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1 5/1/20151 Teaching Literacy across the John Munro Teaching reading comprehending

2 5/1/2015 Literacy + learning in secondary classes Although magnetic videotape has the advantages of being cheap and easy to record and re-record on, it is easily damaged when stored near magnets. Magnets can change the pattern that has been stored on the tape. zThe films that you see at the cinema are different from videotapes. Chemicals create the picture on the cinema film. The film used in cinemas, like that used in normal cameras, cannot be re-recorded on and is more expensive to make. Cinema films last much longer and produce higher quality pictures. Van Gogh knew that colours can produce moods, emotions and feelings in those looking at paintings. Night Life in Arles by van Gogh has colours that lead to strong feelings. He referred to these colours are ‘blood red’ and ‘pale sulphur’. He used them to form an atmosphere that he said was like ‘a devil’s furnace’… to express the powers of darkness in a low bar’. His paintings were strong through this use of colours. Like other ancient civilizations, the civilization of ancient Egypt developed around a river — the Nile. It is the country’s lifeblood. Some 6000 kilometres long, it flows from the wet highlands of central Africa through the desert Red Lands, and finally empties through a long delta into the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile’s water, the plants and palms that grew on its banks, and the birds, fish and mammals that lived in and around it all helped to sustain the society of the ancient Egyptians. Solve 5x+7 = 37 5x+7-7 = x = 30 5x ÷ 5= 30÷ 5 x = 6 Before reading After reading

3 5/1/20153 What is literacy ? Literacy is the knowledge students use to convert written information to knowledge

4 5/1/20154 How do you read? Read the text. Your goal is re-tell it. As you read, reflect on what you do. zThere are two types of being; the eternal and the transient. The eternal need to return is not exemplified within the collective drama of history, nor can it be nurture through organization. Produce as it will, the eternal is not oriented towards produce. The transient, by its very nature, will end; they want to die, not live eternally. zThe struggles and education of man in social history had meaning for Marx such that the goal of a body politic free from class conflict so that man might develop as man.

5 5/1/20155 Things you do Re-read parts of the text more than once Link the text with what they know Work out its topic Say parts of it in their own words Use what they know about grammar to take the sentences apart Use punctuation Link what two or more sentences say work out what words mean in the context. Try to summarize or review every so often You look for sentence meanings You look at word meanings You look for the topic meaning You look for discourse meaning – text thread You look for the topic meaning You look for sentence meanings You look for discourse meaning – text thread Comprehending strategies : readers use employ a range of actions to comprehend text and to learn from it (Munro, 2002). What is the difference between comprehending and comprehension ?

6 5/1/20156 Things you do Re-read parts of the text more than once Link the text with what they know Work out its topic Say parts of it in their own words Use what they know about grammar to take the sentences apart Use punctuation Link what two or more sentences say work out what words mean in the context. Try to summarize or review every so often Re-read parts of the text more than once Try to link the text with what they know Why do you need to do a range of actions like this ? What readers do as they read a text is to try to build a representation or a model of it in their heads ?

7 5/1/20157 Importance of vocabulary for literacy and learning We are going to read about the rules of indoor soccer / living in ancient Egypt. What do you think of /see in your mind when you hear this? 4 ideas 40 ideas

8 Link between vocabulary and text comprehension 5/1/20158 Between 40% and 50% of the spread in comprehension here is due to vocabularly NAPLAN Comprehension Score

9 5/1/20159 zExtract 2: Read aloud these ‘ba’ words. Comment on the knowledge and strategies you use to read these words: bardocucullusbacciferousbaragouinbatrachophobia barbigerousbatrachianbaftbaryphonic

10 5/1/ Developing the letter cluster generator Teachers often need to help students  become aware they have a ‘letter cluster generator’ that allows then to learn new letter cluster patterns.  link these with matching sound patterns.  see themselves as ‘self teachers’.

11 5/1/ What do these ‘ba’ words mean ? Read aloud the following text and work out what they might mean. What do you do to work out their possible meanings. The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. The berry pickers worked without pause. The basket of baft into which they deposited their conquests were placed abraded their bare arms. If only the farmer had invested in containers made of more expensive and softer fabric. Conversation with the other pickers was difficult. Their baragouin was largely incomprehensible. However, there was no mistaking the batrachophobia shown by the barbigerous giant nearest to them. The first sight of the tree frogs froze him to paralysis. Even his well endowed beard failed to mask the intense fear the batrachian creatures induced in him. The bardocucullus he wore was reminiscent of the outer garmet of sixteenth century monks. The hood exacerbated his baryecoia and he did not hear much of the speech of those around him. This did not mean, however, he was baryphonic; he had no difficulty speaking with the other pickers. Taken from (Munro, 2002)

12 5/1/ The meaning making motor tells you to note the meaning features that might go with the new word try to combine them into an image guess at what the word might mean check your understanding by reading the text again modify your definition if necessary check your impression with what the dictionary says.

13 5/1/ Our self teaching capacity. The trees in the orchard were bacciferous. The berry pickers worked without pause. The basket of b aft into which they deposited their conquests were placed abraded their bare arms. If only the farmer had invested in containers made of more expensive and softer fabric. Conversation with the other pickers was difficult. Their baragoui n was largely incomprehensible. However, there was no mistaking the batrachophobia shown by the barbigerous giant nearest to them. The first sight of the tree frogs froze him to paralysis. Even his well endowed beard failed to mask the intense fear the batrachian creatures induced in him. The bardocucullus he wore was reminiscent of the outer garmet of sixteenth century monks. The hood exacerbated his baryecoia and he did not hear much of the speech of those around him. This did not mean, however, he was baryphonic; he had no difficulty speaking with the other pickers. What do your students know about this ? Do they know 1.that they can do this ? 2.how to do this ? 3.when and why to do it ? Note our self teaching capacity. How often each week do they 1.Work out collaboratively the meanings of new words ? 2.Talk about the actions they use to do this ? 3.Learn to make increasingly more complex links between ideas in the text ?

14 5/1/ How we think ahead when we read Tom was a tired weight lifter. He had worked hard on the weights for quite a while. It was tiring work. Finally, his coach pointed to a set in the corner: "That's the last for you today". As Tom walked towards it he thought "This barbell looks light", but as he moved closer, he was that it was dark. "I'll need to paint this one too", he said.

15 Tom’s day in the gym weight lifter Work with weights Bench press Goal to strengthen muscles Shoulder pull downs Do exercises with weights Light weight Heavy weight Exercises change how their body looks Gym singlet Wear particular gear Taken from (Munro, 2002 )

16 5/1/ How well did you think ahead ? Tom was a tired weight lifter. He had worked hard on the weights for quite a while. It was tiring work. Finally, his coach pointed to a set in the corner: "That's the last for you today". As Tom walked towards it he thought "This barbell looks light", but as he moved closer, he was that it was dark. "I'll need to paint this one too", he said. The flow-on to linked ideas predict, infer, anticipate

17 Tom’s day in the gym weight lifter Work with weights Bench press Goal to strengthen muscles Shoulder pull downs Do exercises with weights Light weight Heavy weight Exercises change how their body looks Gym singlet Wear particular gear Weights need to be painted Weights can be dark colour

18 5/1/2015 Reader Manage and direct the reading activity What knowledge does the reader need to comprehend the text ? Integrate the outcomes What does it tell me ? What do the words and phrases in the text tell me ? What is it about ? What is its topic ? What does each paragraph tell me ? What is the ‘story threat’ ? What is the text about altogether ? What do I know now that I didn’t know earlier What does each sentence tell me ? What is the purpose or disposition of the text? What is its genre ?

