Presentation on theme: "How To Teach and Assess Reading For Junior High School Students."— Presentation transcript:
How To Teach and Assess Reading For Junior High School Students
Why Do We Read? What kind of reader are you? ? To kill time To solve a problem For pleasure For myselfFor parents For work/study For information For tests
5 Ts What kind of teacher am I ? Teach Task Talk Text Time
Competence Indicators 能辨識英文字母的連續書寫體 Can identify the letters in cursive writing style 能用字典查閱字詞的發音及意義 Can identify the pronunciation and meaning of unfamiliar words by consulting a dictionary 能看懂常用的英文標示和圖表 Can comprehend common signs and graphs written in English 能用適切的語調、節奏朗讀短文、簡易故事等 Can read aloud short passages and simplified stories with appropriate rhythm and intonation patterns 能瞭解課文的主旨大意 Can comprehend the main ideas of textbooks passages 能瞭解對話、短文、書信、故事及短劇等的重要內容與情節 Can comprehend the main ideas and plots of dialogues, short passages, letters, stories, and playlets 能從圖畫、圖示或上下文，猜測字義或推論文意 Can guess correct word meaning or make proper inferences based on pictures, illustrations, or contextual clues 能辨識故事的要素，如背景、人物、事件和結局 Can identify the essential elements of a story: background, main characters, major incidents, endings, etc 能閱讀不同體裁、不同主題的簡易文章 Can read articles involving different genres and topics written in simple English.
Before We Teach Use sight words and they can read almostsight words read almost Start checking from “Fluency” Comprehension Fluency Letter-sound Phonemic awareness YES NO YES Fluency intervention Accuracy or Proficiency Phonics intervention Phonics Accuracy or Proficiency
Poor Readers Those who either lack of decoding skills or comprehension strategies can take: remedial learning programs cooperative learning Repeat oral reading Reread familiar text Listen to model fluent reading paired reading
Reading Model Bottom-up Model Also known as: part to whole model Focus on issues of rapid processing of text and word identification. Use word by word, phrase by phrase, decoding of the text.
Typical Start with word-by-word decoding and translation (using controlled vocabulary) Followed by comprehension 5-W Qs, most of which involved direct-lifting answers End with checking answers with little or no explanation repeated practice = teaching = good performance in comprehension???
Reading Model Top-down Model Also known as: inside-out model concept-driven model whole to part model Focus on issues of background knowledge (schema), mental process (short-term memory) and psycholinguistic guessing games.
Benefits Help Ss to Activate their prior knowledge Make predictions Generate Qs, answer Qs Draw inferences Monitor their comprehension Seek clarification when confused Create visual imagery Make summaries Evaluate what they have read
Reading Model Interactive Model bottom-up + top-down skill-based + strategy-based bottom-uptop-down interactiveinteractive
Example: Vocabulary Vocabulary can be taught directly and indirectly Direct instruction includes giving word definitions and pre-teaching of vocabulary before reading a text. Indirect methods refer to incidental vocabulary learning, mentioning, and guessing.
Reading Materials Reader-based Text-based
Reading Materials Intensive reading Grammar translation Comprehension questions and language work Skills and strategies Extensive reading Read aloud Sustained silent reading Independent reading Pleasure reading
Before Reading Lead-in : warm up discussion / brain-storming prediction Predicting from title, pictures, or first sentence Predicting from a key illustration Predicting from pre-questions Predicting from others’ questions
During Reading skimming and scanning skimming is reading rapidly in order to get a general overview of the material. That is, to catch the whole picture and the main idea. scanning is reading rapidly in order to find specific facts. That is, to obtain specific information. While skimming tells you what general information is within a section, scanning helps you locate a particular fact. Skimming is like snorkeling, and scanning is more like pearl diving.
Skimming How to skim: * Read the title. * Read the introduction or the first paragraph. * Read the first sentence of every other paragraph. * Read any headings and sub-headings. * Notice any pictures, charts, or graphs. * Notice any italicized or boldface words or phrases. * Read the summary or last paragraph.
Scanning How to scan: * State the specific information you are looking for. * Try to anticipate how the answer will appear and what clues you might use to help you locate the answer. For example, if you were looking for a certain date, you would quickly read the paragraph looking only for numbers. * Use headings and any other aids that will help you identify which sections might contain the information you are looking for. * Selectively read and skip through sections of the passage.
