2 Australia University of Sydney (37th) University of New South Wales (45th) Monash University (47th) University of Melbourne (38th) University of Queensland (43rd) Australia National University (16th) Debating world champions (1st) Diversity of Englishes – US, UK etc. Delicious beef and cute koalas
3 Approach Explanations Techniques not facts Examples Have a try Partner work Participate with me
5 Funny A sign at a Bangkok dry cleaners: “Drop your trousers here for best results.”
6 Example Know Comprehend Understand Realize Recognize Appreciate Digest
7 I **** you. I know you. I comprehend you. I understand you. I realize you. I recognize you. I appreciate you. I digest you.
8 What does each word mean? They all mean “to understand” This question is insufficient Need to ask “What feeling or image ( 含意 connotation) do I want the readers to have?” What connotation 含意 does each word give?
9 Connotations 含意 Emotional Empathy (share feeling) Process of observing Process of Analysis Stored facts Accepting a fact or truth Realize Strong Weak Strong Weak Strong Appreciate Strong Weak Strong Understand Weak Strong Weak Strong Recognize Weak Strong Weak Comprehend Weak Strong Weak Strong Digest Weak Strong Weak Strong Know Weak Strong Weak
10 Examples I know a lot about chemistry. –Stored facts I cannot comprehend this text as the English is too difficult. –Process of analysis, accepting as truth You don’t understand me at all! –Empathy (shared feelings), emotional After you screamed at me, only then did I realize how important this is for you. –Process of analysis, accepting as truth, emotional Please take five minutes to digest this new idea. –Process of analysis and accepting as truth.
11 Compare Know with Understand I know a lot about chemistry. I understand a lot about chemistry. –I know a lot about chemistry (and I like it!) I don’t know you. –Stored facts I don’t understand you. –Emotional, empathy
12 Applications It was designed to test our hypothesis to see whether the diverging-sequential color schemes can really be helpful for users in understanding the 4D model.
13 Applications Users then find comprehending the 4D models, which may contain a large number of elements, especially difficult.
14 Applications Through this procedure, we expect to produce color schemes specifically applicable to 4D models. These color schemes will not only help users recognize the 3D objects easily, but also increase their understanding of the construction schedule.
15 Exercise Write a sentence that uses one of the words very accurately. Discuss it with your partner. Realize Appreciate Understand Recognize Comprehend Digest Know
16 Another Example Study Investigate Research Examine Discuss
17 Exercise: 含意 Formal process Explore inward Explore outward Solve a problem Produce results Gain knowledge Study Investigate Research Examine Discuss Strong, weak or blank?
18 Connotations 含意 Formal process Explore inward Explore outward Solve a problem Produce results Gain knowledge Study Weak Strong Investigate Strong Research Strong Weak Examine Weak Strong Discuss Strong
19 Which words fit? The derived equations are usually oversimplified. They may not be used to simulate the behaviors of an imperfect instrument in a virtual environment. Therefore, we would like to further study the causes of the errors and develop a mathematical error model which can systematically present the influences of each part of the instrument imperfection and allow programmers to implement the model in a virtual environment.
20 Decide, design, determine, distinguish Decide My professor decided to go to Australia. Design We designed the research method for this project. Determine Can you determine the correct answer? Distinguish Can you distinguish the color rose from the color pink? What are the different connotations?
22 Exercise Decide My professor decided to go to Australia. Design We designed the research method for this project. Determine Can you determine the correct answer? Distinguish Can you distinguish the color rose from the color pink? Write a sentence for one of these words.
23 Show, indicate, etc. show Indicate illustrate demonstrate point out argue present
24 Show, indicate, etc. visualprinciplesdetailssymbolicpersuade Connection, logic show Strong Weak weak Indicate Weak weakStrong Weak Strong illustrate Strong demonstrate Weak Strong point out Weak Strong argue Strong present Strong
25 Exercise 1.Figure 3 _______ the relationships between each object of the model. 2.This case study _______ the feasibility of the model. 3.These results _______ the model can predict good results. ：
26 1.Smith and Jones (2003) _______ that finite element theory is useful in such situations, however Anton (2007) _______ that the theory has limited applications due to the cost of computing power. 2.Table 2 _______ the experimental data. 3.Here we use a running example to _______ the details of the algorithm. ：
27 More exercises show,Indicate, illustrate, demonstrate, point out, argue, present 1.From the schematic _________ in Figure 7(c), we can derive Es as Equation 4. 2.These explanations usually _________ single instrumental imperfection at one time and __________ how it influents overall survey results. 3.Figure 4 _________ the scenario in which a tripod is not perfectly centered. 4.Figure 5 __________ the leveling problem in the tripod.
28 Very good example Solves the problem No surprise Makes sense Closer to target helpful Close to target good Weak accurate Strong desired Strong expected Strong acceptable Strong reasonable Strong improved Strong
29 How to learn connotations Rely less on standard dictionaries Read critically and analyze word choice Ask native-speakers Try swapping words Write sentences using similar words as practice ：
30 Useful Resources Dictionary of Confusable Words (Hardcover) by Adrian Room (Author)Adrian Room The Artful Nuance: A Refined Guide to Imperfectly Understood Words in the English Language (Paperback) by Rod L. EvansRod L. Evans (Author) Merriam Webster's Dictionary of Synonyms: A Dictionary of Discriminated Synonyms With Antonyms and Analogous and Contrasted Words (Hardcover) by Merriam-Webster (Editor)Merriam-Webster
32 Useful Resources Dictionary of Confusable Words (Hardcover) by Adrian Room (Author)Adrian Room The Artful Nuance: A Refined Guide to Imperfectly Understood Words in the English Language (Paperback) by Rod L. EvansRod L. Evans (Author) Merriam Webster's Dictionary of Synonyms: A Dictionary of Discriminated Synonyms With Antonyms and Analogous and Contrasted Words (Hardcover) by Merriam-Webster (Editor)Merriam-Webster