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High Flow Therapy (HFT)

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Presentation on theme: "High Flow Therapy (HFT)"— Presentation transcript:

1 High Flow Therapy (HFT)
Adult Population Brief introduction---”Hello Everyone, I’m **, a Clinical Specialist for Vapotherm---and the focus off today’s talk is on high flow therapy and our technology, and adult applications. Nursing Educational Series

2 Agenda Respiratory Patient Tx Model ( Old & New )
Review of High Flow Therapy (HFT®) Clinical Applications & Benefits Precision Flow® Demonstration Q & A The goal of the presentation is to: - Outline the Mechanisms of Action of how High Flow Therapy----what is happening physiologically and anatomically -Describe how HFT fits into the continuum of respiratory care - Discuss Patient Application----what types of patients will benefit from this therapy. - Provide a brief overview of key research =Overview Vapotherm approach to HFT and demonstrate Precision Flow - Questions and Answers

3 Oxygen Therapy -vs- Ventilation
Oxygen Therapy Goals – 1. Correct hypoxemia 2. Decrease symptoms associated with hypoxemia 3. Decrease workload on cardiopulmonary system N.I.V.Therapy Goals – 1. Improve Gaseous Exchange (02-CO2) 2. Decrease intrapulmonary Shunt 3. Assist the Pt’s Spontaneous Respiratory Effort & Alleviate Dyspnea 4. Reduce Work of Breathing 5. Avoid Intubation & Ventilation The current model in treating a respiratory compromised patient was to initiate, depending on the acuity of the patient, one of many types of oxygen devices (low or high flow). If the patient digressed, the next option is some sort of pressure therapy, officially known as Non Invasive Ventilation, or more commonly known as BiPap. (Or NCPAP if in NICU) However, it has become more understood that typically these oxygen devices, especially high flow masks, generally do not fully support the patient as anticipated. Take for example a non-rebreather mask, thought to deliver 100% O2, research has shown time and time again, it typically only delivers 60-70% Fi02. When this fails, the physician makes the jump to NIV to support the patient, but as you can see the goals between these two therapies are completely different and in some cases maybe over kill for a patient who simply cannot oxygenate. Question: How often is Bipap being used to oxygenate your patients when they will not tolerate or benefit from a mask?

4 Continuum of Care: Old Model
Rescue Weaning Acuity Mechanical Ventilation Bi-Level Bi-Level CPAP CPAP Through the progression of respiratory insufficiency, multiple therapies are initiated in an effort the alleviate symptoms and subsequently attempt to avoid more invasive therapies, such as mechanical ventilation. Arguably, there is a gap between the ability of simple oxygen to correct the problem and the initiation of pressure support therapies that take at least some control over respiratory volumes during breathing. These early pressure therapies induce anxiety and are very unpleasant for a patient, which can worsen their status by causing harder breathing in an already delicate balance of distress vs. fatigue. And, it’s not until bi-level therapy is initiated that an effect on CO2 can be anticipated. Note that the curve for extuabtion/weaning is not a mirror image of the rescue curve. Once a clinician has full control over a patient’s respiration, the decision to extubate becomes challenging. You have to consider questions such as, “Have the patient's lungs improved to a point where they can oxygenate without requiring extreme physical work effort?,” and “Does the patient have the muscular integrity to support their own ventilatory needs?” In this regard, and considering the hazards of re-intubation, the clinician typically does not take high risks on extubating prematurely. A patient is typically extubated when their respiratory parameters indicate that they are well enough to need only minimal support, so the relative acuity scale shifts downward; however, it is still likely that simple oxygen therapy will, at least initially, not be enough. General 02 Therapy General 02 Therapy Choice of Therapy 4 4

5 Continuum of Care: Old Model
Low Flow Cannula Oxygen Mask CPAP / Bi-Level Mechanical Ventilation Flows limited to 1 – 5Lpm Higher Fi02 Achieved Pressure Support Patient Completely Ventilated Fi02 typically < .40 Easily Tolerated Poorly Tolerated Claustrophobia Cannot Eat, Take Meds Off more than On Tight Fitting Mask Not well tolerated Over Utilized Used when Patients Fail CPAP/ BiPAP Some Patients Hard To Wean Invasive 5 5

6 What if there was a therapy that was a bridge between
Continuum of Care What if there was a therapy that was a bridge between 02 Therapy and Bi-Level?