Let’s Practice Object: Students will search and skim for answers to improve test-taking strategies. Activity: 1.Tell students to relax eyes and only look for things they need. 2.Read the questions and highlight the keywords. 3.Number the paragraphs. 4.Circle the unfamiliar words and guess from the context. 5.Read the passages and highlight the keywords. 6.Have students answer Q1. 7.Ask students what the keyword they will scan for to find the answer to Q 2. 8.Continue doing the exercises until students are ready to continue on their own. 9.Have students share with neighbors, turn and talk. 10.Ask some students to share with the whole class.
Guessing & Inference guessing : to understand meanings of unknown/unfamiliar words Through context clues By using roots, prefixes and suffixes inference : to infer hidden information through the text Rereading for details Pause and predict Summarizing the text
Tips During-teaching : modeled reading shared reading silent reading reading aloud Q & A acting out pause & guessing Cooperativ e learning is ! Give instructions on the test sheets like 三民國中.
Analyzing Structures Article Structure: introduction : revealing a whole picture / the main idea (skimming) body/ development : telling more details to support the whole with groups in common linking with transition words (scanning, guessing) conclusion : emphasizing the main idea in other words (inference)
Analyzing Structures Paragraph Structure: topic sentence: revealing the main idea detail sentences: presenting details to support the main idea concluding sentence: repeating the main idea in other words
After Reading Wrap-up : Story innovation / Retelling Innovation on the ending Wanted posters Story map Comics Time lines Text reconstruction Reflection
Teaching Reading with Multimedia Self-access CD-ROMs Software programs Web-based courses and training programs Teach kids to read and help those who struggle…
Useful Websites OXFORD Teacher Training
Useful Websites Guided reading stories & interactive games
Online practice reading tests Reading comprehension connection IWill Reading comprehension worksheets Search for materials Search sentences for you Taiwan Test Central Let’s strategize! Learning Upgrade Free English Video Lesson
Why Using Reading Assessment Teachers use assessments in reading to make sure students are making measurable progress. Students must make sense of sounds, letters and words in text to become fully independent readers. Students should be able to read a wide variety of materials, both fiction and non-fiction, with comprehension. Reading assessments evaluate whether students meet these criteria.
Reading Assessment Alternative assessment –Projects –Tasks –Journals –Portfolios –Diaries and logs –Dramas/Plays/RT –Checklists and rating scales –Group work evaluation –Self-evaluation Authentic assessments Performance assessments
Students’ Picture Books
More About Reading Grabe(2004) 提出了十個建議 (implications for reading instruction from reading research) ： 認字的流利度 (ensure fluency in word recognition) 詞彙學習：電子字典、多媒體詞彙索引 (emphasize the learning of vocabulary: Electronic dictionaries, Multimedia glossing) 激發背景知識 (activate background knowledge) 確保習得語言學知識與一般理解 (ensure acquisition of linguistic knowledge and general comprehension skills) 教導辨識結構與言語行為組織 (teach recognition of text structures and discourse organization) 促進策略發展而非機械式策略教導 (promote development of strategic readers rather than mechanical application of strategy checklists) 促進泛讀 (promote extensive reading) 建立閱讀流利度與 rate (build reading fluency and rate) 發展內在閱讀動機 (develop intrinsic motivation for reading) 提供連貫的課程給學生學習 (contribute to a coherent curriculum for student learning)
More About Reading Day and Bamford's (2002) 針對教大量閱讀提出了十項重要的原則 (top ten principles for teaching extensive reading) 閱讀材料要簡單 (the reading material is easy) 閱讀材料包含大量不同主題 (a variety of reading material on a wide range of topics must be available) 學習者選擇他們想讀的 (learners choose what they want to read) 學習者儘可能多讀 (learners read as much as possible) 閱讀的目的與有趣、資料與一般理解 (the purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure, information and general understanding) 閱讀本身即為收穫 (reading is its own reward) 閱讀速度要快 (reading speed is usually faster rather than slower) 閱讀是個人且安靜的 (reading is individual and silent) 老師指導學生 (teachers orient and guide their students) 老師是閱讀者的典型 (the teacher is a role model of a reader)