19 5/1/ New Information We use these ways of thinking simultaneously words sentence meanings paragraph meanings topic disposition We use these types of knowledge simultaneously When we read we  use several types of knowledge at once  may give priority to one or more at any time  use most types automatically.

20 What do you do to understand the text ? 5/1/ What is its topic ? How will I use this to link what I read ? What does each sentence mean ? What does ‘multiphase method’ or ingredient mean ? What does this picture tell me ? What is the main idea of this paragraph ? What do the three paragraphs tell me ? Review and consolidate the ideas in the text We use a range of comprehending actions We learn more about the text we read

21 What do you do to understand the text ? 5/1/ What is the main idea of this paragraph ? What is its topic ? How will I use this to link what I read ? What does each sentence mean ? What do the paragraphs tell me ? What type of text is this ? What does ‘learn to track’ or annoyance mean ? Review and consolidate the ideas in the text

22 What do you do to understand the text ? 5/1/ Early in reading activity What is its likely topic ? What type of text is this ? How will I use this to link what I read ? While reading What does each sentence mean ? Read it aloud to self, parapahrase, use grammar visualise, question, link with topic, predict. Work out word meanings. What is the main idea of this paragraph ? Link sentence meanings, summarise, predict, question answered by paragraph. What is discourse meaning. Link the set of paragraph meanings. Review and consolidate the ideas in the text What are the main and supporting ideas in the text ? Store in memory How will I use them ? Reflect on ideas, answer questions We change our reading activity as we read

23 5/1/ Reader Manage and direct the reading activity Vocabulary, word meanings Topic of text Purpose, disposition of text Meanings of sentences What knowledge does the reader need to comprehend the text ? Meanings of paragraphs, network of concepts Integrate the outcomes What does it tell me ?

24 5/1/ New Information An Egyptian King is buried in a Pyramid. OUR MODEL OF LITERACY Words ? Sentence meanings ? Paragraph meanings Topic ? Disposition ? Literacy knowledge : converting information to knowledge

25 How the VELS English Developmental Continuum describes text comprehension knowledge For each six month interval: The types of texts students are expected to comprehend independently The types of comprehension outcomes you can reasonably expect for able readers, the types of understanding or interpretations they can form of the types of text The comprehending strategies students should be able to use independently and with scaffolding

26 The comprehending strategies or skills The comprehending strategies or skills are organised into three phases, based on what the readers need to do early in reading a text while reading it towards the end of reading a session Each is matched by an Indicator of Progress for Text Comprehension

27 The strategies and the matching indicators of progress for getting knowledge ready zOrienting strategies: early in the reading activity readers work out or decide the likely topic of a text and use this to organise their understanding as they read. use its genre to infer it focus or the purpose for which it was written; they show this in the ideas and events they predict it might mention and suggest questions it might answer. form a reading plan; they show this in the reading actions they say they will use as they read.

28 The strategies and the matching indicators of progress for while reading While reading strategies: during the reading activity readers read part of the text at a time, aloud or silently. comprehend sentences, using strategies such as paraphrasing and visualizing as they read identify or work out the meanings of words in the context. form paragraph meanings; link sentence meanings and extract main idea in a paragraph by summarising. say questions answered by particular sentences and paragraphs in the text. form a discourse meaning; link the main ideas in each paragraph with the topic and identify the emerging perspective of the writer infer and predict from the text read so far what might be said. respond emotionally to the activity of reading and engage with it while reading

29 The strategies and the matching indicators of progress for getting knowledge ready zReviewing strategies: periodically during the reading activity readers review and consolidate what they have read so far. review the actions they use while reading. review their emotional response to a text and to themselves as readers.

30 The comprehension or ‘reading outcomes’ for the texts students form interpretations of the texts by using the comprehending actions comprehend the text literally; they locate, select, link and record information from texts. comprehend inferentially in various ways synthesize ideas in the text evaluate the text in various ways. infer the author’s purpose for writing a text in various ways. analyse the text in various ways. identify and analyse the use of language in the text respond emotionally to the activity of reading and engage with it while reading You can use the developmental sequence to locate students who have reading difficulties. The indicators saywhat you need to teach next and how you can monitor their learning progress.

31 VELS 1.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Students read short fiction and non-fiction texts that describe less familiar ideas and experiences, in written language forms with reduced supporting illustrations and varying sentence forms and informative prose about familiar topics, with a higher level of unfamiliar vocabulary. The text characteristics are indicative of Reading Recovery levels 12 to 14: varied sentence patterns and written language structures, the development of a complete story, literary language, opportunities to extend readers’ understanding of words and their relationships and specialised vocabulary illustrations that provide low level of support.

32 VELS 1.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading decide at least two likely topics of a text and ‘sharpen’ or refine their prediction. suggest words that might be encountered in the text and say in sentences what it might say. Describe actions they can use to help them understand what they read, for example, ‘put the pictures in their head’.

33 VELS 1.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Use ‘while reading strategies read the text aloud fluently, recognise when their reading is inconsistent with the topic, the grammar or the letter clusters and self correct increasingly efficiently. transfer to silent reading the integrated use of the topic of the text, the grammar of the sentence or the letter cluster information and spontaneously self correct using these three sources of information. suggest synonyms for words in the text and possible meanings for unfamiliar words by using its context, the sentence and 1 or more of the letters in it predict, using the cover, the title and the text they have read so far, whether the text is imaginative or reality-based, what might be said, who, when, where, how and what questions it might answer, infer the feelings of characters, talk about the picture they make while reading a text. use independently the reading strategies that were previously cued and scaffolded by others.

34 VELS 1.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Review and consolidate what they have read review and consolidate what they have read both when part way through the text and having read it recall in order the main ideas or events in a text they have read and use connectives to link the main ideas, for example, “first”, “and then..”.. describe how reading verse has a different outcome from reading prose. read silently independently for short periods of time and retell ‘in their own words’, do the actions described, arrange sentences cards to tell a story and complete simple cloze activities. talk about how they felt while reading and how reading helped them.

35 VELS 1.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students display literal comprehension by answering questions that relate to information stated explicitly. infer alternative endings for the text, alternative ways of resolving the issue in a narrative. infer the feelings of characters, how they may have felt had events been different, their motives and reasons for their actions, how different characters in a narrative may feel differently about an event. infer the reason for which the text was written. infer how some characters in a text may perceive or feel about other characters in a text and suggest how these feelings may influence how characters behave. link the feeling of characters and events in the story with the experiences of readers. identify how the language used in the text helped readers to have particular feelings or beliefs about it.

36 VELS 2.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Students independently read and respond to longer imaginative texts (for example, chapters in narratives about less familiar ideas), plays, poetry and other verse, informative texts of up to 6 paragraphs or sections and expository-persuasive texts. language: descriptive words and phrases, some specific terminology with support, mainly simple sentences with more compound sentences, shift from natural language to book language, increased use of direct speech to carry action, first person, less familiar structures. layout : texts organized into “readable chunks”, print size medium or smaller, illustrations moving away from text support, paragraphs have several sentences and more than one idea, longer chapters, headings, sub-headings with several ideas, contents page and simple glossary contain detail. content : clear story structure with several ideas, main ideas linked into more complex relationships around a theme, characters developed in greater detail, sometimes with thoughts and feelings that add depth, less familiar concepts supported by familiar vocabulary.

