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Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary  Vocabulary Instruction  Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension  Teaching.

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary  Vocabulary Instruction  Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension  Teaching."— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary  Vocabulary Instruction  Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension  Teaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension

2 Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary  Vocabulary Instruction  Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension  Teaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension

3 Predictive Power Of Early Vocabulary  Best kindergarten predictors of 1 st and 2 nd Grades reading achievement:  Phoneme Awareness  Alphabet Knowledge  Best kindergarten predictor of Grades 3 & up reading achievement:  Oral Vocabulary

4 Oral Vocabulary Differences For Disadvantaged Children  Total Oral Vocabulary  2700 words middle SES 1 st graders  1800 words low SES 1 st graders  New Words Per Year Primary Grades  3000 words/year middle SES  1000 words/year low SES  Top high school seniors know 4 times as many words as lower-performing classmates.

5 How Many Words????  18 month needs to learn avg. of ___ new words a day to have avg. vocab. of approx. ______ words by the time he or she is 6 years old (Senechal & Cornell, 1993)  Avg. high school graduate knows approx. ______ words (Nagy & Herman, 1985)  To go from 8,000 to 40,000 in 12 years, a child needs to learn 32,000 words or ____ words a day.  Children typically learn _________ words a year (over 8 words a day) between 3 rd and 12 th grades (Nagy & Anderson, 1984) 5 8,000 40,000 7-8 3,000

6 Vocabulary Used in a Variety of Sources Avg. # of Rare Words (per 1,000) Newspapers Adult books52.7 Comic books53.5 Children’s books Children’s TV20.2 Adult TV22.7 Mr. Rogers Cartoon shows Hayes and Ahrens (1988) 68.3 30.9 2.0 30.8

7 Vocabulary Used in a Variety of Sources Avg. # of Rare Words (per 1,000) Newspapers Adult books Comic books Children’s books Children’s TV Adult TV Mr. Rogers Cartoon shows Hayes and Ahrens (1988)

8 Variation In Amount Of Independent Reading Percentile* RankMinutes of Reading per DayWords Read Per year BooksText**BooksText** 20008,000 10.11.08,00051,000 20.72.421,000134,000 301.84.3106,000251,000 403.26.2200,000421,000 504.69.2282,000601,000 606.513.1432,000722,000 709.616.9622,0001,168,000 8014.224.61,146,0001,697,000 9021.233.41,823,0002,357,000 9865.067.34,358,0004,733,000 *Percentile rank on each measure separately. **Books, magazines and newspapers. Adapted from “Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their Time Outside of School” (1988) by R.C. Anderson, P.T. Wilson, and L.G. Fielding, Reading Research Quarterly 23 (3), p. 292. (5 th graders) Percentile Min. Books Min. Text Words/Yr Books Words/Yr Text 10.11.08,00051,000 504.69.2282,000601,0009021.233.41,823,0002,357,000

9 What is it to “know a word” Eight separate facets of knowledge for a word:  Knowledge of word’s spoken form  Written form  How it behaves in sentences  Words commonly found near the word  Frequency in oral and written language  Conceptual meaning  How and when it is commonly used  Association with other words Nation (1990) from Words and Meanings – see resource slide

10 Continuum of Word Knowledge No knowledge General sense such as knowing if the word has a positive or negative connotation Narrow, context-bound knowledge Having knowledge of a word but not being able to recall it readily enough to use in appropriate situation Rich, decontextualized knowledge of a word’s meaning, its relationship to other words and its metaphorical uses.

11 Now You Try – Check the appropriate category WordKnow well- can explain it Know something about it Have seen or heard the word Do not know the word superfluous pusillanimous obstreperous

12 National Reading Panel Findings On Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary should be taught:  both directly and indirectly  with repetition and exposure to words in multiple contexts  by presenting words in rich contexts  by using task restructuring  with active student engagement  with multiple methods including computer technology

13 Teaching Vocabulary  Give both definitional and contextual information  Involve children more actively in word learning  Provide them with opportunities to process information and make connections  Number of instructional encounters: between ___ and ____ are necessary for students to have ownership of instructed words 712

14 “A word in a dictionary is very much like a car in a mammoth motorshow – full of potential but temporarily inactive.” (Anthony Burgess, 1992)

