Presentation on theme: "Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary"— Presentation transcript:
1Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Vocabulary InstructionProcesses, Research & Effective Practices for ComprehensionTeaching Methods and Strategies for ComprehensionFor this unit, you will need to bring in Children’s literature – enough for each group of about 3 – 4 to have a book to use for the activities. Choose books from the handout: Selected Storybooks found in the handout folder or use some from the library. Just check to be sure there is a good balance – not too little and not too much – of text on each page.
2Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Vocabulary InstructionProcesses, Research & Effective Practices for ComprehensionTeaching Methods and Strategies for ComprehensionPrint out handouts: PPt slides for vocabulary and comprehension. Use these as you go through the powerpoint for participants to fill in information as you go through the unit.
3Predictive Power Of Early Vocabulary Best kindergarten predictors of 1st and 2nd Grades reading achievement:Phoneme AwarenessAlphabet KnowledgeBest kindergarten predictor of Grades 3 & up reading achievement:Oral VocabularyThis slide shows the importance of vocabulary even in elementary school. Phonemic awareness and alphabet knowledge are the best predictors of success in beginning reading (the task is to learn to decode and to develop a good “sight” vocabulary). By third grade, decoding has caught up with oral language for most students, and they beginning reading text with more challenging vocabulary. Thus, we have to pay attention to students understanding of word meanings from an early age.You may want to ask the group to read the slide and discuss in pairs or groups why kindergarten PA and Alphabet Knowledge predict 1st and 2nd reading, but kindergarten vocabulary is a better predictor in 3rd and up.
4Oral Vocabulary Differences For Disadvantaged Children Total Oral Vocabulary2700 words middle SES 1st graders1800 words low SES 1st gradersNew Words Per Year Primary Grades3000 words/year middle SES1000 words/year low SESTop high school seniors know 4 times as many words as lower-performing classmates.The major headings come in one at a time, in order for the presenter to be able to show, one step at a time, how the gap grows over the course of schooling.Notes: SES stands for Socio-Economic StatusThis slide shows that students who begin school low in oral vocabulary usually drop farther behind as students who start out with higher oral vocabulary gain new vocabulary at a much faster rate. This makes the gap grow larger and larger (another example of “rich get richer”). In general, children from families living in poverty come to school with much lower levels of vocabulary for many of the same reasons for the gaps discussed in Unit 2.
5How Many Words????18 month needs to learn avg. of ___ new words a day to have avg. vocab. of approx. ______ words by the time he or she is 6 years old (Senechal & Cornell, 1993)Avg. high school graduate knows approx. ______ words (Nagy & Herman, 1985)To go from 8,000 to 40,000 in 12 years, a child needs to learn 32,000 words or ____ words a day.Children typically learn _________ words a year (over 8 words a day) between 3rd and 12th grades (Nagy & Anderson, 1984)58,00040,0007-8Handout: PPt slides for Vocab. and ComprehensionHave participants fill in the blanks on their handout or ppt. whichever is easier for them to use.month needs to learn avg. of 5 new words a day to have avg. vocab. of approx. 8,000 words by the time he or she is 6 years old (Senechal & Cornell, 1993)2. Avg. high school graduate knows approx. 40,000 words (Nagy & Herman, 1985)3. To go from 8,000 to 40,000 in 12 years, a child needs to learn 32,000 words or 7 words a day.4. Children typically learn 3,000 words a year (over 8 words a day) between 3rd and 12th grades (Nagy & Anderson, 1984)3,000
6Vocabulary Used in a Variety of Sources Avg. # of Rare Words (per 1,000)NewspapersAdult books52.7Comic books53.5Children’s booksChildren’s TV20.2Adult TV22.7Mr. RogersCartoon shows68.330.9Have participants give what they think are the answers for Newspapers, Children’s books, Mr. Rogers and Cartoon showsThe answers should come in on clicks after they give their guesses. Discuss rare word exposure in media.Newspapers – 68.3Children’s books – 30.9Mr. Rogers – 2.0Cartoon shows – 30.82.0Hayes and Ahrens (1988)30.8
7Vocabulary Used in a Variety of Sources Avg. # of Rare Words (per 1,000)NewspapersAdult booksComic booksChildren’s booksChildren’s TVAdult TVMr. RogersCartoon showsHave participants give what they think are the answers for Newspapers, Children’s books, Mr. Rogers and Cartoon showsThe answers should come in on clicks after they give their guesses. Discuss rare word exposure in media.Newspapers – 68.3Children’s books – 30.9Mr. Rogers – 2.0Cartoon shows – 30.8Hayes and Ahrens (1988)
8Variation In Amount Of Independent Reading PercentileMin.BooksTextWords/Yr10.11.08,00051,000Percentile* RankMinutes of Reading per DayWords Read Per yearBooksText**28,00010.11.051,00020.72.421,000134,000301.84.3106,000251,000403.26.2200,000421,000504.69.2282,000601,000606.513.1432,000722,000709.616.9622,0001,168,0008014.224.61,146,0001,697,0009021.233.41,823,0002,357,0009865.067.34,358,0004,733,000504.69.2282,000601,000This slide shows data from a study of fifth grade reading habits.The values for time spent reading text include reading newspapers and magazines as well as books. All reading includes comics and mail in addition to books, magazines and newspapers.The principal conclusion of this study is that the amount of time a child spends reading boks is related to the child’s reading level in the fifth grade and grwoth in reading proficiency from the 2nd to the fifth grade.We know that much of the growth in vocabulary comes from reading. Students learn the meanings of many words from seeing them a number of times in context. The differences in reading from low performing readers to high performing readers explains much of the difference in vocabulary growth rates examined on the previous slide.This study was based on daily diaries that the children completed over a period of several months. Avg. child read only 4.6 minutes per day however, this is over six times as much as a child at the 20th percentile who read less than 1 minute daily. Yet a child at the 80th percentile was reading 14.2 minutes a day. Number of words that the children at various percentiles were reading in a year’s time. For example the avg. child at the 90 percentile in reading volume reads almost 2 ½ million words per year outside of school, over 46 times more words than the child at the 10th percentiles. Or to put it another way, the entire year’s out of school exposure of for the child at the 10th percentile amounts to just 8 days of reading for the child at the 90th percentile.Even when performance is statistically equated for reading comprehension and general ability, reading volume is still a very powerful predictor of vocabulary and knowledge differencesThere is a lot of data on this page. If you click once, your will get the column headings and the data for students at the 10th percentile. You can briefly explain each column in terms of the tenth percentile group, then click to show the 50th percentile, and click again to show the 90th percentile.Column 1: Percentile in reading achievementColumn 2: Average number of minutes spent reading books,magazines, & newspapers per dayColumn 3: Average number of minutes spent reading text booksColumn 4: Words read per year in books,magazines, & newspapersColumn 5: Words read per year in text booksAt 10%ile there is almost no reading done other than in textbooks.At 50%ile the time spent reading text grows by a factor 9 from the 10%ile. The reading from other sources grows by a factor of 46. Much of this reading is of the self-selected voluntary type.Only at the 90%ile does daily reading in books, magazines & newspapers exceed 15 minutes a day.Keep in mind when looking at words per year that the higher readers are reading faster, and therefore, accumulate more words per unit of reading than lower readers.9021.233.41,823,0002,357,000*Percentile rank on each measure separately. **Books, magazines and newspapers. Adapted from “Growth in Reading and How Children Spend Their Time Outside of School” (1988) by R.C. Anderson, P.T. Wilson, and L.G. Fielding, Reading Research Quarterly 23 (3), p (5th graders)