37 VELS 1.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Use ‘while reading strategies read the text independently, either silently or aloud as appropriate; they may switch from one mode to the other if necessary for comprehension or other communication purposes. comprehend sentences with increasingly more complex forms and ideas by paraphrasing and then visualizing, for example, (1) sentences with more complex adjectives and adverbs (eg., The old man with the squeaky voice was walking shakily); (2) sentences that ‘draw together’ or summarize 2 or 3 earlier sentences in a paragraph. work out the meanings of unfamiliar words in less redundant contexts where components of the meaning are developed across 3 or more paragraphs in a text and gradually refine their understanding of the term. form paragraph meanings by linking 2 and then 3 sentences; they use synonyms as well as personal and relative pronouns to link matching ideas in different sentences and visualize the sequence of the sentence meanings and what these tell about the main ideas so far (for example, for a narrative, the main characters, the issue, the context). suggest questions that the text answers as they read through it, decide from the text read so far whether it is narrative, factual or persuasive and the writer’s emerging purpose and perspective. infer and predict from the text read so far what might be said, what if … questions the text might answer, predict plausible endings, events, the points of view of the writer and infer the feelings of characters. respond emotionally to the topic and to the activity of reading and themselves as readers.

38 VELS 2.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students comprehend literally information mentioned explicitly; they (1) locate and link cause and effect in successive paragraphs; (2) identify key information such as the characteristics and features of items, individuals and events. infer (1) possible antecedent events and feelings of characters; (2) cause and effect not stated directly; (3) identify and synthesize the descriptions of characters and events across two paragraphs ; (4) infer the main events in a narrative. suggest the author’s purpose for writing the text and evaluate how well it achieved its purpose through its language, text features, identify its intended audience. Analyse (1) how a text uses language and text features to portray the qualities of characters or events; (2) compare 2 or more texts that describe similar events, phenomena, issues or relationships, for example, texts from different cultural or historical perspectives re an issue. For informational text with 3 or more discrete sets of separate facts presented in list of dot point format, they answer literal and inferential questions that require linking or comparing data link a short summary or report with diagrams do/ say in order the actions a sequence of up to 5 actions in less familiar contexts

39 VELS 1.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Review and consolidate what they have read Consolidate what they read; they (1) suggest or select the summary sentence for a sequence of narrative sentences or a paragraph; and (2) select the paragraph in a narrative that answers a question asked or that provides particular information. talk about the actions they use to comprehend better, for example, visualise a paragraph and say what it said. describe how reading helps them and is a useful activity, for example, to discover what other people are thinking, to teach new ideas efficiently. review their emotional response to the text and to themselves as readers. Consolidate what they read; they (1) suggest or select the summary sentence for a sequence of narrative sentences or a paragraph; and (2) select the paragraph in a narrative that answers a question asked or that provides particular information,

40 VELS 2.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading 1.decide two or more likely topic/s for a text, suggest words and ideas the text might say and questions it might answer. 2.decide the purposes of different factual texts from their genre, (for example, to tell how to do something, to teach new ideas) and link the purpose with actions they might take after reading and questions they might answer. 1.describe their reading plan, for example, say the actions they might use while reading, how they will keep track of key ideas as they read, identify text information that helps them understand what they read (for example, key words, the questions typically answered by factual text), what they might do if what they read doesn’t make sense.

41 VELS 3.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Students independently respond to range of written and multimodal text types and forms. The texts have a range of cultural purposes, for example, to amuse or interest, to inform and to persuade and have associated linguistic structures and features. Types of texts include fiction and nonfiction, film and digital texts, newspapers and magazines and poetry. They have the following characteristics language : use complex sentences, vocabulary that may be culturally and historically referenced, figurative and metaphoric language. layout : lengthy text blocks, paragraphs vary in length, complexity and purpose, longer chapters, detailed contents and glossary, complex diagrams and maps, graphs and tables, with complex labelling. content: texts comprise complex conceptual sequences that involve contexts that change in time, culture and history. The conceptual relationships are unfamiliar to students and unusual characters and are differentiated. Fiction, verse and expository texts include explore an examination of themes of interpersonal relationships, motives and moral /ethical challenges in a range of real and virtual contexts. Nonfiction texts explore a range of relevant factual topics.

42 VELS 3.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Orient their knowledge, get their knowledge ‘ready’ for reading work out possible topic/s of a text, for example, for an historical novel, an explanation of a technological discovery, an analysis of imagery in poetry or a comparison of newspaper recounts. They predict ideas that may be mentioned and questions it might answer. decide the purposes of a text from its genre, for example, they distinguish between a technological explanation of alternative energy uses and media texts about the value of alternative energy in terms of deciding the questions each text might answer and what each type might tell the reader. describe their reading plan for the types of texts described in 3.00 and include summarising and reviewing.

43 VELS 3.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Use ‘while reading strategies read the text independently, either silently or aloud as appropriate. comprehend complex sentences that relate to cultural or historical perspectives, values and attitudes and that express sentence meanings in historically/culturally specific ways. They use sentence comprehending strategies such as paraphrasing and visualizing and linking with the topic and purpose of the text to interpret and evaluate matching sentence meanings. work out the meanings of unfamiliar culturally specific words and phrases by linking text information including morphographic, culturally specific semantic and syntactic information.

44 VELS 3.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Use ‘while reading strategies use paragraph comprehending strategies that begin to take account of cultural /historical perspectives; they (1) synthesise a discourse meaning across of 2 or 3 sentences in a paragraph and summarize it; (2) use the summary to predict events and infer possible consequences; (4) say the questions answered by each paragraph in the text; (3) use topic sentences for factual texts to identify the main questions likely to be answered by each paragraph. say questions answered by particular sentences and paragraphs in the text. They identify the questions answered by visual presentations such as photographs, diagrams and tables. summarize a sequence of paragraphs in a longer text, taking account of the historical/cultural language and use key words to describe the sequence of main ideas. infer and predict from the text read so far what might be said, what if … questions the text might answer, predict plausible conclusions and outcomes for newspaper articles. respond emotionally to the topic and to the activity of reading and themselves as readers.

45 VELS 3.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehending strategies : for these texts, students Review and consolidate what they have read consolidate what they read in a range of ways; they suggest or select (1) the summary sentence for paragraphs in a text; and (2) the paragraph that answers a particular question or provides particular information. talk about the actions they use while reading to help themselves to read, for example, how to recognise and use to use historical/cultural perspectives when interpreting text. review their emotional response to a text and to themselves as readers, eg., how reading historical/cultural texts helped them learn and is useful, for example, to discover what other people think, teach new ideas.

46 VELS 3.75 Text level knowledge 5/1/ Reading comprehension outcomes : for these texts, students comprehend literally; they locate, select, link and record information from texts. They link images with specific written information and say the main idea of the visual presentations. comprehend inferentially and support their interpretations with evidence both from the text and their general knowledge; they infer (1) possible earlier motives and characteristics; (2) cause and effect across paragraphs; (3) the nature of possible changes by reading between the lines; (4) 'what would happen if......?' by changing ideas in the text; (5) why characters and events are described in particular ways and suggest alternative ways of describing them. identify how texts are constructed for particular purposes and how they present particular cultural or historical values and attitudes. evaluate and compare texts that relate to the same topic from different cultural or historical perspectives in terms of their use of language and form, the topics they examine, their use of imagery, characterisation, dialogue, point of view, plot and setting, their purpose for using text, how they represent characters, points of view and events in different ways. infer and analyse how writers from different cultural or historical perspectives tell us about the feelings, attitudes, beliefs and motives of characters and see how the characters ‘see the world’. evaluate and analyse how writers differ in cultural or historical language they use to communicate.

47 What do you do to read this? 5/1/201547

48 What do readers need to do to use question to show comprehension? 5/1/ What do you need to do to work out the purpose of the text ? Identify the main purpose of the text ? Interprets an expression in a persuasive text. What do you need to do to interpret the expression ?

