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Teaching All Children to Read Kathleen Theodore, MA, Program Specialist Southeast Comprehensive Center

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1 Teaching All Children to Read Kathleen Theodore, MA, Program Specialist Southeast Comprehensive Center

2 Participants will be able to: Understand the key components of effective reading instruction Engage in demonstrations of research-based reading strategies Discuss the importance of improving literacy outcomes within the school improvement process Objectives

3 Report of the National Put Reading First Reading Next Reading Panel Research Base

4 “We can, whenever and wherever we choose, successfully teach all children to read. We already have reams of research, hundreds of successful programs, and thousands of effective schools to show us the way. Whether or not we do it must finally depend on how we feel about the fact that we haven’t so far.” McEwan, 1998

5 Phonemic awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension strategies Identifying words accurately and fluently Constructing meaning once words are identified Research indicates that students need to acquire skills and knowledge in at least five main areas in order to become proficient readers. Five Essential Components

6 Systematic and Explicit Instruction

7 What Is Systematic Instruction? Lessons and activities are divided into sequential, manageable steps. Concepts and tasks progress from simple to more complex. Concepts and skills are explicitly defined and order of introduction follows a preplanned sequence.

8 What Is Explicit Instruction? Nothing is left to chance; all skills are taught directly. Practice activities are carefully guided with “instructive” error correction. Practice activities are carefully engineered to produce mastery. Critical skills are developed through carefully monitored instruction, and the focus is on mastery. Review is built into every lesson.

9 Steps of Explicit Instruction Direct Instruction: The teacher explains to the students what they are learning and why. Modeling: The teacher models or demonstrates (how). Guided Practice: The teacher guides and assists students as they learn when or how to apply the strategy. Application: The teacher helps students practice the strategy until they can apply it independently.

10 Explicit Instruction I DO YOU WATCH I DO YOU HELP YOU DO I HELP YOU DO I WATCH Wilhelm, J. D., Baker, T. D., & Dube, J. (2001). Strategic reading: Guiding students to lifelong literacy. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook.

11 Phonemic Awareness (PA) The ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds— phonemes—in spoken words The understanding that sounds in spoken language work together to make words

12 Listening Rhyming and Alliteration Words in a Sentence Onset-rime Syllables Phonemes Simple Complex Isolation Identity Categorization 1 Blending Segmentation 2 Deletion Addition Substitution 3 Levels of Complexity Phonological Awareness Ladder Adapted from Vaughn Gross Center

13 In the English language, all spoken words are constructed from about 44 different phonemes. f – o – g g – o – l – f The English writing system is based on the discovery that we can represent words using marks (letters) to stand for the sounds in words. Understanding Phonemes Joe Torgesen,

14 Why is acquiring phonemic awareness hard for many children? Phonemes are co-articulated in spoken words. traindragon The same thing that makes speech fluent makes reading hard for many children. Acquiring PA Adapted from Joe Torgesen,

15 Children must understand that words in their oral language are composed of small segments of sound in order to comprehend the way that language is represented by print. Without at least emergent levels of phonemic awareness, the rationale for learning individual letter sounds and “sounding out” words is not understandable. Without PA, “phonics” doesn’t make sense! Why Is PA Important? Adapted from Joe Torgesen,

16 Therefore: We must learn to produce and manipulate phonemes and to recognize common confusions in children. PA: The Anchor for Phonics Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling © 2003 Sopris West. All rights reserved.

17 PA Activity: Say-It Move-it

18 The relationship between letters and sounds Alphabetic understanding Readers use these relationships to recognize familiar words accurately and automatically and to decode unfamiliar words. b d  m Phonics Joe Torgesen,

19 Phonics Pronounce this word... blit frachet Joe Torgesen,

20 Demonstration of Explicit Instruction Teaching Letter Sound Correspondences /m/

21 Continuous Blending ra 1.Write r and say /r/. 2.Write a and say /a/. 3.Slide fingers under ra and say /ra/. 4.Write t and say /t/. 5.Slide fingers under rat and say /rat/. 6.Say “The word is rat” and use it in a sentence t (Louisa Moats, Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling)

22 Whole Word Blending sha 1.Point to the digraph sh and say “sound.” 2.Point to the a and say “sound.” 3.Point to the ck and say “sound.” 4.Slide fingers under the whole word to blend it k 4. c (Louisa Moats, Language Essentials for Teachers of Reading and Spelling)

23 Vowel First Blending ra 1.Write a and say /a/. 2.Write t and say /t/. 3.Slide fingers under at and say /at/. 4.Write r and say /r/. 5.Slide fingers under rat and say /rat/. 6.Say “The word is rat” and use it in a sentence t 2. 5.