7 Continuum of Care: New Model
Rescue Weaning Acuity Mechanical Ventilation Bi-Level Bi-Level CPAP CPAP High Flow Therapy High Flow Therapy fills that gap, where a patient has not truly reached insufficiency and can be supported by a little more help than just some oxygen. This is valuable in both rescue and weaning paradigms. However, this is not to say that CPAP and Bi-PAP don’t have a roll. In a rescue scenario, when a patient’s disease exacerbation progresses to the point where they are experiencing de-recruitment of lung tissue and/or no longer have the physical stamina to draw in adequate breath volumes, then pressure support is needed. In weaning, it is always desirable to have minimally invasive pressure support available if it can mean avoiding re-intubation. Plus, in scenarios such as following thoracic surgery, the pressure support is critical for acting against pulmonary edema. Therefore, CPAP and Bi-PAP will certainly always play critical rolls in the clinician’s armamentarium. General 02 Therapy General 02 Therapy Choice of Therapy 7 7

8 High Flow Therapy: Precision Flow
Via Nasal Cannula 5 – 40 Lpm Precision Flow ® Precise Temperature, Blending, & Flow -Humidification with no Rainout Patient’s Demands Met -Easily Tolerated by Patient -Higher Fi02s than a Mask - Audible Alarms The tools for delivery of heated, humidified repsiratory gas support range from a nasal cannula to a transtracheal cather. The table above discussses the tools, application and value of these interfaces. 8 8

9 High Flow Therapy: Definitions
Flow rate that exceeds patient flow demands at various minute volumes A method to achieve actual FiO2 of 1 Eliminate entrainment of ambient air - Accomplished in the nasopharynx only with proper gas conditioning Conventional cannula therapy limited by nasal damage HFT becomes more than oxygen therapy Combination of technologies to achieve optimal temperature, humidity and flow rate at the point of delivery Let’s start out with “What is High Flow Therapy”. Simply put, and by definition of the AARC, high flow therapy is defined as flow rates that meet or exceed the patients inspiratory demand at various minute volumes. In practice, HFT via nasal cannula is the application of conditioned breathing gas delivery to effect washout of the nasopharyngeal dead-space and support breathing effort. Optimal outcomes with high flow therapy can only be accomplished with ideal conditioning of breathing gases, which is gas delivered at body temperature, and saturated with water vapor. With proper conditioning, higher gas flows can be used while avoiding mucosal damage, and provide optimal outcomes in the manner of improved respiratory efficiency with respect to both oxygenation and carbon dioxide ventilation. It is only recently with a combination of new technologies in delivering heated/humidified breathing gases to patients that High Flow Therapy via nasal cannula has accomplished this. So, where do we start?

10 at the point of delivery.
Control the Factors that Matter… Combination of proprietary technology to achieve optimal: Flow Fi02 Temperature Humidity at the point of delivery. So, what is required of a device to meet patient’s needs to deliver a safe and effective modality that makes an oxygen delivery system a more aggressive mode of therapy and enables to you to achieve better outcomes on higher acuity patients? Most importantly, how do we increase the success rate of optimal patient outcomes by decreasing the need for more invasive therapies? INDIVIDUAL control of four primary factors which allows for oxygen therapy to be delivered at higher flow rates, thus allowing a simple therapy to function as a more aggressive modality: Flow, FiO2, Temperature and Humidity. As a clinician is able to individually AND most importantly, independently control those four factors, simple oxygen therapy evolves into a high flow, more effective yet least invasive therapeutic modality. As this simple therapy evolves, optimal patient outcomes become apparent.

11 High Flow Therapy: Mechanisms of Action
Humidify / Warm Airways Mobilization of Secretions Nasal comfort Flush Dead Space CO2 Elimination Oxygen Efficiency Why is it important to condition the gas to body temperature, pressure saturated? To accomplish the true mechanism of action of High Flow Therapy. Although some may believe that high flow therapy is unregulated CPAP due to the fact that some pressure inevitably develops, we believe it is not the most critical mechanism of action: Remember earlier we defined what high flow therapy was; not a few extra liters, but rather a flow rate that exceeds patient demand. This creates a number of very important physiologic scenarios which elevates a nasal cannula to a more aggressive form of therapeutic modalities: Flush dead space and therefore remove CO2 as well as making oxygen delivery more efficiency by way of an internal reservoir Support inspiration by providing flow. This eliminates the inertia of gas movement through the resistance offered by the nasopharynx and allow for greater inspiratory flow for the same work effort The gas conditioning that allows for HFT, also has it own impact on the mechanics of the lungs and airways, which include improving lung compliance and reducing airway resistance. Secretion mobilization is another important outcome of warm, saturated breathing gas delivery. Supports Inspiration Cannula Flow > inspiratory Work of Breathing 11 11 11 11

