Presentation on theme: "Reading Comprehension"— Presentation transcript:
1 Reading Comprehension Prepared byPatrice BucciTitle IRoberts School
2 Nell Duke, P. David Pearson, Stephanie L. Strachan, Alison K. Billman “If learning to read effectively is a journey toward ever increasing ability to comprehend texts, then teachers are the tour guides, ensuring that students stay on course, pausing to make sure they appreciate the landscape of understanding, and encouraging the occasional diversion down an inviting and interesting cul-de-sac or by way.”Nell Duke, P. David Pearson, Stephanie L. Strachan, Alison K. Billman
3 What Reading Scholars Have to Say about Reading Comprehension “Reading is not simply recognizing meaning that is written in a text. Reading requires that meaning be constructed with text. In other words, reading is a transaction in which the reader brings purposes and life experiences to the text.”Doug Fisher, Dianne Lapp,Nancy Frey
4 What Reading Scholars Have to Say about Reading Comprehension ( cont.) Comprehension strategies are thoughtful behaviors that students use to facilitate their understanding as they read.*Afflerbach, Pearson, & Paris, 2008Text comprehension can be improved by instruction that helps readers use specific comprehension strategiesStudents can be taught to use comprehension strategiesText Comprehension is purposeful and activeText comprehension can be taught through explicit instruction* Put Reading First, 2001
5 What Reading Scholars Have to Say about Reading Comprehension ( cont.) Reading Comprehension emphasizes both what the author has written and the readers ability to use their background knowledge and thinking ability to make sense of what they read.Reading comprehension is the process of simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language.Extracting meaning is to understand what the author has stated.Constructing meaning is to interpret what the author has said by bringing ones abilities, knowledge and experiences to what he or she is reading.IES WWC Practice Guide
6 What Reading Scholars Have to Say about Reading Comprehension “Comprehension strategies are procedures that guide students as they attempt to read and write.”- National Reading Panel, 2000“Readers bring to the reading event their cognitive capabilities, purposes for reading, knowledge of language and the world, and prior experiences. Readers draw upon these resources to make sense of the texts they encounter.”Frank Serafini, The Reading Workshop
7 Comprehension Strategies Students learn to use a variety of cognitive and metacognitive strategies to ensure that they comprehend what they are reading.Important comprehension strategies:Activating Prior KnowledgeMaking connectionsDetermining ImportanceDrawing InferencesUsing Fix-Up Strategies ( Monitoring)QuestioningMaking Mental Images ( Visualizing)SummarizingTompkins, 2010
8 Comprehension Constructing meaning Involves utilizing comprehension strategies( this is the reading part)Conveying MeaningInvolves retelling or summarizing textCan be Text Centered or Student Centered( this is the response part)
9 Teaching for Strategies Strategies to Sustain Processing“Fix up Strategies”Self-MonitoringSelf CorrectingSearching cuesSolving Words: Taking words apart while readingStrategies for Expanding ThinkingPredicting/PreviewingAccessing/Developing Prior KnowledgeMaking ConnectionsQuestioningDetermining the Big IdeaInferringSummarizingVisualizingFountas/Pinnell
10 Factors that Effect Comprehension Reader Factors:Readers level of background knowledgeReaders vocabulary knowledgeReaders oral fluencyReaders ability to use skills and strategiesReaders level of motivation and engagementText Factors:Readers familiarity/knowledge of genreReaders knowledge/understanding of text structuresReaders knowledge/understanding of text featuresTompkins, 2010
11 Motivation and Engagement: Many factors contribute to involvement in reading and writing Teachers show they care about their studentsTeacher Attitude:Student ownership of Learning- Importance of ChoiceShare reading and writing for authentic purposesCommunity:Positive Feedback and specific praiseRewards:Tompkins, 2010)
12 Best Practices10 essential elements of effective reading comprehension Instruction that research suggests every teacher should engage in to foster reading comprehension:1.Build disciplinary and world knowledge.2.Provide exposure to volume and range of texts.3.Provide motivating texts and contexts for reading.4.Teach strategies for comprehending.5.Teach text structures.6.Engage students in discussion.7. Build vocabulary and language knowledge8.Integrate reading and writing.9. Observe and assess.10. Differentiate instruction.-Duke & Pearson, et al, 2002
13 Role of the Teacher Know the reader Know what comprehension strategies are used and neglectedKnow the demands of the textFacilitate understanding….Think: Conversation, not interrogation
14 Implications for Teaching Teaching for Comprehension Strategies:Instructional Practices:Interactive Read AloudShared readingGuided ReadingTransactional Strategy InstructionConcept Oriented Reading InstructionQtA ( Questioning the Author)DRTA ( Directed Reading Thinking Activity)Keeping in mind the importance of :ModelingGradual Release of ResponsibilityDialogic thinking/talkingAnchor Charts to chart thinking, keep track of thinking, a visual map of the child’s/groups feed forward/feed backward thinking
16 Anchor ChartsAnchor charts are a record of thinking and learning. They are co-constructed by both teacher and students. They should have a prominent place in the classroom for teachers and students to refer to.