49 Which comprehending actions do you need to use to show comprehension? 5/1/ Summarise the text, extract the main idea from the paragraph ideas and infer why the text was written Recognise a synonym

50 5/1/201550

51 5/1/ What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item Number % Correct State % Correct Group %Response State %Response Group Skill Assessed 01 A9997C 1B 3 Finds clearly stated information in a simple text. 02 C9481A1 B2 D4A6 B3 D11 Finds clearly stated information in a simple text. 03 A97 B 1B 3 Finds key information in a simple text. 04 B5036A2 C16 D31 A6 C31 22 Makes connections between ideas in a sentence. 05 C9386A6 B1A11 B3 Finds clearly stated information in a simple text. 06 D6358A30 B 4 C2 A 28 B14 Interprets the main idea in a simple text. 07 A8681B 5 C5BC8 D3 Recognises a feature of a recipe. 08 A8469B11 C 5B 22 C 8 Finds clearly stated information in a recipe. 09 D6547A16 B3 C16 A22 B8 C22 Connects information across two sentences in a recipe.

52 5/1/201552

53 5/1/ What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item Number % Correct State % Correct Group %Response State %Response Group Skill Assessed 10 B9478A2 C2 D1A6 C3 D14 Finds clearly stated information in a recipe. 11 D6336A16 B3 C17A25 B11 C28 Identifies an instruction in a recipe. 12 C9481A5 B1 D1A 4 B6 Finds key information in a postcard. 13 A9278B 1 C7B 3 C14 D3 Finds clearly stated information in a postcard. 14 D8767A5 B3 C5A 8 B11 C14 Makes connections between ideas in a postcard. 15 B7456A8 C12 D 6A14 C11 D17 Makes connections between ideas in a postcard. 16 B6642A7 C7 D18A8 C17 D 28 Understands the purpose of a postscript in a postcard Sequences events in a postcard. 18 C8567A3 B7 D3A11 B D6 Identifies the purpose of a postcard.

54 5/1/ What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item Number % Correct State % Correct Group %Response State %Response Group Skill Assessed 19 D7747A 8 B 8 C7A19 B17 C17 Finds clearly stated information in a story. 20 B7639A 14 C6 D4A 42 C11 D8 Finds clearly stated information in a story. 21 B36 A11 C 49 D4A11 C36 D17 Makes inferences about characters' actions in story. 22 C5139A14 B19 D13A17 B25 D19 Identifies the meaning of a word in a story. 23 C7150A 5 B 20A 3 B 42 Makes connections between the text and pictures in a story Sequences events in a story. 25 B6753A16 C5 D10A 22 C14 D8 Makes inferences about a character in a story. 26 B4031A6 C25 D28A11 C31 D28 Interprets the main idea of a persuasive text. 27 D3528A5 B 54 C4A17 B47 C8 Uses contextual cues to interpret a persuasive text. What comprehending actions do readers need to use to achieve this outcome ?

55 5/1/ What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item Number % Correct State % Correct Group %Response State %Response Group Skill Assessed 28 B4944A25 C10 D14A 22 C25 D8 Identifies the purpose of a phrase in brackets. 29 A4228B34 C10 D13B 28 C14 D31 Identifies the main idea of a paragraph. 30 A7744B8 C5 D7B 28 C8 D19 Identifies characters' feelings in a story. 31 B4439A10 C14 D28A14 C31 D17 Reads on to interpret a story. 32 A5953B11 C16 D 11B 22 C17 D8 Infers a character's motivation in a story. 33 C4450A27 B15 D11A31 B8 8 Finds key information in a story. 34 B3833A10 C21 D28A19 C11 D33 Finds clearly stated information in a story. 35 D4017A17 B15 C26A19 B 28 C 33 Makes inferences about a character in a story. What comprehending actions do readers need to use to achieve this outcome ?

56 5/1/ What does NAPLAN reading say readers’ knowledge looks like ? Item Number % Correct State % Correct Group %Response State %Response Group Skill Assessed 28 B4944A25 C10 D14A 22 C25 D8 Identifies the purpose of a phrase in brackets. 29 A4228B34 C10 D13B 28 C14 D31 Identifies the main idea of a paragraph. 30 A7744B8 C5 D7B 28 C8 D19 Identifies characters' feelings in a story. 31 B4439A10 C14 D28A14 C31 D17 Reads on to interpret a story. 32 A5953B11 C16 D 11B 22 C17 D8 Infers a character's motivation in a story. 33 C4450A27 B15 D11A31 B8 8 Finds key information in a story. 34 B3833A10 C21 D28A19 C11 D33 Finds clearly stated information in a story. 35 D4017A17 B15 C26A19 B 28 C 33 Makes inferences about a character in a story. What comprehending actions do readers need to use to achieve this outcome ?

57 5/1/ What readers need to do to show comprehension Read and comprehend text Read and interpret task Use task to reflect on text interpretation Select matching option

58 The set of actions readers need to use to complete a task 5/1/ locate information, make a direct verbatim match and restate verbatim linked information in the text or link information verbatim. 2.recognise/ use synonyms to link text and task 3.use meaning making motor to work out word meanings 4.use grammar to link ideas, for example, to make links between a noun and a pronoun. 5.analyse, paraphrase + visualize the sentence / alternatives. 6.link two ideas that are in different sections of the text by summarizing one or more paragraphs, work out and use the main idea and possibly paraphrase or visualize. 7.link ideas that are separated in the text by selecting the main ideas and then sequencing them. 8.compare two or more sentences or ideas and you may need to paraphrase. 9.infer, go beyond what is said, for example, to infer emotions or motives for actions 10.predict by visualizing the ideas described in one or more sentences and use their existing knowledge to infer related events, cause and effect, feelings, etc. Taken from (Munro, 2010 )

59 Year 3 Reading 2011 Item Num % Corr Aus % Corr State %Resp Lauriston Skill AssessedComprehension strategies used Choosing a Classroom Pet Identifies one reason for an opinion in a simple opinion text. Paraphrase Matches a speaker with a statement in a simple opinion text. Locate information, make a direct verbatim match Locates directly stated information in a simple opinion text. Locate information, make a direct verbatim match Identifies the purpose of a speaker's response in a simple opinion text. Infer, locate, visualise, paraphrase Identifies the role of a speaker in a simple opinion text. Link ideas, infer 5/1/ These are comprehending actions we need to teach readers to use to achieve these outcomes Taken from (Munro, 2011)

60 Year 3 Reading 2011 Item Num % Corr Aus % Corr State %Resp Lauriston Skill AssessedComprehension strategies used Turtle Frogs Locates directly stated information in a short information text. Locate information, make a direct verbatim match, scan for key words Locates directly stated information in a short information text. Locate information, make a direct verbatim match, scan for key words Locates directly stated information in a short information text. Locate information, make a direct verbatim match, scan for key words Connects information across sentences in a short information text. Link ideas, infer Makes a simple inference from a short information text. Infer, paraphrase, analyse Identifies the purpose of an illustration in a short information text. Infer, read illustrations 5/1/ Taken from (Munro, 2011 )

61 Year 3 Reading 2011 Item Num % Corr Aus % Corr State %Resp Lauriston Skill AssessedComprehension strategies used How to play SPUD: Retrieves directly stated information in a procedural text. Locate information, make a direct verbatim match Makes an inference from a procedural text. Infer connections between 2 ideas Makes a link across adjacent sentences to locate information in a procedural text. Locate information, make a direct verbatim match Applies new information to change a given outcome in a procedural text. Drawing conclusions and linking ideas from different sections of the text Matches a rule to a photograph in a procedural text. Match image with statement Categorizes extra information into a section of a procedural text. Analyse, paraphrase and visualise the statement. 5/1/201561