12 Mechanisms: Humidity Anatomical Structure Mucosal Architecture
Inspiratory Gas Conditioning Nasopharynx is highly efficient at conditioning inspiratory gas Anatomical Structure Mucosal Architecture However, before we start flushing the nasopharynx and support the WOB demands of our patients, we must first overcome meeting its efficiency at warming and humidifying inspiratory gas. Delivering high flows without matching BTPS could cause damage and expedite a disease state. This efficiency is a result of both the large surface area created by the anatomical structure of the nasal cavity and the conchae, which brings the gas in close proximity to the walls of the cavity. And of course, the architecture of the mucosal tissue…

13 Conditioning Prevents Injury
Mechanisms: Humidity Conditioning Prevents Injury Inadequate warming and humidification can cause: Thickened Secretions Decreased mucocilliary action Thermal challenge Bloody secretions Lung atelectasis No matter what the device, oxygen concentration or liter flow, humidification is critical for safe and effective delivery of respiratory gas. The lack of humidity can cause: Thickened secretions – resulting in plugged airways Decrease in mucocilliary action – hampering clearance of debris Thermal challenge to the upper airway to adequately heat and humidify the gas – leading to excess energy expenditure and dehydration. Bloody secretions – as a result of cellular damage Also, later stages of progression may include atelectasis in the lung. All of these symptoms contribute towards the patient possibly requiring more invasive therapies, such as CPAP/BiPaP or ultimately, intubation!

14 Why BTPS? Mechanisms: Humidity
Importantly, it is critical that HFT via nasal cannula be done with optimal warming and humidification. The level of flow that brings therapeutic benefit beyond simple oxygen supplementation, can support nasal mucosal function if the humidification is correct, but overwhelm nasal mucosa if humidification is inadequate. This graph from Williams and colleagues shows how important proper humidification is to proper mucosal function. Significant deviations from BTPS on the x axis, which is 44 mg/l of water vapor, results in thick secretions and decreases in mucus transport velocity shown in the y axis. When the nasal mucosa is overwhelmed, the results can be cell damage contributing to lung injury seen as atelectasis. Williams et al, 1996, Crit Care Med 24(11):

15 Mechanisms: Humidity (How We Do It)
Vapor Transfer Cartridge: Key to efficient, high performance humidification and gas conditioning Also serves as filter--pore size much smaller than 0.05 microns Patient Delivery Tube: Patented triple lumen design Design prevents rain-out Keeps gas conditioned out to patient Safer than traditional heater wire design

16 Flush Dead Space & Support Inspiration
Mechanisms: Physiology & Dead Space Flush Dead Space & Support Inspiration Now that we have adequately conditioned the gas – we can look at the other mechanisms. Most importantly is the elimination of anatomical dead space by flushing out end-expiratory gas during expiration so each subsequent breath contains more fresh gas and less end-expiratory gas.

17 Pulmonary Physiology and Dead Space
Although related to a decrease in respiratory efficiency, anatomical dead space is essential for at lease two functions: 1) the nasopharyngeal area is responsible for gas conditioning to insure that the gas reaching the viscera is at body temperature and saturated, ….

18 Pulmonary Physiology and Dead Space
…. and 2) the large airways conduct the gas to the thorax and distribute it to the lung regions.

19 Pulmonary Pathophysiology
Now when we think about pulmonary pathophysiology, physiologic dead space in the lungs should normally be very small. However, with progressing lung disease, physiologic dead space increases as a result of increasing ventilation-perfusion mismatch secondary to dysfunctional alveolar units or gas trapping in obstructive diseases. Therefore, respiratory efficiency is reduced in cases of disease and patients need to work harder to keep alveolar gas concentrations adequate.

20 Pulmonary Pathophysiology
Eliminating nasopharyngeal dead space by flushing with fresh gas makes breathing more efficient even under normal conditions in healthy people. In this regard, flushing nasopharyngeal dead space can counterbalance physiologic dead space, effectively raising the threshold were patients may succumb to disease and require more invasive ventilatory support. Importantly, HFT does not treat disease, but rather improves respiratory efficiency related to dead space, allowing for more functional reserve.