15 Complexity of Word Knowledge  Word learning requires quite a number of different experiences with a word  Powerful forms of vocabulary instruction that take students from no knowledge of a word to being able to use a word in understanding text are labor intensive (Beck et al, 1982)  Words differ from each other in ways where instructional differences may be required:  Words already in the student’s oral vocabulary  Words not in the student’s oral vocabulary but which are labels for concepts familiar to the student  Words not in the student’s oral vocabulary that refer to concepts new to the student

16 bicyclex carxx unicyclex airplanex boatxx I-4 Semantic Feature Analysis  Project CRISS SM 2004 Transportation 2 wheel Four wheel One wheel Foot powered Motor powered water

17 Vocabulary Map V-3 word Synonym Examples or Non- examples What is it like? Properties Category  Project CRISS SM 2004

18 Vocabulary Instruction  In K-2, children decode words already in their oral vocabulary.  Teach meanings of new words with teacher read- aloud books or for upper grades, books they have read.  Vocabulary work in middle and high school should allow deeper explorations of language.

19 Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002, p. 50 Selecting Words For Vocabulary “The word is unfamiliar to children, but the concept represented by the word is one they can understand and use in conversation.”  Examples: curious, mischief, impress, nuisance, clever, weary, persistent, dazzling, cross

20 Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002 Selecting Words For Vocabulary From Books Read to or by Students Tier 1 WordsTier 2 WordsTier 3 Words easy words, high frequency, meaning known by everyone words for mature language users; useful in a variety of situations not used often ; special to certain content subjects catch, when, believe benevolent, sinister, essential, endure isotope, lathe, tsunami

21 High-Frequency Words – Which ones?  Words necessary for comprehension of selected text - tier 2 words  2300 root words derived from Dale-Chall list of 3000 words commonly known by grade 4 – ( Found in appendix A – Language and Reading Success by Andrew Biemiller – published by Brookline Books)  Coxhead’s (2000)Academic Word List  http://www.vuw.ac.nz/lals/research/awl

22 Biemiller, 2002 A Simple Plan: Using Read-Aloud Books To Teach Vocabulary Biemiller Plan  Day 1:  Read book through without introduction of words  Read book again.  Stop and explain chosen words (7) with one or two sentences  Day 2:  Reread book.  Stop and talk about chosen words with children.

23 Biemiller, 1999 What Results Can I Expect With This Plan?  From a study by Warrick Elley:  No explanations: learned 3 words per book  With explanations: learned 8 words per book  Children with lower vocabularies learned more words than children with higher vocabularies.

24 Framework for “Text Talk” to teach vocabulary 1.Contextualize the word within the text just read 2.Provide definitional information through a friendly explanation 3.Provide an example beyond the text context so students can immediately begin to decontextualize the word 4.Present a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their own experiences (Beck & McKeown, 2006)

25 “Text Talk” example with morsel from Dr. DeSoto (Steig, 1982) 1.In the story, the fox began thinking about Dr. DeSoto as a tasty morsel. That means he thought of him as a little something to eat. 2.A morsel is a small piece of food, no bigger than a bite 3.If you had one little piece of your sandwich left and your friend wants you to go out to the playground, you might say, “Let me finish this one last morsel.” 4.When might someone only want a morsel of food? Beck & McKeown, 2006

26 master panting musicians dismal cheerful serenade fierce perched foretold powerful huge compass perform dreadful hearth feasted journey peaceful Selecting Words For Vocabulary From The Bremen Town Musicians

27 Hand-Out Vocabulary lesson to accompany read-aloud book

28 How Do I Write Child-Friendly Definitions?  Dictionary definition:  persistent: persevering obstinately; insistently repetitive or continuous  Child-friendly definition:  persistent: If you are persistent, you keep on trying to do something even when it is hard; you don’t give up.