17 Comprehension: Teachers need to engage in explicit comprehension instruction. Through modeling teachers can make comprehension more visible.When…Construct MeaningConvey MeaningPre-readingActivate Schema, Prior KnowledgeBuild prior knowledgePreview TextAsk QuestionsSet PurposeScaffolds/Supports:Anticipation guides,BrainstormingKWL Charts,During ReadingMake ConnectionsVisualizeInferUse Fix up Strategies as neededDetermine the Big IdeaDouble/Triple Entry JournalsGraphic OrganizersSticky notesT-Charts,After ReadingSynthesizeSummarizeQuestions the AuthorRespondCreate project to demonstrate learningReading Logs , ConferencesComprehension is a multifaceted thinking process in which students engage with text. Readers construct meaning by interacting with the text.Tompkins, 2010
18 Struggling Readers/ ELL Learners Reasons Comprehension is difficult:Limited background knowledgeLimited cultural knowledgeDifficulty with figurative languageMismatch between reading level and English proficiency levelWays to Support these learners:Careful selection of textBuild background knowledge and hierarchical knowledgeFront-load, pre-teach important vocabularyExplicitly model use of comprehension strategiesUtilize interactive reading aloud/think aloud instructional practiceTompkins, 2010)
19 AssessmentAn effective reading program includes assessment of all the essential components of reading: alphabetics/phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, comprehension and vocabulary.Purposes of assessment practices:1. Identify skills and strategies that need review2. Monitor student progress3.Guide teacher instruction4.Demonstrate effectiveness of instruction5. Provide teachers with information on how instruction can be improved.Why?“We want our ongoing reading assessments to provide us with evidence that students are using systems of strategic actions across instructional texts”Fountas & Pinnell“We assess students for four reasons:1. Screening2. Diagnosis3. Progress monitoring4. Outcome measurement”David Pearson
20 Questions to Consider when choosing assessment tools: Does the tool you used yield evidence of:Comprehension strategy use?Use of strategies on text ( fix up strategies)?Instructional level? Independent Level?Highlight focus for further instruction?Show evidence of progress?Measure students growth in the reading process? Or Measure students growth within standards based curriculum? Both?
21 Assessment Tools Tools that assess how students construct meaning: ( most neglected)Running RecordsMiscue AnalysisDRA, QRIRubricsTools that assess how students convey meaning:( most used)Retellings/responsesRubricsReading response logsWhich tools assessed how students construct meaning, which tools assessed how children convey meaning?Which do both?