24 Letter to Sound Linking Initial/Final Consonant Sounds Short Vowels Digraphs and Blends Long Vowel Patterns Other Vowel Patterns Consonant Doubling Plural Endings Compound Words Simple Inflectional Endings Final Y to I Simple Prefixes, Roots, and Base Words The Long Trek Up Mount Decoding

25 Fluency The ability to read text accurately and quickly with expression The bridge between word recognition and comprehension

26 “44% of a representative sample of the nation’s fourth- and eighth-graders were low in fluency.” (NAEP) “Fluency is a neglected skill in many American classrooms, affecting many students’ reading comprehension.” “It provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension.” Why Fluency? Fluency

27 Speed + Accuracy = Fluency Reading quickly and in a meaningful way (prosody) Decoding and comprehending simultaneously Freedom from word identification problems Fluency is derived from the Latin word fluens which means “to flow” Smooth and effortless reading What Is Fluency?

28 Cognitive Desk Space Activity

29 dvancs n nrscnc, spcll nrmgng tchnqus, llw rsrchrs to dcmnt dffrncs btwn go nd pr rdrs. Mgntc rsnnc mgng (MR) nd thr tchnqs llstrt qt cncrtl tht pr rdrs r strgglng wth th bscs,sndng t nd rcgnzng wrds bt b bt. G rdrs, hwvr, hv dvlpd wrd dntfctn hbts tht r sbsmd b th pstrr r bck rs f th brn. Th “pr rdr” pttrns chng whn rmdtn s sccssfl.

30 Who Has Felt Like This?

31 Advances in neuroscience, especially neuroimaging techniques, allow researchers to document differences between good and poor readers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and other techniques illustrate quite concretely that poor readers are struggling with the basics, sounding out and recognizing words bit by bit. Good readers, however, have developed word identification habits that are subsumed by the posterior or back areas of the brain. The “poor reader” patterns change when remediation is successful.

32 Recognize words automatically Read aloud effortlessly and with expression Do not have to concentrate on decoding Can focus on comprehension Put Reading First 2001, p. 22 Fluent Readers...

33 Words per minute Reading with expression Recall/retelling Indicators of Fluency

34 Unfamiliarity with text Limited vocabulary Difficulty with syntax Decoding breakdown Factors That Inhibit Fluency

35 “The fluent reader sounds good, is easy to listen to, and reads with enough expression to help the listener understand and enjoy the material.” Charles Clark, 1999

36 Decoding skills Comprehension skills What Skills Do Students Need to Be Fluent?

37 “The goal in fluency instruction is not fast reading, although that happens to be a by-product of the instruction, but fluent meaning-filled reading.” International Reading Association

38 But why can’t we just do what we’ve always done? Round Robin Oral Reading Each child reads too little; engagement is low Teacher-provided feedback is of low quality Instructional time is wasted Guided Oral Reading

39 Read the same passage several times until the desired rate is reached. Keep reading at the same level until the same rate is reached three times, then move on to a new level and repeat the procedure. Do this daily. Perform at least 3-4 repetitions of the text each day. Repeated Readings

40 What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to communicate effectively. Oral vocabulary refers to words that we use in speaking or recognize in listening. Reading vocabulary refers to words we recognize or use in print.

41 A Longitudinal Study Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children Betty Hart & Todd Risley, 1995

42 Reading Difficulties Begin Here... Actual differences in quantity of words heard In a typical hour, the average child would hear: Low-SES family: 615 words Working-class family: 1,250 words Professional family: 2,153 words

43 What Does the Research Say? Homes rich in communication: Children before the age of 4 have heard 45 million words. Homes that lack rich communication: Children before the age of 4 have heard 13 million words. Hart and Risley, 1996

44 Meaningful Differences Affirmative statements Professional = 30 per hour Working class = 15 per hour Welfare = 6 per hour Hart and Risley, 1996

45 The Achievement Gap It is now well accepted that the chief cause of the achievement gap between socioeconomic groups is a language gap. Hirsch, 2003

46 The Research Says... Most vocabulary is learned indirectly. Some vocabulary must be taught directly.

47 How Are Words Learned Indirectly? Children learn the meanings of most words indirectly through everyday experiences with oral and written language. Everyday experiences include engaging daily in oral language, listening to adults read to them, and reading extensively on their own.