62 Year 3 Reading 2011 Item Num % Corr Aus % Corr State %Resp Laurist Skill AssessedComprehension strategies used Rosie the musician: Uses letter writing conventions to identify the author of a note in a narrative text. Link understanding of letter writing format to text Identifies the intended effect of a device in a narrative text. Key information, understanding purpose of different devices Identifies the purpose of a meeting in a narrative text. Work out word meaning in context by linking ideas Identifies a character's attitude from a narrative text. Go beyond what is said and infer emotions or motives Identifies the reason for a character's comment in a narrative text. Infer emotions by using key word meanings and link ideas across the text Recognises the personality of the main character in a narrative text. Link separated ideas by summarising one or more paragraphs. 5/1/201562

63 5/1/ Which comprehension items are easiest ? Skill Assessedreading comprehending actions Finds clearly stated information in a simple text. locate information and make a literal verbatim link Finds key information in simple text.locate information and make a literal verbatim link Finds clearly stated information in a simple text. locate information and make a literal verbatim link 10 B942.7Finds clearly stated information in a recipe. literal, delete sentence 12 C944.5Finds key information in a postcard.recognise features of the genre Finds clearly stated information in a simple text. locate information and make a literal verbatim link 13 A924.5Finds clearly stated information in a postcard. literal 14 D 874.5Makes connections between ideas in a postcard. literal, delete words 07 A862.7Recognises a feature of a recipe.recognise a type of text 18 C854.5Identifies the purpose of a postcard.summarise the literal information and infer its purpose 08 A842.7Finds clearly stated information in a recipe. paraphrase and combine two sentences literally

64 5/1/ Which comprehension items are hardest ? Makes connections between ideas in a sentence. visualise the sentence, what question does it answer, what does ‘refers to’ mean? Who is ‘them’ talking about ? 28 B497.7Identifies the purpose of a phrase in brackets. recognise synonym 31 B444.3Reads on to interpret a story.paraphrase paragraph and link ideas, recognise ‘life’ is linked with bacteria 33 C444.3Finds key information in a story.literal verbal comprehension 29 A427.7Identifies the main idea of a paragraph.visualise what has been said about wildlife, summarise paragraph 26 B407.7Interprets the main idea of a persuasive text. recognise that ‘focus’ here means the purpose (synonyms), paraphrase, know where the purpose is often written, link the two sentences 35 D404.3Makes inferences about a character in a story. visualise the sequence of events, reflect on and infer how CRL’s ‘feelings’ change over the story Sequences events in a story.visualise /summarize, extract the sequence of ideas from across the text, paraphrasing for ‘drums begain to play’ 34 B384.3Finds clearly stated information in story. paraphrase ‘..eighteen protozoan…’ as ‘..eighteen species of protozoan… 21 B362.2Makes inferences about characters' actions in a story. visualize the two paragraphs, link ‘shining gold’ with ‘glistened’, infer across the text 27 D357.7Uses contextual cues to interpret a persuasive text. summarize text to get ‘plastic bags are bad for environment and if people pay for them, they will use them less’. Paraphrase each alternative, compare with title, as “How does it fit with title ?” and see that the others don’t match it Makes connections between ideas in a sentence. visualise the sentence, what question does it answer, what does ‘refers to’ mean? Who is ‘them’ talking about ?

65 To work out the reading actions demanded by each item A group of teachers analyses each text and its tasks on NAPLAN or other tasks reading using the types of comprehending actions. The group reads each text and works through the tasks. For each task, Use as much as possible a consistent set of action descriptors across the items. This helps you group items that need similar actions and with planning the teaching. Have some students in a class attempt the items again and talk about what they did. Guide them to use ‘think aloud’ strategies. 5/1/ decide the action/s a reader needs to use to answer the item correctly Does it need readers to use two or more actions in a particular sequence ? the group decides collaboratively the comprehending actions needed to answer it

66 Add the reading comprehending action for each item to the Item Analysis Report for that item. You can also identify the actions that match each incorrect responses. Identify the comprehending actions a class used to complete the tasks and which ones they might need to be taught. use SORT to arrange the % correct for a group in order of difficulty. This will tell you You can prepare reader profiles for your group or for individual students. treat the NAPLAN interpretations for your class and individual students as indicative. Once you are aware of possible areas of comprehending strength and difficulty, you can then look for further evidence in reading activities. 5/1/ the reading actions the /class or individual students have in place the reading actions that need to be taught note the most common confusions or misinterpretations by the class for an item.

67 5/1/ What are the High Reliability Literacy Teaching Procedures? A set of explicit procedures that teach readers to work out likely topics for the text, why it was written, ideas it might say, questions it might answer, plan how they will read it: they get their knowledge ready for reading and learning comprehend each sentence; read it aloud, segment it, paraphrase and visualise it, link with the topic use and learn new vocabulary link sentence meanings into paragraph meanings, summarize the text link each paragraph with questions it answers review, consolidate store in memory and automatize what was read. Why ‘high reliability ? Each teaching procedure has substantial research support for its use

68 5/1/ The order for teaching HRLTPs Getting Knowledge Ready Reading aloud each sentence visualize New vocabulary Summarise What questions does text answer? Consolidate and review Segment itParaphrase Link with topic Link sentence meanings Store in memoryautomatize

69 5/1/ How do you build these into your teaching ? Beginning a lesson: Get knowledge ready GKR While reading +learning Teach new ideas new vocabulary new sentence ideas new main ideas new topic new attitudes and dispositions Review + consolidate Review new meanings, ideas, link with synonyms and images Store in memory Automatise recall, use of meanings

70 Getting ready or orienting actions 5/1/ Focus on possible topic of text. The teacher guides the students to link text with what the readers knows by using the title, the cover, pictures in the text or blurb. What do I think the text is about? What pictures do I make in my mind when I hear the title/look at the cover….. What might happen ? Link ideas in text with what the reader already knows, use mapping, networking. What ideas could it mention ? If it is about ….. what else might it say ? Focus on how the ideas (such as pictures, key words they have identified) might be said : How can I say these ideas in sentences ? Focus on questions it might answer: What are some who / what/ how/ why/ when/ where questions I could ask about it ? Focus on possible words that might be in the text. What words might be in the text ? How would they be spelt ? What other words might be used (synonyms for them) ? Focus on possible reasons or purposes for writing it. What are different ways of thinking about this topic ? Why might the author have written this text ? How might its purpose affect how it is written ? Readers say how they will read, the actions (strategies) they will use. "What will I do as I read/ if I come to a part that I don’t understand ? Focus on reader’s self efficacy as a reader Am I ready to read? What more do I need to know before I begin to read ? Taken from (Munro, 2002)

71 While reading actions 5/1/ Sentence level reading strategies for literal comprehension of each sentence  break text into digestible bits, decide where to pause. Where will I pause and ask : What has it told me ?  listen to themselves as they read and paraphrase the text. What are other ways of saying this sentence ? How can I tell myself what it says ?  act on ideas, put themselves in the context. What would I see /hear/do /feel If I were in the story ?  visualize what was read. What picture can I make of the sentence ?  monitor meaning at the sentence level. Does it make sense/fit in? Re-read if necessary. Conceptual level reading strategies for summarizing what has been read, monitoring and for inferential, evaluative and dispositional comprehension of text:  review and consolidate, What do I know now? How does this fit with the topic ?  What has happened so far?, underline, note down useful information  infer, Why did that happen? Relate then to what they expected  think ahead, predict, anticipate. What might happen next ?  evaluate dispositional techniques. How has the text so far attempted to influence my view ? Word level reading strategies to work out unfamiliar words  use context of word + initial few sounds, word analysis and re-read. How can I say the word ? How will I work out how to say it ? How can I break it up ?  work out the meanings of unfamiliar words. What does the word do in the sentence ? What does it tell me about ? What picture have I made of the sentence ? What is another word I could say for it? Taken from (Munro, 2002)