9What is it to “know a word” Eight separate facets of knowledge for a word:Knowledge of word’s spoken formWritten formHow it behaves in sentencesWords commonly found near the wordFrequency in oral and written languageConceptual meaningHow and when it is commonly usedAssociation with other wordsThese bullets will come in one at a time on your click. You can use this slide to just go over the points one by one or get participants to give you the different ways a word can be used. Have them brainstorm the 8 facets for knowing a word and see if they can give them to you and then use this slide as a summary slide.Nation (1990) from Words and Meanings – see resource slide
10Continuum of Word Knowledge No knowledgeGeneral sense such as knowing if the word has apositive or negative connotationNarrow, context-bound knowledgeHaving knowledge of a word but not being able torecall it readily enough to use in appropriate situationRich, decontextualized knowledge of a word’s meaning, its relationship to other words and its metaphorical uses.p.10 & 11 of Bringing Words to Life by Isabel Beck and McKeown
11Now You Try – Check the appropriate category WordKnow well- can explain itKnow something about itHave seen or heard the wordDo not know the wordsuperfluouspusillanimousobstreperousHandout: PPt handouts for Vocabulary and Comprehensionsuperfluous – excessive; more than necessaryPusillanimous – (pyoo si lan i mus)- lacking courage; faint-hearted; timidObstreperous – resisting control or restraint in a difficult manner; noisy or boisterous such as obstreperous children
12National Reading Panel Findings On Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary should be taught:both directly and indirectlywith repetition and exposure to words in multiple contextsby presenting words in rich contextsby using task restructuringwith active student engagementwith multiple methods including computer technologyThis is simply a recap of the National Reading Panel’s results. You might ask participants to explain what is meant by some of the bullets, such as: give examples of direct versus indirect vocabulary instruction; what would constitute multiple and rich contexts; what is meant by task restructuring; describe active versus inactive student involvement. Review the NRP for more information.
13Give both definitional and contextual information Teaching VocabularyGive both definitional and contextual informationInvolve children more actively in word learningProvide them with opportunities to process information and make connectionsNumber of instructional encounters:between ___ and ____ are necessary for students to have ownership of instructed wordsGive information about what a word means and how it is used. These bullets come in one at a time. Have them fill in the blanks on their ppt. for number of instructional encounters. It should say: Number of instructional encounters – between 7 and 12 are necessary for students to have ownership of instructed words.712
14“A word in a dictionary is very much like a car in a mammoth motorshow – full of potential but temporarily inactive.”(Anthony Burgess, 1992)
15Complexity of Word Knowledge Word learning requires quite a number of different experiences with a wordPowerful forms of vocabulary instruction that take students from no knowledge of a word to being able to use a word in understanding text are labor intensive (Beck et al, 1982)Words differ from each other in ways where instructional differences may be required:Words already in the student’s oral vocabularyWords not in the student’s oral vocabulary but which are labels for concepts familiar to the studentWords not in the student’s oral vocabulary that refer to concepts new to the studentThese will come in one at a time. Emphasize the points especially the last one in regards to instructional differences.
16Semantic Feature Analysis TransportationFour wheelOne wheelFoot poweredMotor powered2 wheelwaterbicyclexcarunicycleairplaneboatSemantic Feature Analysis draws on students prior knowledge, using discussion to include information about word meanings into a graphic display. Semantic feature analysis uses a grid. Discussion is an important part of the instruction. Should not be used as seat work. Discussion is the key as you need to have discussion of the ambiguities. Not appropriate for a set of completely unfamiliar words but rather for clarifying knowledge for which students have partial knowledge. New words could be added but this activity presupposes that students already have sufficient knowledge of most of the words to recognize fairly subtle distinctions in their meanings. Stahl and Nagy, 2005I-4Project CRISSSM 2004
17Examples or Non-examples Vocabulary MapCategoryWhat is it like?PropertiesSynonymwordCan use to teach a concept or build more knowledge about a word. Can use nonexamples as well as examplesExamples or Non-examplesV-3Project CRISSSM 2004
18Vocabulary Instruction In K-2, children decode words already in their oral vocabulary.Teach meanings of new words with teacher read-aloud books or for upper grades, books they have read.Vocabulary work in middle and high school should allow deeper explorations of language.As we have seen, children, especially those who come to school with limited vocabularies, need to be exposed to many new words. In their reading texts, K-2 students are learning to decode words already in their oral language. They will not pick up the meanings of new words from these texts. Teachers need to ensure that their students learn many new words by reading to students many high quality literature and information texts.
19Selecting Words For Vocabulary “The word is unfamiliar to children, but the concept represented by the word is one they can understand and use in conversation.”Examples: curious, mischief, impress, nuisance, clever, weary, persistent, dazzling, crossGuidelines on selecting “Tier 2” words. We want children to be able to understand the concept that the word represents so that the word can be attached to knowledge they already have but the words selected for study should be ones that most of the students don’t yet know the precise meaning of. For example, students might know understand the concept of being smart but not know the precise meaning of “clever”.Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002, p. 50
20Selecting Words For Vocabulary From Books Read to or by Students Tier 1 WordsTier 2 WordsTier 3 Wordseasy words, highwords for maturenot used often ;frequency,language users;special to certainmeaning knownuseful in a variety ofcontent subjectsby everyonesituationsThe ideas here apply to selecting vocabulary for study whether the students are begin read-to or are older students reading books for themselves.It is the Tier 2 words that we should select for our study of vocabulary, because they will be useful in a variety of context. The Tier 1 words are already known. The Tier 3 words are more limited in use although many may be studied as certain content subjects are taught.catch,benevolent,isotope, lathe,sinister,when, believetsunamiessential, endureBeck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002
21High-Frequency Words – Which ones? Words necessary for comprehension of selected text - tier 2 words2300 root words derived from Dale-Chall list of 3000 words commonly known by grade 4 – (Found in appendix A – Language and Reading Success by Andrew Biemiller – published by Brookline Books)Coxhead’s (2000)Academic Word ListBiemiller’s list is found in the back of his book called Language and Reading Success published by Brookline Books – ISBN is This list is derived from the Dale-Chall list of 3000 words commonly known by grade 4. About 4/5 of these words were passed by more than 80% of grade 4 samples used for Dale and O’Rourke’s Living Word Vocabulary (1981). With the 2300 words on Biemiller’s list, 3970 meanings are known by children under grade 4. It would be best to have most children familiar with these words by the end of grade 2 or 3.Coxhead’s Academic Word List: The top 2,000 words in the language cover about 75% of the running words in text. This list covers an additional 10%. The remaining 15% are too specialized to teach. These are not the most interesting words in the English Language. They were developed for ESL college students for self-study of academic vocab. words but they can be used to help decide which words to teach. They should not be giving out as a list for kids to just learn. They should be used as a guide for teachers when choosing words so they are choosing the words that will help students in many content areas.
