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1 Reading Comprehension in a Nutshell Sara Humphreys & Gail Neff VANAS, Caracas 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Reading Comprehension in a Nutshell Sara Humphreys & Gail Neff VANAS, Caracas 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Reading Comprehension in a Nutshell Sara Humphreys & Gail Neff VANAS, Caracas 2010

2 2 About Us Sara enjoys finding out how to unlock reading strategies for her grade 4 students. Gail is constantly on a search to help her grade 2 students naturally do what good readers do.

3 3 Importance of Strategic Reading “If you read and comprehend what you read, it stays in your brain. But if you read and don’t comprehend what you read, it will just go in one side of your brain and SWOOSH real fast right out the other side.” Jake Scheffler, Grade 7

4 4 Why Use Strategies? To set a purpose To see how others connect To understand characters To have a clearer picture To be actively involved (keep from being bored) To better remember what we read To answer the questions we have To extend our existing knowledge To understand complex concepts

5 5 The Reader’s Importance “Readers usually grossly underestimate their own importance. If a reader cannot create a book along with the writer, the book will never come alive…the author and reader know each other. They meet in the bridge of words.” Madeleine L’Engle

6 6 Our BIG SIX 1. Making Connections 2. Visualizing 3. Predicting & Inferring 4. Questioning 5. Monitoring & Clarifying 6. Synthesizing

7 7 Making Connections Schema is the background knowledge and experience readers connect with the text. Good readers access their schema naturally making connections as they read.

8 8 Three in One

9 9 How To Teach Connections Model how to make meaningful connections that help you understand the text better. Provide plenty of guided practice. Challenge students to analyze how their connections contribute to their understanding.

10 10 Readers’ Tools for Connections Providing our young readers with bookmarks helps to remind them of the strategy they are practicing.

11 11 Readers’ Tools for Connections Double Entry Journal Ideas from My BookMy Connections T-S T-T T-W

12 12 Readers’ Tools for Connections The Connection Pie

13 13 Readers’ Tools for Connections A “Connection Pie” by a 2nd grade student Rotten Ralph’s Rotten Christmas Ramona Quimby

14 14 Readers’ Tools for Connections

15 15

16 16

17 17

18 18 3 Point Interview Making Connections/Using Schema 1. When you read that story did it remind you of anything you know about? What? Why did it remind you? 2. Are there things you know about or things in your life that help you to understand this book? 3. What do you understand now that you didn’t understand before? Adaptation of Major Point Interview found in Mosaic of Thought (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997).

19 19 Assessing Connections 1234-5 Makes no connections between text and background knowledge. Makes simple connections, but cannot explain them, or the connections are irrelevant to the text. Relates background knowledge/ experience to text and expands interpretations by using schema. Explains how schema enriches interpretation of text and makes connections beyond life experience.

20 20 Visualizing Visualizing is the creation of a vivid mental picture in the mind. Good readers picture what is happening while they are reading.

21 21 Visualizing “Sketch and Stretch”

22 22 How To Teach Visualizing Model how to make meaningful mental images that help you understand the text better. Provide plenty of guided practice. Challenge students to analyze how their visualizations contribute to their understanding.

23 23 Readers’ Tools for Visualizing Providing our young readers with bookmarks helps to remind them of the strategy they are practicing.

24 24 Readers’ Tools for Visualizing

25 25 Readers’ Tools for Visualizing Ralph Fletcher

26 26 3 Point Interview Visualizing 1. When you were reading this story did you make any pictures or images in your head? 2. Do the pictures or images help you to understand the story better? 3. What do you understand now about the story that you didn’t understand before? Adaptation of Major Point Interview found in Mosaic of Thought (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997).

27 27 Assessing Visualizing 1234-5 Cannot describe sensory images. Describes some visual or other sensory images; may be tied directly to text or description of the picture in the text. Describes own mental images, usually visual; images are somewhat elaborated from the literal text or existing picture. Creates and describes multi- sensory images that extend and enrich the text, and can explain how those images enhance comprehension.

28 28 Predicting and Inferring Inferring is making personal meaning from text that is not stated explicitly. It is a mental combining of a reader’s schema and what is read. Predicting is using what you know to make a good guess about what will happen next.

29 29 Predicting and Inferring Good readers think about what’s going to happen and make predictions based on what they read. Good readers revise their inferences as they read more, and when they hear other interpretations.

30 30 Predicting and Inferring

31 31 How to Teach Predicting and Inferring Model how to make meaningful predictions and inferences that help you understand the text better. Provide plenty of guided practice. Challenge students to analyze how their predictions and inferences contribute to their understanding.

32 32 Readers’ Tools for Predicting and Inferring Providing our young readers with bookmarks helps to remind them of the strategy they are practicing.

33 33 Readers’ Tools for Predicting and Inferring An “I bet…” journal entry from a 2nd grader.

