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Presented by Ginger Kowalko Educational Consultant Lori Rae Smith Director, Student Achievement Bethel School District.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented by Ginger Kowalko Educational Consultant Lori Rae Smith Director, Student Achievement Bethel School District."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented by Ginger Kowalko Educational Consultant Lori Rae Smith Director, Student Achievement Bethel School District

2 Outcomes Participants will…  receive a brief review of last session  receive in depth instruction in vocabulary techniques that have broad application to expository text  be able to apply these techniques in the classroom

3 Secondary Literacy Ideally, secondary literacy would focus solely on “... the core of reading: comprehension, learning while reading, reading in the content areas, and reading in the service of secondary or higher education, of employability, of citizenship.” Reading Next, 2004, p. 1

4 “... as many as one out of every ten adolescents has serious difficulties in identifying words.” Curtis and Longo, Adolescents and Literacy: Reading for the 21 st Century, p. 8

5 Reading Activity

6 Accuracy Independent – 98% to 100% Instructional – 95% to 98% Frustrational – Below 95% To be successful on Oregon’s Reading & Literature Assessment, students needed to be at the independent level

7 Comprehension Requires California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual Word Recognition Speed & Accuracy Language Comprehension Vocabulary, syntax, morphology, semantics, pragmatics Knowledge of Text Structures Narration, exposition, poetry, other Comprehension Strategies Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up” strategies, coping with task requirements Background Knowledge Content and language Motivation and Attention Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending 7

8 Comprehension Requires California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual Word Recognition Speed & Accuracy Language Comprehension Vocabulary, syntax, morphology, semantics, pragmatics Knowledge of Text Structures Narration, exposition, poetry, other Comprehension Strategies Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up” strategies, coping with task requirements Background Knowledge Content and language Motivation and Attention Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending 8

9 Comprehension Requires California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual Word Recognition Speed & Accuracy Language Comprehension Vocabulary, syntax, morphology, semantics, pragmatics Knowledge of Text Structures Narration, exposition, poetry, other Comprehension Strategies Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up” strategies, coping with task requirements Background Knowledge Content and language Motivation and Attention Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending 9

10 Comprehension Requires California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual Word Recognition Speed & Accuracy Language Comprehension Vocabulary, syntax, morphology, semantics, pragmatics Knowledge of Text Structures Narration, exposition, poetry, other Comprehension Strategies Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up” strategies, coping with task requirements Background Knowledge Content and language Motivation and Attention Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending 10

11 Comprehension Requires California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual Word Recognition Speed & Accuracy Language Comprehension Vocabulary, syntax, morphology, semantics, pragmatics Knowledge of Text Structures Narration, exposition, poetry, other Comprehension Strategies Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up” strategies, coping with task requirements Background Knowledge Content and language Motivation and Attention Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending 11

12 Comprehension Requires California Reading & Literature Project/ AB 1086 Training Manual Word Recognition Speed & Accuracy Language Comprehension Vocabulary, syntax, morphology, semantics, pragmatics Knowledge of Text Structures Narration, exposition, poetry, other Comprehension Strategies Monitoring during reading, using “fix-up” strategies, coping with task requirements Background Knowledge Content and language Motivation and Attention Needs, purposes, and intentions for comprehending 12

13 What does the research say?

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16 TWO PRONG APPROACH READING INSTRUCTION CONTENT LITERACY

17 A comprehensive literacy solution for middle and high schools Reading teachers must teach them basic and advanced reading skills as intensively and skillfully as the school can manage. Content area teachers must be part of the solution Torgesen 2006

18 Academic Content Competence: Every Student Succeeding (ACCESS) Provide all students access to the content being taught Ensure opportunity to reinforce content literacy and reading skills Increase the amount students receive in reading instruction without taking away from content ACCESS

19 ACCESS Toolkit Academic Content Competence: Every Student Succeeding

20 Access for ALL Students Special Education English Language Learners Striving Readers At-Risk Learners

21 ACCESS “All students, regardless of their personal characteristics, backgrounds, or physical challenges, must have opportunities to study – and support to learn […]. Equity does not mean that every student should receive identical instruction; instead, it demands that reasonable and appropriate accommodations be made as needed to promote access and attainment for all students.” EDThoughts: What We Know About Mathematics Teaching and Learning 2002 McRel