22A Simple Plan: Using Read-Aloud Books To Teach Vocabulary Biemiller PlanDay 1:Read book through without introduction of wordsRead book again.Stop and explain chosen words (7) with one or two sentencesDay 2:Reread book.Stop and talk about chosen words with children.Andrew Biemiller has studied vocabulary development for a number of years and these recommendations are from that work. While many successful vocabulary teaching schemes call for elaborate practice exercises, teachers should know that even simpler models of vocabulary teaching can work. One may not always have the time for planning the more elaborate activities, but with this plan, any teacher who already reads quality books to her students can enhance vocabulary learning by adding just a bit to the read-aloud plan.Biemiller (pronounced Bee-miller) tells us to select about 7 words per storybook. Then to read the book to our students without stopping to explain or discuss the words unless a word or two are absolutely essential to understanding the story. Then he suggests teachers reread the book aloud immediately the same day and stop and explain the chosen words with one or two sentences (child-friendly, of course).On day two, the teacher rereads the book aloud and stops to talk with the children about the chosen words. This time the children may be able to contribute to defining the words. That is all. It almost sounds too simple, but as the next slide shows even this little variation on reading-aloud can have big results.There has been some concern by Biemiller (2004) that children showed boredom with stories read three times which is the number of repetitions most often recommended as effective. In addition, repeated readings do not expose children to the multiple contexts needed to ensure successful learning. Some of the more recent studies have included following up the read-aloud with additional activities. Those examples of activities follow in the next slides.Biemiller, 2002
23What Results Can I Expect With This Plan? From a study by Warrick Elley:No explanations: learned 3 words per bookWith explanations: learned 8 words per bookChildren with lower vocabularies learned more words than children with higher vocabularies.This study used Biemiller’s plan from the previous slide. When teachers just read the books three times over two days without talking about the words, children learned an average 3 words per book. By simple talking about the words during two of those readings the number of words learned almost tripled to 8. AND as the last statement notes, it benefited the low vocabulary students the most.You might ask participants, “Why do you think it benefited the low students the most?” and “Why is this finding so important?”Biemiller, 1999
24Framework for “Text Talk” to teach vocabulary Contextualize the word within the text just readProvide definitional information through a friendly explanationProvide an example beyond the text context so students can immediately begin to decontextualize the wordPresent a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their own experiences (Beck & McKeown, 2006)These points come in one at a time allowing the trainer to go over the framework for Text Talk. Activities follow on decontextualizing vocabulary for studentsResearch shows teachers need to provide vocabulary instruction that includes both definitional and contextual information about their words, multiple exposures in context, and activities that require deep processing. The need is to provide a sufficient number and variety of exposures to allow decontextualization to occur. A wealth of experiences is needed to allow the learner to build a network of meaningful connections that can assist access and production of the word. The following slides discuss how to pick words and activities to do with the words after child-friendly definitions are given.
25“Text Talk” example with morsel from Dr. DeSoto (Steig, 1982) In the story, the fox began thinking about Dr. DeSoto as a tasty morsel. That means he thought of him as a little something to eat.A morsel is a small piece of food, no bigger than a biteIf you had one little piece of your sandwich left and your friend wants you to go out to the playground, you might say, “Let me finish this one last morsel.”When might someone only want a morsel of food? Beck & McKeown, 2006This follows the steps on slide 23 for Text Talk
26Selecting Words For Vocabulary From The Bremen Town Musicians masterpantingmusiciansdismalcheerfulserenadefierceperchedforetoldpowerfulhugecompassperformdreadfulhearthfeastedjourneypeacefulThe above set of words came from a version of The Bremen Town Musicians. A teacher picked out these words from the story as ones that a group of first graders may not know the meaning of. Then following Beck’s plan, she chose three words from the story. You may have participants mark out words that they would not choose and then select three that would fit the criteria specified in previous slides. Then click to show the words chosen by the teacher who used these words to create the lesson in the handout.Reasons for not using some words:serenade: would be heard infrequently by studentspanting: fairly easy, all the exercises not neededcompass: would not use unless learning about compasses and how to use themhearth: might not be used very oftenWords chosen: Dismal and cheerful are basically opposites and could be used in a number of exercises easily. Powerful could be used to describe feelings as could dismal and cheerful. All three could apply to many context and situations and could be used frequently by the students.With older students, a similar process of selecting words is used but students study new words at a time rather than just three. Students may study the words for 5-10 days.
27Vocabulary lesson to accompany read-aloud book Hand-OutVocabulary lesson to accompany read-aloud bookHANDOUT - VOCABULARY LESSON TO ACCOMPANY READ-ALOUD BOOKParticipants’ attention should be called to the handout which contains parts of a lesson with the three words from the previous slide. Most of the exercises have been described so that further examination of the handout may not be needed at this time. Teacher’ should save it as a model for their own lessons.Hand out picture books to groups of participants. Have the participants go through the books and choose all the tier two words in the book. Choose the three they would focus on during a reading of that book to students.Optional Handout: Selected Storybooks for Read-Aloud. This handout has a list of books with 3 words already chosen if you’d like to use these instead of participants looking for their own words.
28How Do I Write Child-Friendly Definitions? Dictionary definition:persistent: persevering obstinately; insistently repetitive or continuousChild-friendly definition:persistent: If you are persistent, you keep on trying to do something even when it is hard; you don’t give up.Most dictionary definitions do not help most children understand the meanings of new words. One reason for this is that dictionaries use other unfamiliar words to define the word in question. Also, Beck et al tell us, dictionary publishers are always crunched for space and so try to make definitions as short as possible. The next slide shows a video of the teacher giving a child friendly definition.
29Video: Use of Context for Vocabulary Please click on the video below to play.A middle school student is asked to read a sentence aloud and give a synonym for the word “lugs”.