48 Vocabulary can be developed directly when students are explicitly taught both individual words and word-learning strategies. How Are Words Learned Directly?

49 Past Practice: Dictionary “Rote memorization of words and definitions is the least effective instructional method resulting in little long-term effect.” Kameenui, Dixon, & Carine, 1987)

50 Levels of Word Knowledge Never Saw It Before Have Heard It, But Don’t Know What It Means Know Something About It Know It Well/Can Use It in a Sentence

51 You Try It Word Do not know the word Have seen or heard the word Know some- thing about it; can relate it to a situation Know it well, can explain it, use it plethora stupendous pugnacious sensitive dubious

52 How Do We Increase Vocabulary Knowledge? New words are: 1. Encountered repeatedly in context through reading and listening 2. Linked to students’ prior knowledge 3. Connected with other words that are semantically related

53 Bringing Words to Life I. Beck, M. McKeown, & L. Kucan Guilford Press, 2002

54 Which Words to Teach? As a way to begin thinking about which words to teach, consider that words in language have different levels of utility. In this regard, researchers have found the notion of tiers.

55 Three Tiers Tier One consists of the most basic words that rarely require instruction in school. Tier Three includes words whose frequency of use is quite low, often being limited to specific domains. Tier Two are high-frequency words that appear in a wide variety of texts and in oral and written language of mature language users; thus, instruction in these words can add productively to an individual’s language ability. Beck, I. L., Mc Keown, M. G., Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction.

56 Some Criteria for Identifying Tier-Two Words Importance and utility: Words that are characteristics of mature language users and appear across a variety of domains Instructional potential: Words that can be worked with in a variety of ways so that students can build rich representations of them and of their connections to other words and concepts Conceptual understanding: Words for which students understand the general concept but provide precision in describing the concept I. L. Beck, M. G. McKeown, & L. Kucan, 2002

57 Identifying Tier-Two Words in Text Johnny Harrington was a kind master who treated his servants fairly. He was also a successful wool merchant, and his business required that he travel often. In his absence, his servants would tend to the fields and cattle and maintain the upkeep of his mansion. They performed their duties happily, for they felt fortunate to have such a benevolent and trusting master.

58 Tier-Two Words merchant required tend maintain performed fortunate benevolent Students’ Likely Expressions salesperson or a clerk have to take care of keep going did lucky kind

59 You Try It The servants would never comment on this strange occurrence (finding the kitchen clean even though none of them were seen doing the cleaning), each servant hoping the other had tended to the chores. Never would they mention the loud noises they’d hear emerging from the kitchen in the middle of the night. Nor would they admit to pulling the covers under their chins as they listened to the sound of haunting laughter that drifted down the halls to their bedrooms each night. In reality they knew there was a more sinister reason behind their good fortune.

60 Tier-Two Words comment occurrence tended mention emerging admit haunting reality sinister fortune Students’ Likely Expressions something someone says something happening took care of tell coming out to say you did something scary being real scary luck

61 What Is Comprehension? Comprehension is... The reason for reading Purposeful and active thinking in which meaning is constructed and reconstructed through interactions between the text and the reader

62 TextReader Context Comprehension Text structure, vocabulary, print style and font, discourse, genre, motivating features Word recognition, vocabulary, background knowledge, strategy use, inference-making abilities, motivation Environment, purpose, social relations, cultural norms, motivating features (e.g., school/classroom climate, families, peers)

63 Levels of Comprehension Evaluative Inferential Literal “Right There” “Think and Search” or reading between the lines “Think and Search” and reading beyond the lines

64 Characteristics of Effective Reading Passage 1 Passage 2 Passage 3

65 The boy’s arrows were nearly gone so they sat down on the grass and stopped hunting. Over at the edge of the forest they saw Henry making a bow to a small girl who was coming down the road. She had tears in her dress and also tears in her eyes. She gave Henry a note which he brought over to the group of young hunters. Read to the boys, it caused great excitement. After a minute but rapid examination of their weapons, they ran down to the valley. Does were standing near the edge of the lake making an excellent target. Passage 1

