not recommended: Dictionary definitions Having students read text and answer questions (not an instructional method) May not work (O’Connor and Klein, 2004) Activation of prior knowledge Cloze task
Research says YES to… Informative title and primer passage (pre-teaching facts)- Wahlberg, Wahlberg & Magliano Related narratives- Colasent & Griffith Anaphoric Cuing- O’Conner & Klein
Research says YES to… Pre-teaching basic factual concepts (primer passages) Informative title and primer (Wahlberg & Magliano) Related narratives (Colasent & Griffith) Anaphoric Cuing (O’Conner & Klein)
A visual of the same ideas.
Primer passages Primer passages- just the facts Tip: ELL materials often contain primer passages
PRIMER PASSAGE Example: Basic facts about oceans (extracted from the passage, “Looking at the Seas”) 1.Our Earth is a water plane. 71% of its surface is water. This is why earth is called the “water planet.” 2.There are four main oceans, the Atlantic, Pacific, Indian and Arctic. 3.Some people think there is a fifth ocean around Antarctica. 4.All oceans and seas are connected and the same water travels through them all. 5.A long time ago, all the land on our planet might have been grouped closely together.
Looking at the Seas If you look down at our planet from outer space, most of what you see is water; 71% of the planet’s surface is covered by ocean and it is because of this that the Earth is sometimes called “the water planet.” Only about three-tenths of our globe is covered with land. The ocean wraps the globe and is divided into four major regions: the Atlantic Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Indian Ocean and the Arctic Ocean. Some scientists consider the waters around Antarctica to be a separate, fifth ocean as well. These oceans, although distinct in some ways, are all interconnected; the same water is circulated throughout them all.
Primer passage & informative title- Pre-reading Strategy 1.Provide a clear title for a passage that does not have a title or is unclear. EXAMPLE: rename a passage about the Olympics with an ambiguous title such as “A Personal Best” to “Racing for the Gold.” 2. Prepare a primer passage that contains all of the main ideas of the passage to be read. Wahlberg and Magliano (2004).
Primer passage & informative title- Pre-reading Strategy 3. After reading a primer passage, ask readers to notice the title again, and make a link between the title of the selection to be read and the primer passage. This connection serves as an anchor to help readers focus on information relevant to the passage to be read. 4. After reading, discuss with the reader how the primer passage, the title and the passage itself all relate to one another. Wahlberg and Magliano (2004).
Activities Related to Primer Passages Prepare questions to guide reading Search for evidence to questions
Related narrative passages (Colasent and Griffith, 1998). Adolescent students with autism were more successful with recall and oral retelling when thematic stories were used as content. Drawing and writing about the stories improved retelling even more. The students were able to relate information from one rabbit story to another (text to text). Thematic stories, multiple exposures, and reading aloud may also benefit individuals with poor verbal skills or weak auditory comprehension.
Comprehension IDEA Who? Whom? Whose? Teaching Anaphoric Cueing Addresses these comprehension skills… Difficulty with pronouns Self-monitoring of understanding Asking questions Clarification of ambiguity
Examples My mother and I are baking a birthday cake. We want to surprise grandma. Geraldo and Scott have been friends for a long time. They are on the same baseball team. The teacher saw that Emily did not bring a lunch and asked, “Do you have money to buy lunch?”
Who? Whom? Whose? Teaching Anaphoric Cueing Teach the skill Highlight possessive pronouns in a short text. Decide what noun or person is referred to in each example. Read the passage together AFTER clarification Practice the skill Stop while reading to clarify Independent practice Monitor use of the strategy while reading
Next steps Practice the skill Stop while reading to clarify (think aloud) Independent practice Monitor use of the strategy while reading
Comprehension IDEA Who? Whom? Whose? Teaching Anaphoric Cueing- Word® Version Cut and paste the same text into a Word ® document 3 times Use “find and replace” to substitute names and possessives for subject pronouns and possessive pronouns
What are some other promising intervention ideas based on research and evidence about ASD? ? R C ASD
Promising Practices: How is Vocabulary Best Taught to students with ASD? Direct, explicit instruction of unfamiliar or key words BEFORE reading (during or after are second choices). Choose KEY words important to understanding that will be encountered often. Focus on words with multiple meanings. Homographs: Words that look alike but don’t sound alike. She had a tear in her eye when she got a tear in her dress.
Comprehension IDEA The Synonym Strategy Grows vocabulary, self-monitoring, pre- reading skills, multiple meanings, parts of speech A tool to instantly clarify word meanings- without a “dictionary” User-friendly and fast Takes the dic-straction out of the equation
The Synonym Strategy 1.Type a selected text (paragraph or passage) into a word processing document. (The student may also be the typist). The boys were uncertain about what to do next. They had never seen a cadaver, much less had one blocking their egress.
The Synonym Strategy 2. Ask the student to pre-read the text and use the computer to highlight any words he or she does not know. The boys were uncertain about what to do next. They had never seen a cadaver, much less had one blocking their egress.
The Synonym Strategy 3.For each highlighted word, have the student right click the computer mouse. The computer will offer a synonym. Have the student click on a word that he or she recognizes and knows the meaning of; it will automatically be substituted into the text. The boys were unsure about what to do next. They had never seen a dead body, much less had one blocking their way out.
The Synonym Strategy 4. Have the student read the text with the substituted, familiar words in place of the unfamiliar words. See if the selected substitute words make sense. Check for understanding of the passage with the synonyms in place. The boys were unsure about what to do next. They had never seen a dead body, much less had one blocking their way out.
The Synonym Strategy an original idea by EI 5.Finally, ask the reader to read the original text and check for understanding. The boys were uncertain about what to do next. They had never seen a cadaver, much less had one blocking their egress.
Benefits of the Synonym Strategy Defines words in context Links the unknown with the known Quick and easy Maintains the train of thought A useful tool for life
While reading: Teach Self-monitoring of Understanding Highlight Draw Fill in graphic organizers Look for answers to questions Hand graphic organizer free at http://freeology.com/graphicorgs/page4.php
Comprehension IDEA: Media Strategies Show movies before reading books Read plays before reading books www.imsdb.com www.simplyscripts.com Summarize and sequence the events Analyze the plot, characters, themes & vocabulary before looking at the same elements in text. Turn on the closed captions on the TV “mapping of speech onto print”
Our Accomplishments Today Examined the reading process Understand how features of ASD affect comprehension Identified skills to teach explicitly Practiced strategies & techniques Have more tools! Achieved a greater comprehension of the issue and What To Do
Integrate what you now know about comprehension, hyperlexia, & the person with ASD to select promising comprehension techniques and strategies! Your View thru the ASD lens