30Write A Child-Friendly Definition For One Of These Words: Dictionary definitions:concentrate: to direct one’s thoughts or attention.patience: the quality of being patient; capacity of calm endurancetimid: shrinking from dangerous or difficult circumstanceshero: a man noted for feats of courage or nobility of purposeActivity: Ask participants to look at these definitions from a dictionary. Ask: would these help a young child understand these terms? Ask teachers to work in pairs to choose one of the words and write a child-friendly definition. Tell them they need not be as brief a the dictionary and that they may use several sentences to explain and give examples of the words meaning. For each word, have two or three pairs share their definitions. Comment on the child-friendly elements of their definitions and the contrast to the dictionary definitions. They can do this activity orally and/or go ahead and define the three words they have chosen in child-friendly definitions. They can share their definitions now or later at the end of their vocabulary activities.
31Framework for “Text Talk” to teach vocabulary Contextualize the word within the text just readProvide definitional information through a friendly explanationProvide an example beyond the text context so students can immediately begin to decontextualize the wordPresent a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their own experiences (Beck & McKeown, 2006)These points come in one at a time allowing the trainer to go over the framework for Text Talk. Activities follow on decontextualizing vocabulary for studentsResearch shows teachers need to provide vocabulary instruction that includes both definitional and contextual information about their words, multiple exposures in context, and activities that require deep processing. The need is to provide a sufficient number and variety of exposures to allow decontextualization to occur. A wealth of experiences is needed to allow the learner to build a network of meaningful connections that can assist access and production of the word. The following slides discuss how to pick words and activities to do with the words after child-friendly definitions are given.
32Decontextualize Vocabulary: Questions, Reasons, And Examples If you are walking around a dark room, you need to do it cautiously. Why? What are some other things that need to be done cautiously?What is something you can do to impress your teacher? Why? What is something that you might do to impress your mother?Which of these things might be extraordinary? Why or why not?A shirt that was comfortable, or a shirt that washed itself?A flower that kept blooming all year or a flower that bloomed for three days?These next slides will all review activities for decontextualizing vocabulary. They are all showed here but teachers would only pick one or two to do with vocabulary words. Participants will choose one or two of these activities at the end of all these slides in a culminating activity using children’s books. These activities are found in Bringing Words to Life.Note that the teacher has already directly taught the word meaning, now the questions and examples set up a context for the students, but require them to elaborate on the context or explain why the example fits the word being learned. Thus the students are actively engaged rather than passively copying definitions for words.Activity: Have participants develop one of these activities with one of the words they have chosen
33Decontexualize Vocabulary: Making Choices If any of the things I say might be examples of people clutching something, say “Clutching”. If not, don’t say anything.Holding on tightly to a purseHolding a fistful of moneySoftly petting a cat’s furHolding on to branches when climbing a treeBlowing bubbles and trying to catch themHere the teacher presents the choices orally to a group of students and asks for a group response, which is another opportunity to say the word and remember it phonologically.Activity: Have participants use one of their words and create a “Making Choices” activityp. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002
34Working With New Words In Depth Use all the words together with one of the following activities:SentencesChoicesOne contextSame formatChildren create examplesUp until this point the teacher has provided the words and the students have helped with the definitions and examples. At this point the student must use the new words and make choices based on the different meanings. Teachers have a number of choices here which will be based on which activities fit the words being taught and on providing a variety of exercises from one group of words to another. These activities are explained on subsequent slides. With young children, all of these activities are oral. With older students some may be done in writing but then answers should be thoroughly explained and discussed by the students.Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002
35Decontextualize Vocabulary: Sentences Sometimes more than one of the instructed words can be used in a sentence. For example, in the case of prefer, ferocious, and budge, we could develop the following question:Would you prefer to budge a sleeping lamb or a ferocious lion? Why?The why question is very important here.p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002
36Decontextualize Vocabulary: Choices In the case of pounce, sensible and raucous, we could ask children to choose between two words:If you get your clothes ready to wear to school before you go to sleep, would that be sensible or raucous?If you and your friends were watching a funny TV show together and began to laugh a lot, would you sound pounce or raucous?The teacher should, of course, ask the students to explain their choices.Activity: Have participants try the previous slide or use this slide to create sentences or choices with their words.p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002
37One Context For All The Words If difficult to find relationships between the target words, use a single context. For immense, miserable and leisurely:What might an immense plate of spaghetti look like?Why might you feel miserable after eating all of that spaghetti?What would it look like to eat spaghetti in a leisurely way?Here it might be difficult to put these words in one sentence, but the teacher has come up with a familiar scene in which all three words can be discussed. In in response to the first question a student said, “Big?” The teacher would seek to have the student elaborate. “Tell me what an immense plate would look like on your dining table?”Activity: Ask participants to answer the questions in ways they would like their students to answer them.p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002
38Use the same format for all 3 words: If you satisfy your curiosity, do you need to find out more or have you found about all that you need? Why?If a dog was acting menacing, would you want to pet it or move away? Why?If you wanted to see something exquisite, would you go to a museum or a grocery store? Why?Here the same format, “If you.., what choice would you make.” Note again the “Why.”p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002
39Children Create Examples In previous format the child was making and explaining the choice. Another format is to have child create examples :If there was an emergency at an amusement park, what might have happened?If you had a friend who watched TV all the time, how might you coax him into getting some exercise?Here the children are creating examples, but the teacher is assuring success by providing a context.Beck et al. also suggest that teachers encourage students to notice the words being studied outside of school and to use the words in their talk in class and out. Teachers create Word Wizard bulletin boards and note on them student use of the words. Older students are tested on the words and may have review words from previous units on any unit test. Teachers encourage an atmosphere of curiosity and interest in words in their classrooms.Activity: Use either one context, same format or create examples with words.p. 56, Bringing Words to Life by Beck, McKeown, Kucan 2002
40Puns can be based on multi-meanings or sound alikes. HumorPuns and jokes are motivating and provide a way for vocabulary to be repeatedClever word playFlu – a deceased fly“Hink Pinks”What do you call an identical smile? (a twin grin)HomographsWe polish the Polish furnitureThe soldier decided to desert in the desertPuns can be based on multi-meanings or sound alikes.A bicycle can’t stand alone because it is two-tiredIn democracy it’s your vote that counts; in feudalism it’s your count that votesHink pinks – rhyming words that are synonyms for a definition for example an imitation serpent is a fake snakeThere are many websites that can be found for puns, hinkpinks, etc. Folks can just google and many come up that are fun for students to use. Books which focus on idioms like those by Fred Gwynn are also a lot of fun for students and develop depth of word knowledge for them to get the joke.