22 A Framework Based on Research Combines research on: Before/During/After Reading Strategies Big Ideas of Reading – Decoding (phonemic awareness and phonics) – Fluency – Vocabulary – Comprehension

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24 New Word Meanings Materials A List of Key Terms or Vocabulary Words From the Lesson An Overhead Transparency of the New Word Meanings Template A Copy of the New Word Meanings Template for Each Student Steps: 1.Identify 4 or 5 vocabulary words or key terms from the lesson and write them on the overhead transparency or on the board. 2. Direct students to read the words and then write them in the boxes on the left side of their paper. 3. Direct students to write these words in the boxes on the left side of their paper. 4. Define and explain the key terms and help students list the critical attributes of the word in the middle box. 5. Teacher asks class to suggest a sentence, an example, or a picture that will represent the word. After discussing ideas, the class completes the remaining box with their representation of the word. 6.Students should keep their “New Word Meanings” pages in a binder. Words from previous lessons should be reviewed periodically. Strand: Using Content Vocabulary Strategy: Developing Word Power When: Before the Lesson Research Basis: By using content vocabulary, students build necessary background knowledge, connect this new learning to prior knowledge, and increase the frequency of practice of the new vocabulary in rich context.

25 ACCESS Toolkit techniques feature 1. Explicit Instruction which: is teacher directed relies on clear explanations guides student use (“I do it, we do it, you do it”) precedes application activities 2. Active Engagement which: requires written responses and/or oral responses (individual, choral and/or with a partner)

26 Transportable & Transparent Transportable = using strategies learned in one class to comprehend in another Transparent = strategies that become part of a student’s thinking and automatically applied “When strategies are transportable and transparent, students focus more on the content being taught than on how they are being taught.” Ivy & Fisher, Creating Literacy Rich Schools for Adolescents, ASCD, 2006

27 De coding “No comprehension strategies are powerful enough to compensate for not being able to read the words within a text.” Archer, Gleason, Vachon, 2003

28 Decoding Successful Readers Read multisyllabic words and use strategies to figure out unknown words Make connections between letter patterns and sounds and use this understanding to read words Break unknown words into syllables during reading Use word analysis strategies to break difficult or long words into meaningful parts such as inflectional endings, prefixes, suffixes, and roots Struggling Readers May read single-syllable words effortlessly but have difficulty decoding longer multisyllabic words May lack knowledge of the ways in which sounds map to print Have difficulty breaking words into syllables Often do not use word analysis strategies to break words into syllables From Effective Instruction for Adolescent Struggling Readers, A Practice Brief, Center on Instruction, 2008

29 Decoding Techniques Working With Words Working with Word Families

30 Fluency Accuracy Rate Expression

31 Fluency Successful Readers Read words per minute (at the middle school level) depending on the nature and difficulty of the text Decode words accurately and automatically Group words into meaningful chunks and phrases Read with expression Combine multiple tasks while reading (e.g., decoding, phrasing, understanding and interpreting) Struggling Readers Read slowly and laboriously May continue to struggle with decoding or may decode correctly but slowly May not pause at punctuation or recognize phrases Often lack voice or articulation of emotion while reading May lack proficiency in individual skills that result in dysfluent reading and limit comprehension From Effective Instruction for Adolescent Struggling Readers, A Practice Brief, Center on Instruction, 2008

32 Fluency Techniques Cloze Reading Choral Reading

33 Vocabulary The knowledge of words and word meanings.

34 Vocabulary Successful Readers Are exposed to a breadth of vocabulary words in conversations and print at home and at school from a very early age Have word consciousness Understand most words when they are reading (at least 90%) and can make sense of unknown words to build their vocabulary knowledge Learn words incrementally, through multiple exposures to new words Have content-specific prior knowledge that helps them understand how words are used in a particular context Struggling Readers Have limited exposure to new words May not enjoy reading, and therefore do not select reading as an independent activity May lack word consciousness, including an awareness of the complex and varied nature of words in written and oral language Are unable to comprehend consistently what they read or to learn new words from reading Lack the variety of experiences and exposures necessary to gain deep understanding of new words Often have limited content-specific prior knowledge that is insufficient to support word learning From Effective Instruction for Adolescent Struggling Readers, A Practice Brief, Center on Instruction, 2008

35 VOCABULARY Can be acquired incidentally via: – Oral language experience – Wide reading Volume of words read Frequency of new/unfamiliar words read Can be acquired intentionally via: – Explicit instruction Specific word instruction Word learning strategies From Vocabulary Handbook, Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006