29 Video: Use of Context for Vocabulary  Please click on the video below to play.

30 Write A Child-Friendly Definition For One Of These Words:  Dictionary definitions:  concentrate: to direct one’s thoughts or attention.  patience: the quality of being patient; capacity of calm endurance  timid: shrinking from dangerous or difficult circumstances  hero: a man noted for feats of courage or nobility of purpose

31 Framework for “Text Talk” to teach vocabulary 1.Contextualize the word within the text just read 2.Provide definitional information through a friendly explanation 3.Provide an example beyond the text context so students can immediately begin to decontextualize the word 4.Present a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their own experiences (Beck & McKeown, 2006)

32 Decontextualize Vocabulary: Questions, Reasons, And Examples  If you are walking around a dark room, you need to do it cautiously. Why? What are some other things that need to be done cautiously?  What is something you can do to impress your teacher? Why? What is something that you might do to impress your mother?  Which of these things might be extraordinary? Why or why not?  A shirt that was comfortable, or a shirt that washed itself?  A flower that kept blooming all year or a flower that bloomed for three days?

33 Decontexualize Vocabulary: Making Choices  If any of the things I say might be examples of people clutching something, say “Clutching”. If not, don’t say anything.  Holding on tightly to a purse  Holding a fistful of money  Softly petting a cat’s fur  Holding on to branches when climbing a tree  Blowing bubbles and trying to catch them p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

34 Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002 Working With New Words In Depth  Use all the words together with one of the following activities:  Sentences  Choices  One context  Same format  Children create examples

35 Decontextualize Vocabulary: Sentences  Sometimes more than one of the instructed words can be used in a sentence. For example, in the case of prefer, ferocious, and budge, we could develop the following question: Would you prefer to budge a sleeping lamb or a ferocious lion? Why? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

36 Decontextualize Vocabulary: Choices  In the case of pounce, sensible and raucous, we could ask children to choose between two words: If you get your clothes ready to wear to school before you go to sleep, would that be sensible or raucous? If you and your friends were watching a funny TV show together and began to laugh a lot, would you sound pounce or raucous? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

37 One Context For All The Words If difficult to find relationships between the target words, use a single context. For immense, miserable and leisurely: What might an immense plate of spaghetti look like? Why might you feel miserable after eating all of that spaghetti? What would it look like to eat spaghetti in a leisurely way? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

38 Same Format Use the same format for all 3 words: If you satisfy your curiosity, do you need to find out more or have you found about all that you need? Why? If a dog was acting menacing, would you want to pet it or move away? Why? If you wanted to see something exquisite, would you go to a museum or a grocery store? Why? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

39 Children Create Examples In previous format the child was making and explaining the choice. Another format is to have child create examples : If there was an emergency at an amusement park, what might have happened? If you had a friend who watched TV all the time, how might you coax him into getting some exercise? p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002

40 Humor  Puns and jokes are motivating and provide a way for vocabulary to be repeated  Clever word play  Flu – a deceased fly  “Hink Pinks”  What do you call an identical smile? (a twin grin)  Homographs  We polish the Polish furniture  The soldier decided to desert in the desert  Puns can be based on multi-meanings or sound alikes.  A bicycle can’t stand alone because it is two-tired  In democracy it’s your vote that counts; in feudalism it’s your count that votes

41 Word Consciousness – the goal!  Word consciousness is a complex process involving:  A feel for how written language works  Sensitivity to syntax  Awareness of word parts (morphology)  In-depth knowledge of specific words  Activities for promoting word consciousness Word of the WeekHumor Word WizardChildren’s books Vocabulary self-collection Word Histories

42 Summary of Suggestions for working with vocabulary  Provide a clear and concise definition of a target word  Use dialogue in which the words meaning is explored in context  Relate the word to the student’s experience  Provide descriptions, explanations or examples of the new word  Have the student restate the description or explanation in his or her own words  Use the word

43 Summary of Suggestions for Working with Vocabulary  In learning a word the child masters:  Semantic – meaning and meaning networks  Phonology – phonological representation  Use some form of imagery to enhance or trigger the word  Use a graphic to provide display of the word’s network and associated words  Use visualizations  Repeated exposure to words will increase opportunities to encode, retain, and link the phonological sequence within the word  Use key words, semantic feature analysis and semantic maps

44 Volume of Reading Vocabulary Reading Comprehension Teaching individual words, exposure to rich oral language, generative word knowledge … Time to read, fluency, motivation, matching kids with texts… Comprehension strategies, building background knowledge, decoding accuracy & fluency

45 Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary  Vocabulary Instruction  Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension  Teaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension

46 Reading Is A Complex Activity A skilled reader rapidly and accurately decodes the words, attaches the meaning to words and sentences, connects text information to relevant background knowledge, maintains a mental representation of what he or she has already read, forms hypotheses about upcoming information and makes decisions based on his or her purpose for reading – all at the same time. Carlisle and Rice, 2002

47 ReadingComprehension KnowledgeFluency Metacognition Language ProsodyProsody Automaticity/RateAutomaticity/Rate AccuracyAccuracy DecodingDecoding Phonemic AwarenessPhonemic Awareness Oral Language SkillsOral Language Skills Knowledge of LanguageKnowledge of Language Structures Structures VocabularyVocabulary Cultural InfluencesCultural Influences Life ExperienceLife Experience Content KnowledgeContent Knowledge Activation of PriorActivation of Prior Knowledge Knowledge Knowledge aboutKnowledge about Texts Texts Motivation &Motivation & Engagement Engagement Active ReadingActive Reading Strategies Strategies Monitoring StrategiesMonitoring Strategies Fix-Up StrategiesFix-Up Strategies

48 The Big Emphasis Changes, K-3 Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Phonics Phonemic Awareness 321K Listening Reading Listening Reading Multisyllables Letter Sounds & Combinations Adapted from Simmons, Kame’enui, Harn, & Coyne (2003). Institute for beginning reading 2. Day 3: Core instruction: What are the critical components that need to be In place to reach our goals? Eugene: University of Oregon.

49 Changing Emphasis In Learning To Read Cooper, 2002

50 OLD, INCORRECT THINKING NEW THINKING BASED ON RESEARCH Comprehension occurs naturally after a student learns to decode, thus comprehension just needs to be tested. Comprehension will improve through isolated teaching of specific comprehension skills (e.g. sequence, cause and effect, main idea). Students must be taught to flexibly use a repertoire of strategies for text comprehension. Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001; Carlisle and Rice, 2002; Smith in Birsh, 1999 Teaching Comprehension

51 Developing Comprehension Process-OrientedProduct-Oriented TestingGrading Evaluating Guided Practice Independence Modeling (Adapted by Dr. Lois Huffman from Richardson & Morgan, 2000) Teaching versus Testing Comprehension Determining Comprehension vs

52 What Do Good Readers Do?  Make predictions based on background knowledge  Identify key ideas from text they are reading  Are aware of text structures  Monitor their comprehension and know how to employ fix-up strategies  Have a knowledge of and use a variety of reading strategies effectively.  Paraphrase, explain and summarize information and construct conclusions

53 Sources of Comprehension Difficulties* PROCESSESKNOWLEDGE Decoding (Accuracy) Word Naming Speed (Automaticity and fluency) Working Memory (attention) Inference Making (abstract thinking) Visualization Comprehension Monitoring Vocabulary (Word Meanings) Oral Language Syntactical Knowledge Domain Knowledge Carlisle & Rice; Perfetti, Marron, & Foltz, 1996

54 Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary  Vocabulary Instruction  Introduction: Processes, Research & Effective Practices for Comprehension  Teaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension

55 National Reading Panel On Comprehension  Directly teaching comprehension strategies leads to improvements in comprehension.  Strategies are most effective when taught in combination and used flexibly in active, naturalistic learning situations  Teachers can be taught to be effective in teaching comprehension.  There is a need for extensive teacher preparation to teach comprehension. National Reading Panel, 2002

56 National Reading Panel: Research-Supported Strategies comprehension monitoring cooperative learning graphic and semantic organizers story structure question answering question generation summarization multiple strategies National Reading Panel, 2001

57 …a growing body of research has demonstrated that students can be taught the strategies that good readers use spontaneously and that when students are taught those strategies, both their recall and their comprehension of text improve. (Pressley, 2002; Stahl, 2004)

58 Comprehension Strategy Instruction – Teacher Actions important for Success  Make explicit connection between strategy and application in text  Repeatedly state and model the “secret” to doing it successfully so students “see” the mental workings involved  Provide students with multiple opportunities to perform the strategy themselves  Base assessment on both strategy use and text comprehension (Duffy, in Comprehension Instruction ed. by Block and Pressley, 2002)