41Word Consciousness – the goal! Word consciousness is a complex process involving:A feel for how written language worksSensitivity to syntaxAwareness of word parts (morphology)In-depth knowledge of specific wordsActivities for promoting word consciousnessWord of the Week HumorWord Wizard Children’s booksVocabulary self-collection Word HistoriesActivities:Word of the week – Have students or teacher choose a word of the week to put on a bulletin board or the board to refer to all week. Give bonus points to students who use the word correctly either orally or in writing.Word Wizard – Somewhat the same as word of the week – students become word wizards by bringing in words, using words, etc. Students can be designated Word Wizards using bulletin boards, coupons, etc.Vocabulary self-collection – In the book Words, Words, Words, by Allen, there is a graphic showing “Word jars”. Students can collect words in their word jars. You can make this literal by having jars where students put words or use a section of their notebook.Humor – discussed on the next slideChildren’s books – covered in earlier slidesWord Histories – There are several dictionaries on etymology of words. Have students research the history of the word or idiom can help in the use of the word
42Summary of Suggestions for working with vocabulary Provide a clear and concise definition of a target wordUse dialogue in which the words meaning is explored in contextRelate the word to the student’s experienceProvide descriptions, explanations or examples of the new wordHave the student restate the description or explanation in his or her own wordsUse the word
43Summary of Suggestions for Working with Vocabulary In learning a word the child masters:Semantic – meaning and meaning networksPhonology – phonological representationUse some form of imagery to enhance or trigger the wordUse a graphic to provide display of the word’s network and associated wordsUse visualizationsRepeated exposure to words will increase opportunities to encode, retain, and link the phonological sequence within the wordUse key words, semantic feature analysis and semantic maps
44Reading Comprehension Teaching individual words, exposure to rich oral language, generative word knowledge…VocabularyVolume of ReadingHandouts: PPt slides for vocabulary and comprehension. They can fill in the blanks before you click.This is a quick summary slide to connect fluency, vocabulary and comprehension as you move to the next part of this unit. Have participants fill in the circles. The labels are: Volume of Reading, Vocabulary, and Reading Comprehension. Then click and they will appear one at a time.Reading ComprehensionTime to read, fluency, motivation, matching kids with texts…Comprehension strategies, building background knowledge, decoding accuracy & fluency
45Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Vocabulary InstructionProcesses, Research & Effective Practices for ComprehensionTeaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension
46Reading Is A Complex Activity A skilled reader rapidly and accurately decodes the words, attaches the meaning to words and sentences, connects text information to relevant background knowledge, maintains a mental representation of what he or she has already read, forms hypotheses about upcoming information and makes decisions based on his or her purpose for reading – all at the same time.Use this quote to help participants see all the interconnections that occur when one reads. Review all the areas we’ve discussed in training (decoding, sight word recognition, comprehension and vocabulary knowledge) and discuss the purpose for reading – meaning. Relate this to the Adams’ model in Unit 2.This quote is from Improving Comprehension by JoAnne Carlisle and Melinda Rice.Carlisle and Rice, 2002
47Reading Comprehension Life ExperienceContent KnowledgeActivation of PriorKnowledgeKnowledge aboutTextsOral Language SkillsKnowledge of LanguageStructuresVocabularyCultural InfluencesLanguageReadingComprehensionKnowledgeFluencyProsodyAutomaticity/RateAccuracyDecodingPhonemic AwarenessMetacognitionMotivation &EngagementActive ReadingStrategiesMonitoring StrategiesFix-Up Strategies
48The Big Emphasis Changes, K-3 ComprehensionVocabularyFluencyPhonicsPhonemicAwareness321KListeningReadingMultisyllablesLetter Sounds & CombinationsChanging Emphasis of Components Our long-term goal is that all children will read independently gain meaning from text. To do this, certain skills have more importance at different times. Our charge is to emphasize what is important at critical points in time.Adapted from Simmons, Kame’enui, Harn, & Coyne (2003). Institute for beginning reading 2. Day 3: Core instruction: What are the critical components that need to be In place to reach our goals? Eugene: University of Oregon.
49Changing Emphasis In Learning To Read This graphic is to illustrate the change in focus as we teach students to read. The idea here is to show we do not ignore comprehension when we are teaching the “code” to students. It is always the end result of reading – the amount of time and focus changes as students move up the stages of reading and make the shift from learning to read to reading to learn.Cooper, 2002
50Teaching Comprehension OLD, INCORRECT THINKINGNEW THINKING BASED ON RESEARCHComprehension occurs naturally after a student learns to decode, thus comprehension just needs to be tested.Comprehension will improve through isolated teaching of specific comprehension skills (e.g. sequence, cause and effect, main idea).Students must be taught to flexibly use a repertoire of strategies for text comprehension.This slide is showing what the research is saying about good comprehenders. They use a multitude of strategies to comprehend text. We need to teach these strategies and teach students how to comprehend – not just test their understanding. Too often, teachers think that if they just hand students a list of questions, they are teaching comprehension. This is not the case – that is testing comprehension – not teaching.Adapted from Armbruster, Lehr, & Osborn, 2001; Carlisle and Rice, 2002; Smith in Birsh, 1999
51Teaching versus Testing Comprehension Developing ComprehensionDetermining ComprehensionvsProcess-OrientedProduct-OrientedModelingTestingGradingThis is a graphic to further illustrate the previous slide. There is a difference between helping students develop comprehension skills and determining if they have them. Have a discussion with participants about what happens in classrooms on a regular basis especially in the upper grades. What are some ways we can help students develop comprehension skills instead of always going toward evaluating? Our goal is to teach comprehension as illustrated on the left, not to simply test if students can comprehend.Guided PracticeEvaluatingIndependence(Adapted by Dr. Lois Huffman from Richardson & Morgan, 2000)
52Make predictions based on background knowledge What Do Good Readers Do?Make predictions based on background knowledgeIdentify key ideas from text they are readingAre aware of text structuresMonitor their comprehension and know how to employ fix-up strategiesHave a knowledge of and use a variety of reading strategies effectively.Paraphrase, explain and summarize information and construct conclusionsAsk participants before clicking the points under the title. Most of these will be given through discussion and you can just use this slide as a quick summary.Summary of Good Readers is from both Birsh editions. Page 185 in 1st ed and p. 379 in 2nd ed. The main point to make here is that good comprehenders are ENGAGED while reading. They may be having a conversation with the author, they are questioning, scanning expository text – reading the picture headings, studying the graphs, etc. You may just have your participants generate these ideas before showing the slide and then use this slide as a summary. Most participants will bring these things up and then you can use this slide just to verify their ideas.