66 A newspaper is better than a magazine, and on a seashore is a better place than a street. At first, it is better to run than to walk. Also, you may have to try several times. It takes some skill but it’s easy to learn. Even young children can enjoy it. Once successful, complications are minimal. Birds seldom get too close. One needs lots of room. Rain soaks in very fast. Too many people doing the same thing can also cause problems. If there are no complications, it can be very peaceful. A rock will serve as an anchor. If things break loose from it, however, you will never get a second chance. Passage 2

67 The two boys ran until they came to the driveway. “See, I told you today was good for skipping school,” said Mark. “Mom is never home on Thursday,” he added. The boys strolled across the finely landscaped yard. “I never knew your place was so big,” said Pete. “Yeah, but it’s nicer now than it used to be since Dad had the new stone siding put on and added a fireplace.” There were front and back doors and a side door that led to the garage, which was empty except for three 10-speed bikes.They went in the side door, which Mark said was always open. Pete wanted to see the house so Mark started in the living room. It, like the rest of the downstairs, was newly painted. Mark turned on the stereo, and the noise worried Pete. “Don’t worry, the nearest house is a quarter of a mile away,” Mark shouted. Pete felt more comfortable knowing that no houses could be seen in any direction beyond the huge yard. Passage 3

68 The dining room, with all the china, silver, and cut glass, was no place to play so the boys moved to the kitchen, where they made sandwiches. Mark said they wouldn’t go in the basement because it had been damp ever since the new plumbing was installed. “This is where my Dad keeps his famous paintings and his coin collection,” Mark said as they went into the den. Mark bragged that he could get spending money whenever he needed it since he discovered that his Dad kept $20 bills in the desk drawer. There were three upstairs bedrooms. Mark showed Pete his mother’s closet, which was filled with furs and a locked box that held her jewels. His sister’s room was uninteresting except for the color TV and the new carpet. The big highlight in Mark’s room, however, was a leak in the ceiling where the old roof had rotted.

69 Comprehension Strategies Monitoring comprehension Using graphic and semantic organizers Answering questions Generating questions Recognizing story structure Summarizing Making use of prior knowledge Using mental imagery

70 Improving Literacy Outcomes

71 School Improvement Plan

72 Six Key Elements Commitment to meeting individual student needs at all levels Adopting and implementing a research-based reading curriculum Objective assessment to evaluate student progress and the effectiveness of reading programs Designing and implementing an effective instructional delivery system Maximizing available instructional time Administrative monitoring of student progress and program implementation

73 Improving the Reading Program by Adding Assessment and Intervention Hartsfield Elementary School characteristics: –70% free and reduced lunch (increasing) –65% minority (mostly Black) Elements of curriculum change: –Movement to a more research-based reading curriculum beginning in 1994–1995 school year for K–2 (incomplete implementation) –Improved implementation in 1995–1996 Implementation of screening and more intensive small-group instruction for at-risk students in Fall 1996

74 Improved implementation of research-based comprehensive reading program Screening at beginning of first grade, with additional instructional intervention for those in bottom 30–40% Proportion falling below the 25th percentile in word- reading ability at the end of first grade Average percentile for entire grade (n = 105) Hartsfield Elementary School Progress Over 5 Years

75 Talking Point

76 Review of Key Elements SBRI Assessment SBRR

77 Key Element: SBRR Foundation Scientifically based reading research (SBRR) provides a general knowledge and understanding of the reading research –Phonemic awareness –Phonics –Fluency –Vocabulary –Comprehension

78 Key Element: Assessment Assessment for instructional decision making prepares educators to administer reading assessments and use that data for differentiating instruction, planning PD, and problem solving –Screening –Diagnosis –Progress monitoring –Outcome measures

79 The Heart of Prevention

80 Progress Monitoring: The Teacher’s Map Aim-line A change in intervention

81 The Delivery of Instruction: Instructional Design Principles Big Ideas Mediated scaffolding Conspicuous strategies Strategic integration Primed background knowledge Judicious review

82 The Design Principles Are Structured Around... The schoolwide establishment of long-term reading goals and intermediate performance benchmarks The early identification and frequent monitoring of students experiencing reading difficulties The development of coordinated and differentiated instructional interventions for the full range of learners

83 Talking Point

84 No Excuses Believe in the students Communicate high expectations Meet the students where they are Problem solve

85 3 things I learned 2 things I am going to try 1 thing I want to know more about Reflection Piggyback Wraparound

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