59 Spires & Stone, 1989, after Pearson & Gallagher, 1983 Modeling Teacher Student Independence Guided Practice Gradual Release of Responsibility Model Model Of Explicit Instruction Teacher’s gradual release of responsibility

60 NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Comprehension Monitoring Goal – become aware of understanding of text and identify when that understanding has been blocked Ask questions  Does this make sense?  Do I understand what I am reading?  What does this have to do with what I already know?  What will happen next? Steps when there is a roadblock to comprehension  Identify the difficulty  Use think-aloud procedures  Restate what was read  Reread text or read ahead to find info. that may help

61 NRP – Comprehensions Strategies: Comprehension Monitoring Read and Say Something Ask a Question I wonder? Why? How? Make a Prediction I think _________will happen Make a Connection This reminds me of when… I used to… She/he is just like… Make a Comment Comment on something you like, a part you may not like, or a concept you do not understand Harste, Short & Burke, 1988

62 NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Comprehension Monitoring My Reading Check Sheet Sentence Check…”Did I understand this sentence? If you had trouble understanding the meaning of the sentence, try… reading the sentence over. reading the whole paragraph again reading on asking someone Paragraph Check…”What did the paragraph say?” If you had trouble understanding what the paragraph said, try.. reading the paragraph over reading the paragraph before or after summarizing out loud asking someone Page Check…”What do I remember?” If you had trouble remembering what was said on this page, try… rereading each paragraph on the page, and asking yourself, “What did it say?” Adapted from Anderson (1980) and Babbs (1984)

63 NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Cooperative Learning “Having peers instruct or interact over the use of reading strategies leads to an increase in the learning of the strategies, promotes intellectual discussion and increases reading comprehension” NRP, 2000  Best Practices – Assign roles to students  Leader  Time Keeper  Supply Manager  Teacher Contact  Participation Rubric  Assign points based on participation

64 NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Cooperative Learning Guidelines for Groups  Move into groups quickly and quietly  Stay with your group in your area  Fulfill your group role by doing your job  Actively listen to each other  Respect each other  Follow the procedures Participation Rubric  Cooperate  Follows directions  Stays with group  Speaks in whispers  Accepts Responsibilities  Contributes to group  Respect  Self, others, and property  Effort  Stays on task 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Lynn Flood, WCPSS

65 NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Graphic Organizers

66 NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Story Structure Introduce elements of narrative one at a time:  Title  Characters  Setting (time and place)  Rising action (series of events)  Climax  Resolution Birsh, 1999

67 THEME/MORAL: EVENTS: TITLE: PLACE: CHARACTERS: GOAL/ PROBLEM/ CONFLICT CLIMAX____________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ RESOLUTION NAME_______________________ Smith, 1999 GOAL/PROBLEM/ SOLUTION

68 NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Story Map Characters : Setting:Place:Time: Problem: Resolution: Events leading to Resolution

69 Teacher Questions Student Responses As they started scrubbing, what fell off? What does George want to do with his friend? Find him The mole found a new _____?Home Dirt Beck and McKeown, 2001 NRP - Questioning Answering: Constrained Questions/Child’s Response

70 Teacher Questions How does what Harry did fit in with what we already know about him? He doesn’t really want to get clean, he just wants to stay dirty. What’s Harry up to now? He decided to dig a hole and get the brush so he could wash, and then they would recognize him. They called Harry “this little doggie.” What does that tell us? That means that they don’t know that it’s their doggie. They don’t know his name, so they just call him little doggie. NRP – Questioning Answering Open Questions/Child’s Response Beck and McKeown, 2001 Student Responses

71 Effective Ways To Follow-Up Student Responses  Repeat and rephrase child’s response  Generic probes:  “What’s that all about?”  “What’s that mean?”  “How do you know?”  Questioning the Author – aimed at teaching students that they can become skilled at figuring out what an author might have meant to say by thinking and discussing meaning  Why do you think the author tells us this now?  Did the author explain this clearly?  Does the author tell us why? Beck & McKeown, 2001