53Sources of Comprehension Difficulties* PROCESSESKNOWLEDGEDecoding (Accuracy)Word Naming Speed (Automaticity and fluency)Working Memory (attention)Inference Making (abstract thinking)VisualizationComprehension MonitoringVocabulary (Word Meanings)Oral LanguageSyntactical KnowledgeDomain KnowledgeThis looks at where are the breakdowns in comprehension. Is it a process issue or a knowledge issue? Many times teachers say the student can’t comprehend when the issue is vocabulary and background knowledge, not the child’s inability to get meaning from print. We have to explore all of these when looking at the difficulties children have in comprehension.*These sources of difficulty may interact with one another, increasing the severity of a student’s comprehension problems. A student may also use strengths in one or more aspects to compensate, at least to some extent, for weakness in other aspects.Carlisle & Rice; Perfetti, Marron, & Foltz, 1996
54Unit 9: Teaching Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Vocabulary InstructionIntroduction: Processes, Research & Effective Practices for ComprehensionTeaching Methods and Strategies for Comprehension
55National Reading Panel On Comprehension Directly teaching comprehension strategies leads to improvements in comprehension.Strategies are most effective when taught in combination and used flexibly in active, naturalistic learning situationsTeachers can be taught to be effective in teaching comprehension.There is a need for extensive teacher preparation to teach comprehension.These points will come in one at a time for you to review NRP on comprehensionNational Reading Panel, 2002
56National Reading Panel: Research-Supported Strategies comprehension monitoringcooperative learninggraphic and semantic organizersstory structurequestion answeringquestion generationsummarizationmultiple strategiesThese strategies were found by the National Reading Panel to be ones that are supported by research as most effective for improving reading comprehension. Note: this does not mean that other strategies were not effective – some strategies have simply not been studied yet. The point is that we have good evidence for using these strategies with students. This will be the framework for the following slides. Info. on most of the strategies will be provided.National Reading Panel, 2001
57…a growing body of research has demonstrated that students can be taught the strategies that good readers use spontaneously and that when students are taught those strategies, both their recall and their comprehension of text improve.(Pressley, 2002; Stahl, 2004)There is a little discussion about whether students actually learned to use reading strategies or whether it was a way to get them more actively engaged in reading a text. Although strategy instruction of various types has been found to improve comprehension, we do no know why this is the case. Somewhat ironically, strategy instruction may not improve children’ s use of strategies but may encourage them to look at text in a different manner, possibly increasing their cognitive engagement with text, and, through this increased engagement, become better at comprehending. (Stahl, 2004 – Reading Research at Work)
58Make explicit connection between strategy and application in text Comprehension Strategy Instruction – Teacher Actions important for SuccessMake explicit connection between strategy and application in textRepeatedly state and model the “secret” to doing it successfully so students “see” the mental workings involvedProvide students with multiple opportunities to perform the strategy themselvesBase assessment on both strategy use and text comprehension(Duffy, in Comprehension Instruction ed. by Block and Pressley, 2002)Research keeps saying to use strategy instruction but many teachers do not understand exactly how to teach strategies to students. These were the teacher actions found to be the most instrumental in student success with strategies.
59Model Of Explicit Instruction Gradual Release of Responsibility ModelStudentModelingTeacher’s gradual release of responsibilityIndependenceWhen teaching a strategy, the teacher wants to keep this model in mind. The teacher should model the strategy using a think aloud process and then use guided instruction in many practice opportunities. Gradually release the responsibility of the strategy to the student. The tricky part with struggling readers is how much to let go and when. We have to be cognizant of their beliefs about themselves and make sure they feel safe enough to take a risk to try the strategy with less and less structure available to them. See p st ed. in Birsh under Explicit Instruction Model.TeacherGuided PracticeSpires & Stone, 1989, after Pearson & Gallagher, 1983
60NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Comprehension Monitoring Goal – become aware of understanding of text andidentify when that understanding has been blockedAsk questionsDoes this make sense?Do I understand what I am reading?What does this have to do with what I already know?What will happen next?Steps when there is a roadblock to comprehensionIdentify the difficultyUse think-aloud proceduresRestate what was readReread text or read ahead to find info. that may help
61NRP – Comprehensions Strategies: Comprehension Monitoring Read and Say SomethingAsk a QuestionI wonder?Why?How?Make a PredictionI think _________will happenMake a ConnectionThis reminds me of when…I used to…She/he is just like…Make a CommentComment on something you like, a part you may not like, or a concept you do not understandRead and Say Something is a great strategy for monitoring. Put these on cards and students can pull a card and “say something”. You can also a bookmark for students to use.Another strategy by Buehl (2001) is called Three-Minute Pause. In this strategy, students stop while reading, watching a video or listening to turn to their partner or group for a three minute pause. They 1) summarize what they have learned, then 2) identify something they found particularly interesting and 3) ask any questions about confusing information or make a prediction. Having them pause every 10 or 15 minutes helps with memory and fixing up any confusing parts of text.Have participants use their book from the vocabulary activity and do “Read and Say something” have them take turns reading a part of the text and pick one of the blocks to try out this strategy. If you can, have cards made for each table to use to pick from.Harste, Short & Burke, 1988
62NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Comprehension Monitoring My Reading Check SheetSentence Check…”Did I understand this sentence?If you had trouble understanding the meaning of the sentence, try…reading the sentence over.reading the whole paragraph againreading onasking someoneParagraph Check…”What did the paragraph say?”If you had trouble understanding what the paragraph said, try..reading the paragraph overreading the paragraph before or aftersummarizing out loudPage Check…”What do I remember?”If you had trouble remembering what was said on this page, try…rereading each paragraph on the page, and asking yourself, “What did it say?”This is an example of a sheet that can be made for the student to use to monitor themselves while reading. This would be part of the scaffolding of moving the student from being dependent on the teacher giving cues to the student having a way to monitor independently.Adapted from Anderson (1980) and Babbs (1984)
63NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Cooperative Learning “Having peers instruct or interact over the use of reading strategies leads to an increase in the learning of the strategies, promotes intellectual discussion and increases reading comprehension” NRP, 2000Best Practices – Assign roles to studentsLeaderTime KeeperSupply ManagerTeacher ContactParticipation RubricAssign points based on participationMost teachers will be familiar with Cooperative Learning groups. Just review a few “best practices” for success with cooperative learning groups. The participation rubric has been found to be very successful in using these groups. Another technique not listed on a slide but worth mentioning or reminding participants is the “Think-Pair-Share” technique. A teacher poses a thought, question or uses a piece of text. A pair of students share their thinking and then that pair shares with another pair. Then the groups share out to the whole class. This is a quick use of cooperative learning and a quick way to break up the lesson. To practice – have participants turn to a partner and share their best or worst story regarding using cooperative groups. What do they see as being critical for success of groups in their class? Do they like students in groups? Why or why not? Then have them share with two others and share with the group as a whole.
64NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Cooperative Learning Guidelines for GroupsMove into groups quickly and quietlyStay with your group in your areaFulfill your group role by doing your jobActively listen to each otherRespect each otherFollow the proceduresParticipation RubricCooperateFollows directionsStays with groupSpeaks in whispersAccepts ResponsibilitiesContributes to groupRespectSelf, others, andpropertyEffortStays on task100908070605040302010These are examples of how to make cooperative groups more effective. The Guidelines for Groups would be posted in the classroom as well as on a card to be given to each group along with their roles. The Participation Rubric is given to each child. They put it beside them while working and the teacher uses this to grade each student. Everyone starts with a hundred. If they are not following guidelines, the teacher comes by and circles the next number down. All of the rubrics are turned in with the student’s name and date for grading.Lynn Flood, WCPSS
65NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Graphic Organizers Most teachers will be familiar with graphic organizers used to organize information. Graphic organizers can be bought in books at teacher stores or can be downloaded by googling “graphic organizers” Many can be found at a site called ReQuest. Graphic Organizers are wonderful ways to help students organize text and their thoughts. The key is helping students choose main ideas instead of writing everything from the text. Graphic Organizers are a great way to help scaffold information for students and then use the organizer as a writing tool.NRP cited 3 important uses for these visual cues: 1) help students focus on text structure while reading 2) provide tools to examine and visually represent textual relationships, and 3) assist in writing well-organized summaries. The use of graphic organizers can facilitate memory of the content of what has been read for many students.
66NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Story Structure Introduce elements of narrative one at a time:TitleCharactersSetting (time and place)Rising action (series of events)ClimaxResolutionGraphic Organizers to teach story structure. Knowledge of the elements of narrative text provides students with a framework for organizing important aspects of a selection. A graphic organizer showing the elements of a selection helps the students decide what kind of information to focus on. Knowledge of the elements of the text also helps students understand relationships between the parts.Birsh, 1999
67GOAL/PROBLEM/SOLUTION GOAL/ PROBLEM/ CONFLICT CLIMAX____________________________________________________________________________NAME_______________________RESOLUTIONGOAL/PROBLEM/SOLUTIONEVENTS:Sample graphic organizer to use with students reading narrative textsTITLE:GOAL/ PROBLEM/ CONFLICTPLACE:CHARACTERS:THEME/MORAL:Smith, 1999
68NRP – Comprehension Strategies: Story Map Characters:Setting:Place:Time:Problem:Another example of how to scaffold for students text structure for narrative. Have participants sketch out their own books story map.Events leading to ResolutionResolution:
69NRP - Questioning Answering: Constrained Questions/Child’s Response Teacher QuestionsStudent ResponsesAs they started scrubbing, what fell off?DirtWhat does George want to do with his friend?Find himThese are the kinds of limited questions and answers we want to avoid.The mole found a new _____?HomeBeck and McKeown, 2001
70NRP – Questioning Answering Open Questions/Child’s Response Teacher QuestionsStudent ResponsesHow does what Harry did fit in with what we already know about him?He doesn’t really want to get clean, he just wants to stay dirty.He decided to dig a hole and get the brush so he could wash, and then they would recognize him.What’s Harry up to now?These are the types of questions and elaborated responses we want to encourage.They called Harry “this little doggie.” What does that tell us?That means that they don’t know that it’s their doggie. They don’t know his name, so they just call him little doggie.Beck and McKeown, 2001
71Effective Ways To Follow-Up Student Responses Repeat and rephrase child’s responseGeneric probes:“What’s that all about?”“What’s that mean?”“How do you know?”Questioning the Author – aimed at teaching students that they can become skilled at figuring out what an author might have meant to say by thinking and discussing meaningWhy do you think the author tells us this now?Did the author explain this clearly?Does the author tell us why?Beck & McKeown, 2001
72NRP: Question Answering and Question Generation Question – Answer - Relationships In the Book questionsRight ThereIn the passageAnswer: “how many…”, “who is…”, “where is…”Think and SearchHow ideas in the passage relate to each otherAnswer: “The main idea of the passage…”, “What caused…” “compare/contrast”In My Head questionsAuthor and YouUse ideas and info. Not directly stated in passage/think about what you have read and form own ideasAnswer: “The author implies..”, “The passage suggests…”On My OwnUse background knowledgeAnswer: “In your opinion…”, “Based on your experience…”See p. 397 Birsh 2nd edition. This instructional approach was developed by Terry Raphael in the 1980’s. It was designed to help students categorize questions and use this information to help them in answering questions. Teachers need to provide modeling and scaffolding to assist students in using this strategy appropriately. After students learn to answer the 4 types of questions, they can then write their own. The sequence for teaching QAR strategy is as follows:1. Introduce the concept with the two main categories2. Demonstrate the strategy with short passages by using think aloud3. Give students text, questions, answers and the label. Students supply the reason for the label.4. Give text, questions and answers and students provide the label and reason5. Give students text, questions and students supply the answer, labels and reasons for labelSome students need an intermediate step of the teacher supplying the QAR label to assist the student in finding answer.There are several cue cards that can be found on the internet to use as posters or cue cards for students.Have participants write questions using the QAR format for their book.Activity: Three-Minute Pause. Turn to a partner or group for a three minute pause. 1) summarize what they have learned, then 2) identify something they found particularly interesting and 3) ask any questions about confusing information or make a prediction. Share from a few pairs or groups.Raphael, (1982)
73Visualization or Mental Imagery Imagery training has been found to improve students’ memory of what they readIndividuals are guided to create visual images to represent a picture or a text as they read it.Can start with small amounts of text working up to whole pagesThere is a DVD called Second Hand Lion that has a great scene in it for visualization. One of the characters is telling a story and the listener keeps changing his image based on new details given. If trainers have time to show that segment, it would be very powerful to explain visualization.
77Now You Try…With a partner, read the next story and draw a picture to represent each story part. Use just the pictures to retell the story.OPTIONAL ACTIVITY: This is an independent activity which can be skipped unless you want them to try on their own and then discuss their pictures, etc.