34 34 Readers’ Tools for Predicting and Inferring

35 35 Readers’ Tools for Predicting and Inferring When good readers come to words that are unfamiliar, they search for context clues and make a good guess.

36 36 Readers’ Tools for Predicting and Inferring

37 37 3 Point Interview Making Predictions and Inferences 1. Can you predict what is about to happen? Why did you make that prediction? What helped you in the story figure that out? 2. What did the author mean by………? What in the story helped you know? 3. What do you understand now that you didn’t understand before? Adaptation of Major Point Interview found in Mosaic of Thought (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997).

38 38 Assessing Predicting and Inferring 1234-5 Attempts to make predictions or draw conclusions w/o using text or misinterprets text. Draws conclusions or makes predictions that are inconsistent with the text. Draws conclusions and/or makes predictions and can explain how from the text. Develops predictions, interpretations, and conclusions about the text that include connections.

39 39 Questioning Asking questions helps students clarify and deepen understanding of the text. Good readers ask themselves questions as they read.

40 40 Questioning Thick (Inferential) vs. Thin (Factual)

41 41 How to Teach Questioning Model how to ask meaningful questions that help you understand the text better. Provide plenty of guided practice. Challenge students to analyze how their questions contribute to their understanding.

42 42 Readers’ Tools for Questioning Providing our young readers with bookmarks helps to remind them of the strategy they are practicing.

43 43 Readers’ Tools for Questioning Source: readinglady.com

44 44 Readers’ Tools for Questioning

45 45 Readers’ Tools for Questioning.

46 46 Readers’ Tools for Questioning

47 47 3 Point Interview Asking Questions 1. What did you wonder about while you were reading this text? 2. What additional questions do you have about this book now? What are you still curious about? 3. What do you understand now that you didn’t understand before?

48 48 Assessing Questioning 1234-5 Asks only literal questions. Asks questions only to clarify meaning. Asks questions to deepen the meaning of the text; may explain how the questions enhance comprehension. Uses questions to challenge the text (author’s purpose, theme, or point of view).

49 49 Monitor and Clarify Become aware of their thinking as they read. Detect obstacles and confusions that derail understanding. Understand how strategies can help repair meaning when it breaks down. Readers need explicit instruction to:

50 50 Monitor and Clarify Good readers STOP to think about their reading and know what to do when they don’t understand.

51 51 How to Teach Monitor and Clarify Model how to STOP and think aloud by paraphrasing the text. Model choosing “Fix-up” strategies to clarify misunderstanding. Provide plenty of guided practice. Challenge students to analyze how their paraphrasing and “fixing” contributes to their understanding.

52 52 Fix-up Strategies Notice when you no longer understand. Stop and go back to clarify. Reread to enhance understanding. Read ahead to clarify meaning. Identify what is confusing. Talk with someone else. Ask questions. Read aloud slowly.

53 53 Readers’ Tools for Monitoring and Clarifying Providing our young readers with bookmarks helps to remind them of the strategy they are practicing.

54 54 Readers’ Tools for Monitoring and Clarifying Paraphrasing as I read… Or “Leaving Tracks” as you read to help you pay attention to what you read.

55 55 Readers’ Tools for Monitoring and Clarifying Buddy Reading EEKK Elbow, Elbow Knee, Knee “You read. I paraphrase. Let’s switch.”

56 56 Readers’ Tools for Monitoring and Clarifying While I was reading….. I used the Fix-up Strategy…. Fix-up Strategies T-Chart

57 57 Readers’ Tools for Monitoring and Clarifying Insert Tools

58 58 3 Point Interview Monitoring and Clarifying 1. Did you have any problems while you were reading this story? What could you do to solve your problem? 2. When you are reading other stories what kinds of problems do you have? What are other ways you solve those problems? 3. What do you understand now that you didn’t understand before? Adaptation of Major Point Interview found in Mosaic of Thought (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997).

59 59 Monitoring and Clarifying 1234-5 Little or no conscious awareness of reading process. Identifies difficulties, comprehension breakdown is often at word level, little sense of need to solve a problem. Identifies problems and can use a strategy to fix a comprehension breakdown at the sentence level. Uses more than one strategy to build meaning when comprehension breaks down; articulates which strategies are best.

60 60 Synthesizing Synthesizing is the combining of separate pieces of knowledge into a single idea or understanding.

61 61 Synthesizing Good readers constantly modify their understanding by: discarding information adding new ideas creating new interpretations.

62 62 How to Teach Synthesizing Model how to analyze and discard unimportant information. Provide plenty of guided practice. Challenge students to analyze how their synthesizing contributes to their understanding.

63 63 Readers’ Tools for Synthesizing Providing our young readers with bookmarks helps to remind them of the strategy they are practicing.

64 64 Readers’ Tools for Synthesizing

65 65 Readers’ Tools for Synthesizing

66 66 3 Point Interview Synthesizing 1. Are there some parts of this story that are more important than others? Why do you think they are the most important? 2. If you were to tell another person about the story you just read, and you could only use a few sentences, what would you tell them? 3. What do you understand now that you didn’t understand before? Adaptation of Major Point Interview found in Mosaic of Thought (Keene & Zimmerman, 1997).