22 Assessment: Consider the Reader Understanding the “reader” involves considering:the child’s prior experiences ( background knowledge, prior knowledge, hierarchical knowledge)The child’s decoding knowledgeThe child’s word knowledgeThe child’s knowledge of language( this includes “book language” as well as oral language)
23 The Challenge?The challenge for us is to assure use of a variety of assessments that will allow us to:Observe and analyze the readerObserve and analyze both the process( strategic behaviors that construct meaning) and the products ( responses/retellings that convey meaning)Provide us with evidence of progressAllow for planning for further instruction
24 If…( based on assessment)…then…(instructional possibilities are)… If…( based on assessment)…then…(instructional possibilities are)… -What's’ After Assessment, Kathy Strickland 2005If the student…Then present opportunities for…Work on…-Reads word by word-Repeated reading, readers theaterModeling fluent reading through shared reading, read aloud-Reads slowly but comprehends-Re-reading, readers theater, writing text for struggling readersModeling fluent reading, shared reading , read aloud-Reads slowly and comprehension is compromised-Activate prior knowledge, set purpose, use anticipation guides, KWL,Take time for pre-reading activities, DRTA, Think aloud, careful selection of text-Reads fluently but can’t retell-Teach retelling, webbing, story mapping, story frames, anticipation guidesGuided reading, use of reciprocal teaching, DRTA-Unable to identify main idea, infer, make connections- Literature circles, response logs, story mapping, use of graphic organizersHelp reader understand how to examine text, discuss and revisit story-Has problems with sight words-Help reader build a repertoire of sight words, use word walls,Word study activities-Has little interest in reading- Help reader set purpose, authentic purpose for reading, choiceInteractive read aloud, shared reading, improving self efficacy-Has difficulty with new, unfamiliar or vocabulary words-Help reader understand that reading is not just reading words, help in use of three cueing systemsCloze activities, structural analysis, contextual analysis, word consciousness
25 Differentiation Characteristics of Differentiated Instruction: Student achievement levels differ according to their interests, preferred ways of learning, as well as ability. When teachers differentiate instruction, they modify instructional programs so that all students can be successful.Teachers modify instruction by differentiating:ContentProcessProductCharacteristics of Differentiated Instruction:High StandardsAssessment Instruction LinkFlexible groupingMatching students with textVaried instructional activitiesInstructional modificationsTompkins, 2010
28 Suggested Reading Mosaic of Thought, Ellin Keene Strategies that Work, Stephanie HarveyReading with Meaning, Debbie MillerTeaching for Comprehension and Fluency, Fountas and PinnellTeaching Struggling Readers, Carol LyonsLessons in Comprehension, Frank SerafiniWhat Really Matters for Struggling Readers, Richard AllingtonTeaching for Deep Comprehension, Linda DornComprehension Instruction, Michael PressleyOn Solid Ground, Sharon TaberskiComprehension Going Forward, Ellin Keene,To Understand, Ellin KeeneReading Assessment, Peter AfflerbachReading Essentials, Regie Routman
30 ReferencesTompkins, G., (2010). Literacy for the 21st Century, Boston, MA, Pearson Samuels, S.J., & Farstrup, A.E. (2011). What Research Has to Say About Reading Instruction (4th ed.). Newark, DE: International Reading Association Fisher, D.,Frey, N., and Lapp, D., (2009). In A Reading State of Mind. International Reading Association, Newark DE Duke, N.K., & Pearson, P.D. (2002). Effective practices for developing reading comprehension. In A.E. Farstrup & S.J. Samuels (Eds.), What research has to say about reading instruction (3rd ed., pp ). Newark, De: International Reading Association. Fountas, I., & Pinnell, G., ( 2006).Teaching for Comprehension and Fluency, Heinemann, Portsmouth, NH Keene,E.O., & Zimmerman, S. ( 1997). Mosaic of thought: Teaching comprehension in a readers workshop. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Anderman, E., & Anderman, L., (2010). Classroom Motivation. Upper Saddle River, NJ Pearson Allington, Richard. (2001). What Really Matters for Struggling Readers. New York: Addison-Wesley Educational Publishers Inc. Tomlinson, C. A., (1995). Differentiating instruction for advanced learners in the mixed-ability middle school classroom. ERIC Digest ED Johnston, Peter. (2010), RTI in Literacy- Responsive and Comprehensive. Newark, DE: International Reading Association Strickland, K.,(2005). What's’ After Assessment?. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann Shanahan, T., & North Central Regional Educational Lab., N. L. (2005). The National Reading Panel Report. Practical Advice for Teachers. Learning Point Associates / North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL), Retrieved from EBSCOhost. Shanahan, T., Callison, K., Carriere, C., Duke, N. K., Pearson, P., Schatschneider, C., & ... What Works Clearinghouse, (. (2010). Improving Reading Comprehension in Kindergarten through 3rd Grade: IES Practice Guide. NCEE What Works Clearinghouse, Retrieved from EBSCOhost.