72 NRP: Question Answering and Question Generation Question – Answer - Relationships In the Book questions  Right There  In the passage  Answer: “how many…”, “who is…”, “where is…”  Think and Search  How ideas in the passage relate to each other  Answer: “The main idea of the passage…”, “What caused…” “compare/contrast” In My Head questions  Author and You  Use ideas and info. Not directly stated in passage/think about what you have read and form own ideas  Answer: “The author implies..”, “The passage suggests…”  On My Own  Use background knowledge  Answer: “In your opinion…”, “Based on your experience…” Raphael, (1982 )

73 Visualization or Mental Imagery  Imagery training has been found to improve students’ memory of what they read  Individuals are guided to create visual images to represent a picture or a text as they read it.  Can start with small amounts of text working up to whole pages

74 Retelling (Visualization)  Read a passage related to the topic  As you read, draw simple pictures that mark the actions, events, or key points.  After reading, retell the passage as you point to the pictures in sequence. Incorporate important vocabulary into the retelling.  Students retell the passage after you have modeled. ©2003 Neuhaus Education Center. Used with permission, 713/664-7676 www.neuhaus.org

75 “A New Way Of Travel” © 2003 Neuhaus Education Center. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only. We see cars everywhere we go. Can you imagine a world without any cars. Cars have been around for only about a hundred years. Before cars were invented, people traveled by horse or by a carriage or wagon pulled by horse. Travel was very slow. At one time cars were a rare sight on the city streets. Cars were expensive. Most people could not afford them. It took a long time to make a car. There were so many parts to put together. It took a few people many, many hours to put a car together, so there were not many cars available. A man named Henry Ford came up with an idea to make cars low cost and faster to make. His idea was known as an assembly line. To assemble a car, many workers stood in a line. Each worker was responsible for putting on only one part of a car. As a car moved down the line of workers, each worker put on their one part. With more workers and each worker responsible for putting on only one part repeatedly, more cars were made in a shorter period of time. All of the cars were similar, with the same parts and colors, and less expensive.

76 100 $$$$$$$$  1  $$ © 2003 Neuhaus Education Center. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only.

77 Now You Try… With a partner, read the next story and draw a picture to represent each story part. Use just the pictures to retell the story.

78 Once upon a time, the wind and the sun were having an argument about who was the stronger of the two. “We must have a contest. That is the only way we will ever know who is the stronger one,” said the sun. “I am ready for any contest. What should it be?" said the wind. “Look at all those people in the city. Whichever of us can make all the people in the city take off their coats is the winner,” said the sun. “OK,” said the wind, “It is hardly a challenge, but I will do it. Who should go first?” “Because I am so sure that I will win, I will let you go first,” said the sun. The sun hid behind a large fluffy cloud and the wind got to work. His idea was to blow an icy blast that would blow the coats right off the people in the city. The wind blew and blew and blew. The blast was the coldest, strongest blast that the people had ever felt. Instead of blowing the coats right off the people, a strange thing happened. The people wrapped their coats tightly around themselves. The harder the wind blew, the tighter the people wrapped their coats around themselves. At last, the exhausted wind gave up. Now, it was time for the sun to get to work. The sun came out from behind the clouds and shone down on the city with all his strength. The people began to feel the warmth of the sun. They loosened their coats. The sun continued to shine with all his might. The people grew warmer and warmer. Soon they were so warm that they had to take their coats off. So the sun won the contest. He was indeed the stronger of the two! “The Contest” © 2003 Neuhaus Education Center. Permission granted to reproduce for classroom use only.

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80 NRP: Multiple Strategies Reciprocal Teaching Process Strategies included are: Summarizing – identifying and paraphrasing main ideas. Questioning – formulating and answering questions about the content. Clarifying – recognizing and correcting “breakdowns” in comprehension Predicting – forming hypotheses about upcoming events or information.