72 Reviewing and post reading actions 5/1/ Link positive emotion response with the text How I liked the text? Were ideas useful /interesting? Did I feel happy / sad ? How could it have grabbed me better ? Review understanding of the text at the various levels. What did the text tell me? The text didn’t say this but if …. ? Why was the text written ? Did it say what I expected it to say ? How well did it achieve its purpose ? How can the text be interpreted from different points of view or perspectives ? What was the writer’s purpose in writing this text ? What techniques used to influence the reader to take a particular interpretation ? Review and evaluate the reading strategies used, particularly the strategies being learnt at the time. What reading actions did I use to help me understand the text ? Store in memory what has been learnt. What key new ideas have I learnt; how has my knowledge changed? How do they fit with what I know already ? Identify the new language and literacy knowledge that has been learnt What new ways of saying things have I learnt ? What new words were in the text ? Automatise and practise reading aloud and silently similar text to achieve increased fluency. Taken from (Munro, 2002)

73 5/1/ How each reading action is taught. The actions can be taught on a whole class basis, in small groups, or individually. Teach each comprehending strategy in a systematic way and guide the students to automatize how they use each. are scaffolded to use strategy say it in words (so they can transfer it) and evaluate how it helps them (this motivates them to use it in future) Teaching sequence: students say they will use the strategy before they begin to read a text; they cue themselves in to comprehending the text Say without cueing they will use it, practise applying the strategy more widely, say when they will use it use it automatically, link strategy with other strategies they know. Taken from (Munro, 2002)

74 5/1/ Teaching to scaffold students to use the literacy strategies Women in ancient Egypt Automatize the key ideas we have learnt. Link with related ideas we have learnt earlier What questions might the text answer for you ? What words might come up in the text ? Spell them, synonyms Look at the text. Say the title in other ways. Tell yourself what the pictures show. What will you do as you read it ? Read a sentence aloud. Listen to yourself as you read it. What do you think �.. means ? Work out what it could mean from the sentence. What are some other words you could use ? What are other ways of saying the sentence ? What picture does it tell you to make in your mind ? What questions do these sentences answer for us about women in ancient Egypt? What are the main ideas / vocabulary we have learnt today ? Other ways of saying them / images ? Imagine you are talking to a woman living in ancient Egypt. What would you see /hear ? What is the main idea in the paragraph ? What picture does it tell you to make in your mind ? GKR experiences GKR language GKR bridge to text Question links Read aloud vocabulary Sentence meanings Summarize to paragraphs Review and consolidate automatize Taken from (Munro, 2002)

75 Teaching to scaffold students to use the literacy strategies Any topic Automatize the key ideas we have learnt. Link with related ideas we have learnt earlier What questions might the text answer for you ? What words might come up in the text ? Spell them, synonyms Look at the text. Say the title in other ways. Tell yourself what the pictures show. What will you do as you read it ? Read a sentence aloud. Listen to yourself as you read it. What do you think.. means ? Work out what it could mean from the sentence. What are some other words you could use ? What are other ways of saying the sentence ? What picture does it tell you to make in your mind ? What questions do these sentences answer for us about women in ancient Egypt? What are the main ideas / vocabulary we have learnt today ? Other ways of saying them / images ? Recall experiences and imagery knowledge,use pictures and real life contexts What is the main idea in the paragraph ? What picture does it tell you to make in your mind ? GKR : experiences GKR : language GKR : bridge to text Read aloud vocabulary Sentences: paraphrase and visualise What questions does sentence/paragraph answer ? Summarize paragraph Review and consolidate Automatize Taken from (Munro, 2002)

76 5/1/ How each reading action is taught. The actions can be taught on a whole class basis, in small groups, or individually. Teach each comprehending strategy in a systematic way and guide the students to automatize how they use each. are scaffolded to use strategy say it in words (so they can transfer it) and evaluate how it helps them (this motivates them to use it in future) Teaching sequence: students say they will use the strategy before they begin to read a text; they cue themselves in to comprehending the text Say without cueing they will use it, practise applying the strategy more widely, say when they will use it use it automatically, link strategy with other strategies they know.

77 One way of teaching each strategy 1.Take a text about a topic you are teaching and split it into two parts, each of about 250 words. 2.Write 5 comprehension questions for each part and put these at the end of each part. Try to match up the two parts as much as possible in their difficulty. 3.Ask the students to read the first part by themselves and then answer the questions. 4.Before, or as they read the second part, cue them to use the strategy you are wanting them to learn to use, for example, to paraphrase each sentence as they read. Have them answer the comprehension questions.

78 Part APart B Rights and privileges Wealthy women After about 1500 BC, wealthier women in ancient Egypt could own and sell property, earn an income, work as part-time priestesses, defend themselves in court, and decide to marry or divorce. They decided who would inherit their belongings, and had custody of any children if there was a divorce. By contrast, women in ancient Greece — even wealthy women — had very little freedom. They lived most of their lives indoors and were regarded as the property of their menfolk. 1.How were wealthy women in ancient Egypt more independent than women in ancient Egypt ? 2.If your father were a pharaoh in ancient Egypt, what rights could help you be independent ? 3.How do we know that ancient Egypt had a legal system ? 4.What does leading a privileged life mean ? 5.What aspect of a pharaoh’s life doesn’t happen in our culture ? Poor women Besides caring for their families, poor women helped their men in the fields, carried water in pots from wells or rivers to their homes, and made bread or beer (both a major part of the diet of ancient Egyptians). They might also work as servants, temple dancers, midwives, perfume makers, musicians, weavers and professional mourners (people who were ‘hired’ to weep and wail during the funeral procession of an ancient Egyptian). Wives and mothers Marriage ceremonies were not a special event; the language of ancient Egypt does not have a word for ‘wedding’. Between wealthy families, marriages were little more than a business arrangement. Some wealthy men had many wives. The first wife and her children had the highest status. 1.What were some jobs of poor women in ancient Egypt ? 2.How do we know the ceremony surrounding death was important in ancient Egypt ? 3.How do we know cosmetics were important in ancient Egypt ? 4.What does being a professional mourner mean? 5.What is one aspect of life in ancient Egypt that doesn’t happen in our culture ? In which case was it easier to understand the text ? Why was it easier ? What made it easier ? What could you do in the future to make it easier to understand the text you read ? I will say each sentence in my own words. This helps me Read this text and answer the questions Read this text and answer the questions. Before you begin to read….. As you read …..

79 5/1/ Contrast the strategy teaching approach with the content teaching approach AA B Read the section about Women in ancient Egypt. Then answer the questions and we’ll correct your work. We’ll read together the section about Women in ancient Egypt. As we go I’ll ask you to think about what says. Then we’ll answer the questions and we’ll correct your work. Which teacher 1.Takes account of individual differences in what students know at beginning of lesson ? 2.Takes account of individual differences in how students think and learn during lesson ? 3.Helps students feel more confident of what they are learning ?

80 5/1/ How we use the HRLTPs in teaching To scaffold the students to think like comprehending readers as they work through and learn from a text the students learn to think like comprehending readers as they work through and learn from a text To teach the students to use each reading action /strategy independently and automatically the students learn to carry the reading actions with them to any context in which they need to read

81 A case study of leading literacy 5/1/ Context for the case study Low academic achievement and low student literacy levels concerned the leadership. Literacy was seen as a key link to successful academic learning. Desired outcome Enhanced student literacy skills, to be achieved through enhanced teaching knowledge. To achieve outcomes teach students ‘how to be more literate’ while learning the regular curriculum.

