Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Assessment SPCD 587 Sept. 10 and 17. Questions to Consider How do you design individualized, comprehensive instruction? How can you determine where to.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Assessment SPCD 587 Sept. 10 and 17. Questions to Consider How do you design individualized, comprehensive instruction? How can you determine where to."— Presentation transcript:

1 Assessment SPCD 587 Sept. 10 and 17

2 Questions to Consider How do you design individualized, comprehensive instruction? How can you determine where to begin instruction? What kinds of information might you want to discover through literacy/reading assessment and what do you do with this information? ? How do you find assessment tools that are appropriate for students with more significant disabilities or those with sensory or physical challenges?

3 Model of Silent Reading Comprehension (K. Erickson, based on Cunningham, 1993) Word Identification Automatic Mediated Language Comprehension Print Processing Eye movement Print-to-Meaning LinksIntegration Inner Speech Knowledge of Text Structures Knowledge of the World

4 Before Beginning Assessment Ensure maximum access to print/picture/logo/writing materials, etc. Positioning Assistive technology/aug com needs Sensory issues that require modification of materials (e.g., increasing size of print or picture)

5 Organizing Assessment: Areas to Evaluate Language Level* Level of language or communication (intentional? Symbolic?) Mode of communication (e.g., speech, sign, PECS, other or combination Vocabulary level (e.g., Peabody Picture Vocabulary) Listening (receptive) and speaking (expressive) vocabulary Early or Emergent Literacy: Understanding of print Symbol recognition (if appropriate) Might include sight words or be limited to concrete objects, photographs, or picsyms E.g., Concepts About Print; Early Literacy Checklist

6 Word Recognition Skills: Automatic & Mediated Letter name/sound knowledge; single words; words within connected text; includes phonics skills (decoding) E.g., running records w/ miscue analysis, Informal Reading Inventories (IRI); standardized instruments, such as W-JR or Brigance; CBM; GDRT Organizing Assessment: Areas to Evaluate

7 Listening & Reading comprehension E.g., Informal Reading Inventories; Gray Diagnostic Reading Test; story re-telling checklists; story grammar maps Reading fluency E.g., CBM procedures using fluency norms Writing (composing text) E.g., rubrics or classroom based assessments Attitudes toward literacy E.g., Reading attitude surveys; observations, interviews Organizing Assessment: Areas to Evaluate

8 Defining Assessment Accommodations Accommodations are changes in the way a student takes a test, without changing the actual test itself. access to the test, but does not make the test content easier.

9 Accommodations Categorization Presentation: Read test/directions, reread, cues, prompts, clarification, templates, markers, secure paper to desk, and magnification/amplification devices Response: Verbal response, pencil grips, special paper, technology, scribe, and pointing, eye gaze, provide word processor Timing: Frequent breaks and extended time Scheduling: Over time and over sub-test Setting: Preferential seating, separate locations, specialized setting, adaptive or special furniture

10 Using Accommodations During Assessments Accommodations should be familiar to the students Review the IEP Document the accommodations used Successful and unsuccessful

11 Evaluating What Students Understand About Print Examples: Concepts About Print Checklist of Early Literacy

12 Category/ItemAlwaysSometimesNever Attitudes Toward Reading & Voluntary Reading Behavior Voluntarily looks at or reads books Asks to be read to Listens attentively while being read to Responds with questions and comments to stories read to him or her Concepts About Books Checklist for Assessing Early Literacy Development (D. Katims, 2000) Name:Date:

13 Attitudes Toward Literacy Parent and student interviews Observation

14 Phonological Awareness Example: Yopp-Singer, Dibbles Also see reading for next week (Copeland & Calhoon for additional ways to assess with students with complex communication needs)

15

16 Phonological Awareness Diagnostic Assessment Form Adaptations for: Awareness of Rhyme Awareness of Alliteration Ability to Blend and Segment

17 Evaluating Word Recognition Word Recognition Skills: Automatic & Mediated Letter name/sound knowledge; single words; words within connected text; includes phonics skills (decoding) E.g., running records w/ miscue analysis, Informal Reading Inventories (IRI); standardized instruments, such as W-JR or Brigance; CBM; GDRT

18 Reading (Word Recognition) Levels Independent level Recognize minimum of 99% of words/comprehend 90% Instructional level Recognize minimum of 95% of words/comprehend 75% Frustration level Recognize less than 90%/comprehend less than 50% Listening comprehension level Comprehend 75% of material read to her/him

19 Running Records Method of assessing oral reading skills Looking at student’s errors (and analyzing to see what types they are): self-corrections, repetitions and re-readings, hesitations, and requests for help

20 Running Records Use material at student’s instructional level Record student performance on top line/text on bottom line Calculate % of errors Can also examine comprehension w/ running records by using re-tellings, summarizing, etc.

21

22 Miscue analysis – method to examine types of errors student is making (using info from running record) Miscue analysis – method to examine types of errors student is making (using info from running record) – Use materials at independent or instructional level – List errors made and categorize according to type of error Semantic (meaning related) Semantic (meaning related) Graphophonic (visual, phonic) Graphophonic (visual, phonic) Syntactic Syntactic Self-corrected Self-corrected Nonword Nonword – Calculate % for each type of error

23 WordsMeaningVisualSyntax TextChildSelf- Correction Similar Meaning? Graphophonic similarity? Grammatically acceptable? grumblegrumblyX always- didn’tdid notXXX I’llIXXX movemakeXX scarfcafrX oforX mymeXX scarfselfX takentakeXX scarfscaferX thattheyXX maymaybeX stillsitX Analysis: Seth overrelies on visual cues and rarely self-corrects errors. Tompkins, G. (2007). Figure 3-2 Miscue analysis of Seth’s errors. (p. 79(

24 Informal reading inventory (IRI) Assess student’s reading level and reading and listening comprehension Graded Word Lists (single words) Graded Reading Passages Reading comprehension Listening Comprehension

25 Interpreting IRI Difference between listening and instructional levels Difference between instructional/frustration levels Differences between word recognition and comprehension Word recognition in context vs. in isolation Reading strategies used Reading rate, hesitations, repetitions Background knowledge Type of comprehension questions student answered/missed

26 Reading Fluency Calculate rate (# of correctly read words/time) Also observe phrasing (chunking), hesitations, prosody (stress and intonation)

27 Reading Fluency Word by word reading Reads in phrases Too slow or too fast Appropriate pacing No expression Appropriate expression Not aware of punctuation Aware of punctuation Poor sight word recognition Automatic sight word recognition

28 Assessing Writing Don’t forget to include this in a comprehensive assessment of a student’s literacy skills! Teacher-made rubrics and checklists (See handout)


Download ppt "Assessment SPCD 587 Sept. 10 and 17. Questions to Consider How do you design individualized, comprehensive instruction? How can you determine where to."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google