36 VARIATION IN AMOUNT OF INDEPENDENT READING %Independent ReadingWords Read Minutes Per DayPer Year ,358, ,823, ,146, , , , , , , , Adapted from Anderson, Wilson and Fielding (1988)

37 The “Matthew Effect” The rich get richer and the poor get poorer. Stanovich, K.E., 1986

38 FREQUENCY OF NEW/UNFAMILIAR WORDS SOURCERARE WORDS PER 1000 WORDS Abstracts of scientific articles128 Newspapers68.3 Popular Magazines65.7 Comic Books53.5 Adult Books52.7 Children’s Books30.9 Cartoon Shows30.8 Courtroom expert witness testimony28.4 Prime-time adult TV shows22.7 Prime-time children’s TV shows20.2 Conversations of college graduates to friends or spouses 17.3 Preschool books16.3 Hayes & Ahrens (1998)

39 VOCABULARY Can be acquired incidentally via: – Oral language experience – Wide reading Volume of words read Frequency of new/unfamiliar words read Can be acquired intentionally via: – Explicit instruction Specific word instruction Word learning strategies From Vocabulary Handbook, Diamond & Gutlohn, 2006

40 The Three Tier System Tier One – Basic Words (the, and, food) Tier Two – Words which occur frequently in language, central to comprehension (balcony, murmur, splendid) Tier Three – Low frequency “specialized” words (anthracite, mycelium, shoal) Beck & McKeown (1985)

41 Alexander Graham Bell is known as the inventor of the telephone. His assistant was named Thomas A. Watson. Together, Bell and Watson discovered how sound, including speech, could be transmitted through wires, and Bell received a patent for such a device. In 1876, the telephone was officially invented and the first telephone company was founded on July 9, 1877.

42 The road that led to Treegap had been trod out long before by a herd of cows who were, to say the least, relaxed. It wandered along in curves and easy angles, swayed off and up in a pleasant tangent to the top of a small hill, ambled down again between fringes of bee- hung clover, and then cut sideways across the meadow. From Tuck Everlasting

43 The road that led to Treegap had been trod out long before by a herd of cows who were, to say the least, relaxed. It wandered along in curves and easy angles, swayed off and up in a pleasant tangent to the top of a small hill, ambled down again between fringes of bee- hung clover, and then cut sideways across the meadow. From Tuck Everlasting

44 What is a Plant? Plants are members of the kingdom Plantae. Plants are multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose. They develop from multicellular embryos and carry out photosynthesis using green pigments chlorophyll a and b. Plants include trees, shrubs, and grasses as well as other organisms such as mosses and ferns.

45 Selection of vocabulary words Big idea words related to lesson concepts (“characterization”, “flashback”) “Academic Toolkit” or “Mortar” words that are high frequency across disciplines (“compare”, “chronology”) “Disciplinary Toolkit” or “Brick” words that are high frequency within disciplines (“plot”, “idioms”) Words to engage in literate discourse regarding a topic (relevant to theme, issues – especially with narrative text) Kevin Feldman, Ed.D. “Developing Content Literacy in Mixed Ability Secondary Classrooms, Grades 4-12 Presented at SOPRIS West Oregon Coast Summer Institute, 2006.

46 Vocabulary List Sources Marzano, Robert J., Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement, 2004 Coxhead, Averil, shtml shtml

47 The “Bottom Line” Rationale for DIRECTLY Teaching Vocabulary “Given the importance of academic background knowledge, and the fact that vocabulary is such an essential aspect of it, one of the most crucial services that teachers can provide, particularly for students who do not come from academically advantaged backgrounds, is systematic instruction in important academic terms.” Marzano & Pickering, 2005

48 Vocabulary Techniques Power Words New Word Meanings Quick Words Semantic Feature Analysis Original Sentences Yes/No/Why Completion Activity

49 3 Minute Reflection Minute 1: Summarize the key points of today’s presentation. Minute 2: Explain how these key points added to your thinking. Minute 3: Pose questions about points that require clarification.

50 Next Steps Session 3 (February 5) – Brief Review – Comprehension Techniques – Putting it all together

51 Resources Reading Next, Alliance for Excellent Education, Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents, A Guidance Document from the Center on Instruction, Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices, 51


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