81 Reciprocal Teaching Process  After reading a segment of text, leader summarizes, asks questions “that a teacher might ask”, clarifies any difficulties and makes a prediction.  Other students generate additional questions, make predictions and/or ask for clarification.  Specific strategies are applied to appropriate text sections.  The only rule is that all 4 are applied during every session. Palinscar, A. & Brown. A. 1986

82 Activity: Comprehension Strategies  Using your text from the Vocabulary activity, choose one of the comprehension strategies and develop a mini-lesson.  Write the activity on chart paper to share  Each group model strategy with text

83 Summary Of Best Practices: Teaching Comprehension  Set stage to show how reading activity changes according to text and purpose  Explain and model steps in strategy  Present more than one situation or text in which strategy would be useful  Provide many opportunities for practice  Encourage think alouds  Have student suggest times and conditions for strategy Mason and Au, 1986

84 Phonological Awareness Decoding Sight Word Knowledge Fluency & Context Automatic Word Recognition Language Comprehension Strategic Knowledge Print Concepts General Purposes for Reading Specific Purposes for Reading Knowledge of Strategies for Reading Reading Comprehension Vocabulary Knowledge of Structure Background Knowledge Cognitive Model of Reading Assessment McKenna & Stahl, 2003

85 Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice. The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes Fcrr.org

86 “If you want children to read well, they must read a lot. If you want children to read a lot, they must read well.” Marilyn Adams as quoted by Joe Torgesen 3/2006

87 Sources Anderson, R.C., Wilson, P.T., & Fielding, L.G. 1988. “Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school.” Reading Research Quarterly 23 (3), p. 292. Armbruster, B., Lehr, F; Osborne. J. 2001. Putting reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read, kindergarten through grade 3. National Inst. for Literacy, Washington, DC.; National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.; Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, Ann Arbor, MI. Beck, I., & McKeown, M. 2001. “Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children.” Reading Teacher, 55:1. Baumann, J. & Kame’enui, E. 2004. Vocabulary Instruction. Research to Practice. New York: Guilford Press

88 Sources Baumann, J. & Kame’enui, E. 2004. Vocabulary Instruction. New York: Guilford Press Beck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L. 2002. Bringing Words to Life. New York: Guilford Press. Biemiller, Andrew. 1999. Language and reading success. Newton Upper Falls, Massachusetts: Brookline Books. Carlisle, Joanne & Rice, Melinda. 2002. Improving reading comprehension: Research-based principles and practices Felton, R., & Lillie, D. (2002). Teaching Students with Persistent Reading Problems (a multi-media CD-ROM). Greensboro, NC: Guilford County Schools. Fielding, L., & Peason, D. 1994. “Reading comprehension: What works.” Educational Leadership, 51:5, pp. 62-68. Florida Center for Reading Research – fcrr.org. Researchers presentations link.

89 Sources Gaskins, Irene. et al. 2002. “Helping struggling readers make sense of reading” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association Gunning, Thomas. 1998. Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Hart,B. & Risley, T. 1995. Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing. Maria, Katherine. 1990. Reading comprehension instruction: Issues and strategies. Parkton, Maryland: York Press. Morris, Darrell. 1999. The Howard Street tutoring manual: Teaching at-risk readers in the primary grades. New York: Guilford Press.

90 Sources National Reading Panel. 2000. Report of the National Reading Panel:Teaching children to read – Reports of the subgroups. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Pub. No. 00-4764. Oczkus, L. 2003. Reciprocal Teaching at Work. Delaware: International Reading Association. Palinscar, A. & Brown. A. 1986. “Interactive teaching to promote learning from text.” Reading Teacher 39, April, pp.771-777. Pearson, D., & Gallagher, M. 1983. “The instruction of reading comprehension.” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8:3, pp. 317-344.

91 Sources Reutzel, D., Camperell, K., & Smith, J. 2002. “Hitting the wall: Helping struggling readers comprehend” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association. Smith, Margaret. 1999. “Teaching comprehension from a multisensory perspective” in Birsh, Judith, Ed. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Baltimore: Brooks. Stahl, K. “Proof, Practice, and promise: Comprehension strategy instruction in the primary grades.” The Reading Teacher Vol.57. No.7, April 2004 Stahl,S. & Nagy, William. Teaching Word Meanings. Lawrence Ehrlbaum Assoc., 2006.

92 Sources Stahl, K. and McKenna, M. Reading Research at Work. New York: Guilford Press. 2006 Spires, H., & Stone, P. “The directed note taking activity: A self- questioning approach.” Journal of Reading, 33:1, pp. 36-39. Sweet, A., & Snow, C. 2002. “Reconceptualizing reading comprehension” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association. Hiebert E. and Kamil, M. 2006 Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Lawrence Ehrlbaum Assoc. Block & Pressley. 2002 Comprehension Instruction. Guilford Press.


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