82 A case study of leading literacy 5/1/ Means for achieving enhanced teaching knowledge Teach a group of teachers to be ‘leaders of literacy learning’ (MLOLLs) in the school. They guide embedding enhanced literacy knowledge in the school : 1.Each MLOLL was guided to build literacy knowledge; 1.Each MLOLL was trained to teach the strategies explicitly to a group of students as part of their regular classroom teaching 1.Each MLOLL practised modifying their teaching to scaffold students to use particular strategies); 1.The MLOLL team planned with SLT a term by term and a within- term professional learning plan and student learning plan 1.The MLOLL team planned with SLT a schedule to monitor student learning outcomes.. Taken from (Munro, 2007)

83 A case study of leading literacy in a secondary college 5/1/ Term Outcomes for MLOLL Outcomes for studentsOutcomes for other teachers 1Teach students to use GKR and vocabulary explicitly. Prepare colleagues to transfer GKR and vocabulary. Use student monitoring measures for GKR + vocabulary. Students use GKR and vocabulary explicitly Support students to transfer GKR and vocabulary and apply it in their subject. 2Teach students to use paraphrasing + visualising explicitly. Prepare colleagues to transfer paraphrasing and visualizing. Monitor student use of paraphrasing + visualising. Students use paraphrasing and visualizing, automatize GKR and vocabulary Support students to transfer paraphrasing and visualising and apply it in their subject. 3Teach students to use strategies to comprehend paragraphs. Prepare colleagues to transfer strategies for comprehending paragraphs. Monitor student use of comprehending paragraphs. Students use strategies to comprehend paragraphs, automatize paraphrasing and visualising Support students to strategies for comprehending paragraphs and apply it in their subject. Taken from (Munro, 2010)

84 Within term planning 5/1/ WeekMLOLLOther teachers 1-4Assess reading comprehension and strategy use Teach targeted comprehending strategy explicitly Monitor students’ use of the strategy 3-4Video teaching students to use the strategy Teach colleagues how to embed the strategy in their teaching to facilitate transfer Plan how to embed the strategy in their teaching and what it ‘looks like’ in student learning outcomes 5-10Continue to teach students to use strategy automaticallyScaffold students to use the strategy in their content area 6-7Monitor colleagues’ application of the strategy and assist them to transfer the strategy to their teaching 9-10Assess reading comprehension and strategy use Monitor colleagues’ application of the strategy and assist them to transfer the strategy to their teaching Taken from (Munro, 2010)

85 The school leader’s awareness of their school’s literacy knowledge and capacity to enhance 5/1/ Assessing your school’s capacity to teach literacy : What does your school know about effective literacy teaching ? 1.What is your school’s agreed set of beliefs about how literacy is learnt and taught ? 1.What procedures does it use to interpret assessment outcomes in terms of its teaching ? 1.How well does your school respond to literacy learning issues ? What does it do to identify and analyse literacy learning issues using a learning-teaching framework ? implement modified literacy teaching ? monitor the effectiveness of the modified teaching ? incorporate the modified teaching into its explicit literacy teaching framework ?.

86 The school leader’s awareness of their school’s literacy knowledge and capacity to enhance 5/1/ How to bring new literacy teaching knowledge into your school. A three strand strategy to implement improvement in literacy teaching 1.Teachers are guided and scaffolded to monitor and modify their classroom teaching 1.School leadership provides instructional leadership for literacy 1.Some teachers are trained to ‘drive’ the literacy improvement: they Build the literacy teaching knowledge needed to scaffold improved student outcomes Learn procedures for guiding the professional learning of colleagues Procedures for bringing new literacy teaching knowledge into the school Lead the professional learning of PLTs. Taken from (Munro, 2010)

87 Example of an embedding strategy 5/1/ MLOLL learn GKR and MMMSLT – develops a whole school literacy improvement Staff learn of literacy improvement focus MLOLL use GKR and MMM in their teaching and video their activity, 1.use procedures to monitor student outcomes, 2.share the embedding with school leadership, 3.report outcomes to staff, inform staff of what they are doing and how it assists teaching, 4.plan a broader dissemination program with SLT 5.begin to plan professional learning activity in GKR and MMM for their colleagues. 1.Become familiar with teaching procedures 2.Plan a broader dissemination program in the school including a term outcomes plan. 3.Work on teaching activities in GKR and MMM for colleagues 1.Informed to progress with GKR and MMM 2.See videos of teaching in PLTs 3.encouraged to monitor how well their students use GKR and MMM MLOLL learn sentence reading comprehension strategies and begin to implement professional teaching in GKR and MMM for their colleagues. Learn to provide instructional leadership for implementing GKR and MMM Scaffolded to implement GKR and MMM Repeat with other literacy strategies Taken from (Munro, 2010)

88 88 Developing an explicit literacy PL program for your school

89 89 Planning for professional learning

90 Planning the professional learning pathway for the school Your term by term outcome for each class in school: what will you be doing differently at end of each term ? the professional learning plan for each teacher; how will your learning for each term outcome be implemented ? the week by week implementation plan for each teacher and student group; how will literacy learning develop over each term ? Steps in planning the professional learning pathway 90 Taken from (Munro, 2005)

91 5/1/ The plans Three aspects of planning and doing the outcomes plan the professional learning plan for each teacher /PLT the implementation plan for each teacher

92 92 Your plans Three aspects of planning and doing your outcomes plan your professional learning plan your implementation plan What new literacy outcomes will you achieve each term ?

93 93 Key questions to assist with action planning Be clear on what you want as outcomes Have an explicit focus on PL and staff activity: By end of Term : What will staff be doing differently? What will students be doing differently? What will SLTs be guiding, scaffolding differently ?

94 5/1/ Literacy goals for each term each year Term Term outcome studentsteachers Term 1 Know how to get their knowledge ready trial getting knowledge ready in teaching Term 2 use getting knowledge ready when they learn have improved vocabulary knowledge and strategies use getting knowledge ready in teaching trial vocabulary teaching Term 3 use GKR work out new word meanings paraphrase text they read teach vocabulary and MMM trial teaching paraphrasing

95 95 Set goals for each term each year ? Term Term outcome studentsteachers Term 1 Term 2 Term 3

96 96 You set goals for each term Term Term outcome studentsteachers Term 1 Know how to get their knowledge ready trial getting knowledge ready in teaching Term 2 use getting knowledge ready when they learn have improved vocabulary knowledge and strategies use getting knowledge ready in teaching trial vocabulary teaching Term 3 use GKR work out new word meanings paraphrase text they read teach vocabulary and MMM trial teaching paraphrasing

97 97 Plan for how the staff will learn to do each procedure Three aspects of planning and doing your literacy outcomes plan your professional learning plan your implementation plan How you will learn to do the new teaching

98 98 Possible staff learning options each term Activity During term Term outcome New literacy teaching you will do independently ? New literacy teaching you will trial ? New literacy teaching you will be coached to do ? New literacy teaching you will see modeled/demonstrated in teaching ? Your collaborative lesson planning ? Instructional leadership you will receive ? Novel student activities and outcomes?