80NRP: Multiple Strategies Reciprocal Teaching Process Strategies included are:Summarizing – identifying and paraphrasing main ideas.Questioning – formulating and answering questions about the content.Clarifying – recognizing and correcting “breakdowns” in comprehensionPredicting – forming hypotheses about upcoming events or information.NRP found two multiple strategy instructions effective – Reciprocal Teaching Process and Collaborative Strategic Reading – Klingner and Vaughn, This is found in Birsh 2nd ed p It is similar to RTP as it uses 4 strategies: preview (activate knowledge and predict), Click and Clunk (monitor comprehension during reading by identifying difficult words and concepts using fix-up strategies when text doesn’t make sense), get the gist (restate the main ideas) and wrap up (generate questions a teacher may ask). You can see that both multiple strategies are very similar.Reciprocal Teaching is a scaffolded discussion technique that is build on four strategies that good readers use to comprehend text: predicting, questioning, clarifying, and summarizing (Palincsar & Brown, 1984). It was originally designed as a paragraph by paragraph discussion technique in which the teacher would model each of the four strategies in a think aloud. It has evolved into a strategy that can be used whole class or in cooperative groups with the students being the “teacher” for sections of text. Cue cards help students with the strategy. Each strategy needs to be practiced individually with test portions before using all 4 in one session. Teachers need to model using think alouds to assist students with these strategies. Working on different types of questions will help keep those from being too simple. Teachers can require students to use “2 think and search questions” for example so they do not stay at the Literal level. Or teachers can use the Costa’s Levels of questions – see handouts as a guide for students.
81Reciprocal Teaching Process After reading a segment of text, leader summarizes, asks questions “that a teacher might ask”, clarifies any difficulties and makes a prediction.Other students generate additional questions, make predictions and/or ask for clarification.Specific strategies are applied to appropriate text sections.The only rule is that all 4 are applied during every session.Each reciprocal teaching strategy has an important role in the process. The order of the strategies is not fixed; it depends on the text and the reader.A good resource for teachers is Reciprocal Teaching at Work by Lori Oczkus.Palinscar, A. & Brown. A. 1986
82Activity: Comprehension Strategies Using your text from the Vocabulary activity, choose one of the comprehension strategies and develop a mini-lesson.Write the activity on chart paper to shareEach group model strategy with textTrainers can assign a strategy to each table or let participants choose their own. Try and get each one represented and/or modeled with text.
83Summary Of Best Practices: Teaching Comprehension Set stage to show how reading activity changes according to text and purposeExplain and model steps in strategyPresent more than one situation or text in which strategy would be usefulProvide many opportunities for practiceEncourage think aloudsHave student suggest times and conditions for strategyGo through these quickly. These are found in Birsh 2nd ed. on page 384Mason and Au, 1986
84Cognitive Model of Reading Assessment McKenna & Stahl, 2003 PhonologicalAwarenessDecodingSight WordKnowledgeFluency& ContextAutomaticWordRecognitionVocabularyBackgroundKnowledgeLanguageComprehensionReadingComprehensionKnowledgeof StructureStrategicKnowledgeGeneralPurposesfor ReadingSpecificPurposesfor ReadingKnowledgeof Strategiesfor ReadingPrintConcepts
85The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001)BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGEVOCABULARY KNOWLEDGELANGUAGE STRUCTURESVERBAL REASONINGLITERACY KNOWLEDGEPHON. AWARENESSDECODING (and SPELLING)SIGHT RECOGNITIONSKILLED READING:fluent execution andcoordination of wordrecognition and textcomprehension.LANGUAGE COMPREHENSIONWORD RECOGNITIONincreasinglyautomaticstrategicSkilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processesThis slide comes from Joe Torgesen and can be found at It is a great way to show how all the components come together.Fcrr.orgReading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.
86“If you want children to read well, they must read a lot. If you want children to read a lot, they must read well.”Marilyn Adams as quoted by Joe Torgesen 3/2006
87SourcesAnderson, R.C., Wilson, P.T., & Fielding, L.G “Growth in reading and how children spend their time outside of school.” Reading Research Quarterly 23 (3), p. 292.Armbruster, B., Lehr, F; Osborne. J Putting reading first: The research building blocks for teaching children to read, kindergarten through grade 3. National Inst. for Literacy, Washington, DC.; National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.; Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC.; Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement, Ann Arbor, MI.Beck, I., & McKeown, M “Text talk: Capturing the benefits of read-aloud experiences for young children.” Reading Teacher, 55:1.Baumann, J. & Kame’enui, E Vocabulary Instruction. Research to Practice. New York: Guilford Press
88SourcesBaumann, J. & Kame’enui, E Vocabulary Instruction. New York: Guilford PressBeck, I., McKeown, M., & Kucan, L Bringing Words to Life. New York: Guilford Press.Biemiller, Andrew Language and reading success. Newton Upper Falls, Massachusetts: Brookline Books.Carlisle, Joanne & Rice, Melinda Improving reading comprehension: Research-based principles and practicesFelton, R., & Lillie, D. (2002). Teaching Students with Persistent Reading Problems (a multi-media CD-ROM). Greensboro, NC: Guilford County Schools.Fielding, L., & Peason, D “Reading comprehension: What works.” Educational Leadership, 51:5, ppFlorida Center for Reading Research – fcrr.org. Researchers presentations link.
89SourcesGaskins, Irene. et al “Helping struggling readers make sense of reading” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading AssociationGunning, Thomas Assessing and Correcting Reading and Writing Difficulties. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Hart,B. & Risley, T Meaningful Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young American Children. Baltimore: Brookes Publishing.Maria, Katherine Reading comprehension instruction: Issues and strategies. Parkton, Maryland: York Press.Morris, Darrell The Howard Street tutoring manual: Teaching at-risk readers in the primary grades. New York: Guilford Press.
90SourcesNational Reading Panel Report of the National Reading Panel:Teaching children to read – Reports of the subgroups. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH Pub. NoOczkus, L Reciprocal Teaching at Work. Delaware: International Reading Association.Palinscar, A. & Brown. A “Interactive teaching to promote learning from text.” Reading Teacher 39, April, ppPearson, D., & Gallagher, M “The instruction of reading comprehension.” Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8:3, pp
91SourcesReutzel, D., Camperell, K., & Smith, J “Hitting the wall: Helping struggling readers comprehend” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.Smith, Margaret “Teaching comprehension from a multisensory perspective” in Birsh, Judith, Ed. Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills. Baltimore: Brooks.Stahl, K. “Proof, Practice, and promise: Comprehension strategy instruction in the primary grades.” The Reading Teacher Vol.57. No.7, April 2004Stahl,S. & Nagy, William. Teaching Word Meanings. Lawrence Ehrlbaum Assoc., 2006.
92SourcesStahl, K. and McKenna, M. Reading Research at Work. New York: Guilford PressSpires, H., & Stone, P. “The directed note taking activity: A self-questioning approach.” Journal of Reading, 33:1, ppSweet, A., & Snow, C “Reconceptualizing reading comprehension” in Block, C., Gambrell, L., & Pressley, M. Improving comprehension instruction: Rethinking research, theory, and classroom practice. Newark, Delaware: International Reading Association.Hiebert E. and Kamil, M Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Lawrence Ehrlbaum Assoc.Block & Pressley Comprehension Instruction. Guilford Press.