67 67 Synthesizing 1234-5 Stops occasionally or at the end of the text and identifies some text elements. Stops periodically to identify text events and may incorporate schema into interpretation. Stops frequently to reflect on text meaning; uses own schema and story elements to enhance meaning; may identify key themes. Stops frequently to reflect on text meaning; relates to the story or genre in a personal way; can identify key themes; may articulate how this process has created new meaning.

68 68 Resources Consulted Harvey, Stephanie, & Goudvis, Anne (2000). Strategies That Work. Stenhouse. Keene, E. O., & Zimmerman, S. (1997). Mosaic of Thought. Heinemann. Fountas, Irene C., & Pinnell, Gay Su. (2001). Guiding Readers and Writers- Grades 3-6. Heinemann. Miller, Debbie. (2002). Reading With Meaning. Stenhouse Publishers. Kump, Laura. (2010). The Reading Lady. Available: http://www.readinglady.com

69 69 Appendix Some more helpful stuff for you to use in your Readers’ Workshop!

70 70 Connections Bookmarks

71 71 Thinking Personally

72 72 Text to Self Connections 10 Books That Work The Art Lesson, de Paolo Koala Lou, Fox Wemberly Worried, Henkes I Hate English, Levine Frog and Toad, Lobel My Rotten Red-Headed Older Brother, Polacco The Relatives Came, Rylant Ira Sleeps Over, Waber Hazel’s Amazing Mother, Wells William’s Doll, Zolotow

73 73 Thinking of Other Books

74 74 Text to Text Connections 10 Books that Work Oliver Button is a Sissy, de Paolo William’s Doll, Zolotow My Rotten Red-Headed Older Brother, Polacco The Pain and the Great One, Blume Julius, the Baby of the World, Henkes Owen, Henkes The Surprise Wednesday, Bunting Thank you, Mr. Falkner, Polacco Now One Foot, Now Another, dePaolo The Two of Them, Aliki

75 75 Thinking Beyond

76 76 Text to World Connections 10 Books that Work The Secret Place, Bunting (any Bunting!) The Great Kapok Tree, Cherry Wilfred Gordon McDonald Partridge, Fox A Basket of Bangles: How a Business Grows, Howard Three Brave Women, Martin Planting the Trees of Kenya, Nivola Night in the Country, Rylant Curious George Goes to a Chocolate Factory, Rey The Butter Battle, Seuss One Hen: How One Small Loan Made a Big Difference, Milway

77 77 Visualizing Bookmarks

78 78 Visualizing 10 Books that Work Many Luscious Lollipops, Heller Miss Rumphius, Cooney I’m in Charge of Celebrations, Baylor Twilight Comes Twice, Fletcher Two Bad Ants, Van Allsburg (any Van Allsburg!) Where the Wild Things Are, Sendak The Monster Who Ate My Peas, Schnitzlein Fireflies, Brinkloe Smoky Night, Bunting Heat Wave, Ketteman

79 79 Predict and Infer Bookmarks

80 80 Predicting and Inferring 10 Books that Work How Many Days to America, Bunting Stellaluna, Cannon Click, Clack, Moo: Cows that Type, Cronin Possom Magic, Fox George and Martha, Marshall The Paper Bag Princess, Munsch The Royal Bee, Park Miss Maggie, Rylant Big Bushy Mustache, Soto If You Listen, Zolotow

81 81 Questioning Bookmarks

82 82 Questioning 10 Books that Work Pink and Say, Polacco Brave Irene, Steig Nettie’s Trip South, Turner The Stranger, Van Allsburg The Wise Woman and Her Secret, Merriam Guess What?, Fox The Lotus Seed, Garland Monarch Butterfly, Gibbons Library Lil, Williams Verdi, Cannon

83 83 Monitor and Clarify Bookmarks

84 84 Monitoring and Clarifying 10 Books that Work Grandfather Twilight, Berger Magic School Bus (any of them), Cole The Lotus Seed, Garland The Trip, Keats (any Keats) The Day of Ahmed’s Secret, Parry Keide Tikki Tikki Tembo, Mosel The True Story of the Three Little Pigs, Scieszka The Stranger, Van Allsburg Alexander Who Used to Be Rich…, Viorst Galimoto, Williams

85 85 Synthesizing Bookmarks

86 86 Synthesizing 10 Books that Work Fly Away Home, Bunting Grandfather’s Journey, Say Missing May, Rylant Wilfred Gordon McDonald Partridge, Fox Oliver Button is a Sissy, de Paola The Quiltmaker’s Gift, Brumbeau She’s Wearing a Dead Bird on Her Head, Lasky Charlie Anderson, Abercrombie The Rag Coat, Mills The Three Little Wolves and the Big, Bad Pig, Trivias

87 87


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