99 Staff learning plan The professional teaching that each staff member will receive can be planned using the following Weekly planning proforma week build procedures into topics to be taught Trial procedures in classroom See teaching procedures modelled, coached Work on procedures in PLTs to discuss options share, pooling new teaching knowledge Taken from (Munro, 2005)

100 Types of professional learning activities Build the literacy teaching strategies into your regular teaching. Embed gradually the literacy strategies into topics you will be teaching during the term. To do this analyse the content you will teach and the written materials you will use. Plan how you will build in the strategies to help you to teach the key content knowledge. For any lesson you need to decide the strategy/ies you will teach explicitly and the strategies you will scaffold. This planning is often done best in small group planning activities where two or more colleagues can work together to do this. 100 Taken from (Munro, 2005)

101 Types of professional learning activities Clarify what effective literacy learning strategies look like. In parallel with the literacy teaching, identify what the students will be doing, saying when they are learning. 101

102 Types of professional learning activities Try out or trial parts of the literacy teaching procedures After you have planned how you will embed particular literacy teaching procedures in topics you will teach and you have decided what the student learning strategies will look like, decide how you will try out or trial parts of the literacy teaching procedures in your teaching. It is often a good idea to do this in a small way first so that you can retain control. How do you monitor this ? Use the indicators of progress in student learning you decided earlier. 102

103 Types of professional learning activities Coaching and /or demonstration of literacy teaching in your class ? You may want to see the teaching procedures demonstrated/ modelled by peers ? Will coaching in the context of your class be implemented ? How often do you receive feedback from peers re your innovations in teaching ? Your colleague can evaluate your teaching using the checklist described earlier. 103

104 Types of professional learning activities Work on building a group knowledge of the literacy teaching Make the opportunity to build group knowledge of the literacy teaching with colleagues, where you can share and pool the new teaching experiences with colleagues also working on this and with ‘critical friends’ who are not implementing this. This group knowledge provides a platform for further professional learning. It ensures that every teacher’s knowledge is enhanced, every one is ‘talking the same language’ and teachers can share their talents, discoveries and knowledge. 104 Taken from (Munro, 2005)

105 Types of professional learning activities Work on building a group knowledge of the literacy teaching Make time to reflect on your professional practice. Try to get the opportunity to reflect regularly on how the innovative literacy teaching professional practice is going. Reflecting backwards in time over what has happened allows you to evaluate events and see possible links and levers to pull that you didn’t see at the time. The reflective activity is particularly important when you encounter obstacles and barriers. Reflecting into the future allows you to visualise possibilities and to see what could be possible. This can often help you see where you could go. 105 Taken from (Munro, 2005)

106 Types of professional learning activities Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning. It is important that SLT take moral ownership of program and show this in their commitment to, interest in and advocacy for your professional learning, particularly when they are talking to staff about it. They 1.show active ownership and sponsorship 2.convey to staff that they see your work here as critical for the school’s future progress. 3.show to the staff that they believe the HRLTPs can solve problems for their school. 4.acknowledge to the school that you are working for the school’s future. 106 Taken from (Munro, 2005)

107 Types of professional learning activities Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning. instructional leadership by the SLT is important for the success of the literacy intervention. Many SLTs need to learn how to do this most effectively – it is a new role. You can help he SLT ‘get ready’ to do this through your interaction. You can meet regularly with SLT and discuss 1.the program you are implementing, 2.its progress and 3.obstacles you encounter. They can spend time in your classroom when you implement the literacy strategies to see what they ‘look like’ and be a realistic advocate for this work. 107

108 Types of professional learning activities Bring the school leadership team into your professional learning. The SLT needs to resource your professional learning. It needs to support your learning in each of the areas above. In terms of needing to build a group knowledge of the new teaching, they may need to resource your fortnightly review-evaluation-planning discussions with colleagues in other schools. The SLT needs to be aware of the obstacles you encounter in implementing the teaching and discuss ways of resolving these both for you and for other staff in the future. Resolving them now can remove them later.. 108

109 Types of professional learning activities Increase staff awareness of the HRLTPs so that they are closer to ‘being ready’ to adopt them. ‘Bring the staff on your professional learning journey. Report regularly what you are doing at staff meetings. Help staff 1.know what HRLTPs are, look like in teaching. 2.see how they deal with learning problems, low student engagement 3.have confidence that HRLTPs can make their job as a teacher easier 4.see that HRLTPs can overcome obstacles you have encountered. Invite staff to see them being done in your classroom. You can video short scenarios and show to staff at PD days. You can feed back to the staff what you are doing and how it is progressing. They need to see that you are working for them. 109 Taken from (Munro, 2005)

110 110 Your plans Three aspects of planning and doing your literacy outcomes plan your professional learning plan your implementation plan Staff learning : Weekly planning proforma How will you implement the new teaching procedures in your classroom ?

111 Taken from (Munro, 2005) Staff implementation : Weekly planning proforma Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1 WeekUse orallyWhen cuedRead,do, say evaluate Say and do when read Apply 1 GKR visualize 2 GKR sayGKR vizualize 3 GKR bridgeGKR sayGKR vizualize 4 GKR bridgeGKR sayGKR vizualize 5 GKR bridgeGKR sayvizualize

112 112 Student learning : Weekly planning proforma Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1 SessionUse orally When cued Read,do, say evaluate Say and do when read Apply 1-3GKR 4-6vocabGKR 7-10vocabGKR 11-13vocabGKR 14-16vocabGKR

113 5/1/ Student learning : Weekly planning proforma Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1 WeekUse orallyWhen cuedRead,do, say evaluate Say and do when read Apply 1 GKR imagery words, bridge 2 vocabGKR imagery words, bridge 3 vocabGKR imagery words, bridge 4 vocabGKR imagery words, bridge 5 vocabGKR imagery words, bridge Students can talk about images, possible words Students can say what they do to GKR Students say what they will do to GKR Students automatically do GKR and say what they have Taken from (Munro, 2005)

114 5/1/ Know how to build the implementation on student learning Plan for teaching new aspects of each strategy for Term 1 Wee k Use orallyWhen cuedRead,do, say evaluate Say and do when read Apply 1paraphras 2paraphras+ visualize paraphras 3paraphras+ visualize paraphras 4paraphras+ visualize paraphras 5paraphras+ visualize paraphras

115 5/1/ How do you build these into your teaching ? Lesson 1Lesson 2Lesson 3 Visualize and organize knowledge Visualize the topic and talk about their imagery Think Pair Share Say what you know in words and sentences Interview Write brief article showing what someone could say about topic Say what questions the topic might answer Bridge over to the text Why might the text be written? How is the text organized ? A weekly schedule to scaffold students to use GKR strategy

116 116 Monitoring your progress Know how your school will gather data re zStaff learning progress re literacy teaching zstudent learning progress re literacy outcomes zImproved instructional leadership re literacy leadership Know how your school will interpret data and map it into action

117 Staff learning plan The professional teaching that each staff member will receive can be planned using the following Weekly planning proforma week instructional leadership activities Build staff awareness, feedback from peers Student outcomes + feedback

118 118 Monitoring your progress How can you gather data about students’ literacy? zAIM test zTorch test zPAT test zProbe test zTeacher assessment reports z‘standardized relevant texts’

119 119 Monitor the success of professional learning How will the school monitor zChange in staff knowledge re literacy ? zImprovement in literacy teaching practice ?

120 120 How will you gather learning feedback from students ? Feedback from students: zExisting knowledge used and valued? zFeel engaged in learning-teaching ? zSee they are learning new ideas ? zSee themselves making progress ? zBelieve they can learn successfully through literacy?

121 121 What will the PL program target ? For individual teachers the PL program for literacy will enhance zliteracy knowledge zliteracy teaching knowledge zliteracy teaching practice

122 5/1/ The issue : how to reposition the school in its literacy outcomes School is here now School leadership wants school here professional learning pedagogic leadership

123 5/1/ How to lead pedagogy ? School is here now School leadership wants school here professional learning pedagogic leadership Our aim : to unpack what this means for a LOPL. To be effective leaders of pedagogy, what do the leaders of professional learning and school leadership team need to know/ do /believe?

124 Some key questions when you are leading literacy 5/1/ What are you leading ? How will you lead ? How have leaders ‘trodden the path’ before ? What are the outcome of leading ? To where ? From where ? Why will you lead ? What is the value in the leading ?


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