21 Mechanisms: Standard Oxygen Therapy
However, because the lung are a visceral organ that surrounds the heart and comes in direct contact with the body’s entire circulating blood volume, gas entering the lungs needs to be warmed, humidified and cleaned prior to reaching the alveoli. 21 21

22 Flush Dead Space & Support Inspiration
Here is a look in a clinical model where a nasal cannula (on the left), at high flows, flushes out the dead space as opposed to a mask (on the right) which acts as an external reservoir and the patient’s inspiratory demand determines if the delivered gas arrives into the airway. High mask flow, impeded by pressure at the mouth - stores less O2 in the upper airways during exhalation and adds prosthetic dead space High nasal flow, unimpeded at mouth, fills the upper airways – storing O2 during exhalation and flushing CO2 Tiep, et al: Resp Care, 2002: High Flow Nasal vs High Flow Mask oxygen delivery: Tracheal Gas Concentrations Through an airway model

23 Illustrates HFT Therapeutic Flow Ranges:
Mechanisms: High Flow Therapy Illustrates HFT Therapeutic Flow Ranges: 25-35Lpm Precise gas warming and humidification is critical to support effective use of High Flow Therapy via nasal cannula. This animation shows how HFT purges that end-expiratory gas from the nasopharyngeal dead space during expiration to facilitate ventilation of CO2, and how each subsequent breath contains more fresh gas from this internal reservoir during inspiration, making oxygenation more efficient. Typically this occurs in the adult patient at flow rates of 25Lpm or more. 23 23

24 Mechanism of Action Review
Dead space washout Supports CO2 ventilation Enhances oxygenation Matched inspiratory flow Attenuates nasopharyngeal resistance Adequate gas conditioning Improves conductance and compliance Reduces energy cost of gas conditioning So lets review the mechanisms by which HFT works. When appropriately conditioned, the use of high flows of respiratory gases does not overwhelm the mucosa and facilitates addition mechanism beyond basic oxygen therapy. Research is now demonstrating that among these mechanisms are: Dead space washout, which supports CO2 ventilation as well as oxygenation Matched or exceeded inspiratory flow which attenuates nasopharyngeal resistance and facilitates inspiration effort Adequate gas conditioning which improves pulmonary mechanical parameters and reduces the energy cost of gas conditioning

25 Clinical Applications & Benefits
HFT Clinical Review Clinical Applications & Benefits

26 Flow First™ Early Intervention Is The Key
HFT Clinical Review Flow First™ Early Intervention Is The Key To start, many clinicians believe that high flow should be the first intervention a respiratory clinician makes when the situation calls for respiratory support for a spontaneously breathing patient. This means flow first in rescue situations in the ER or ICU, Flow first in maintenance situations, and flow first in weaning. Clinically, it also means that high flow therapy allows the clinician to utilize flow, ahead of Fi02 to manage patients. This Flow First concept will become clear as we progress through this presentation.

27 Indications for Use: Indications: Contraindications:
Spontaneously breathing patients who are requiring supplemental oxygen therapy Any patient who is on an oxygen mask that is: 1. Not compliant, 2. not improving, 3. Or has an increase in work of breathing Post- extubation support or weaning from NPPV Patients requiring supplemental heat & humidity for artificial airways So we read the literal indications for use from the 510 k (FDA), which means Vapotherm is indicated for what is really a broad range of applications. So what does that mean in terms of patient selection First, indications include -Spontaneously breathing patients who are requiring supplemental oxygen therapy -Any patient who is on an oxygen mask that is: 1. Not compliant, 2. Not improving, 3. Or has an increase in work of breathing -Post extubation support or weaning from NPPV -Patients requiring supplemental heat & humidity for artificial airways On the flip side, there are actually not many contraindications. -Patients not spontaneously breathing -Patients that have a deviated septum -Patients with severe facial trauma or disfigurement These indications are general, without being case specific to alleviate any potential off-labeling (such as we cure RSV). Also it keeps the possibilities wide open. Contraindications: Patients not spontaneously breathing Patients that have a deviated septum Patients with severe facial trauma or disfigurement

28 Mechanisms by Application
HFT DOES NOT TREAT A DISEASE, THE MECHANISMS TREAT SYMPTOMS Oxygen Flush Humidity Mild Pressure COPD Fibrosis Asthma CHF Its importantly to understand that HFT, like other forms of respiratory support, does not treat a disease, but it impacts symptoms. Much in the same way your cold medicine suppresses sneezing while the cold virus runs is course. Within various disease states, the combination of mechanisms that are most impactful vary based on the symptoms that are characteristic of that disease. Here is an example of how various mechanisms come into play during some of the major adult respiratory disease states. Here are a sample of some disease states and how the mechanisms of action treat the symptoms. Can you think of other respiratory insufficiencies where the symptoms can be treated by HFT?

29 HFT Conclusions – Patient Care Aspects
Non-invasive Interface – Nasal Cannula No Masks to Fit No Leaks to Worry About Patient Can Eat, Talk, Take Meds Ability to Control Factors Independently Can Deliver Temp, Flow, Fi02 to Meet Patients Exact Needs Can Deliver High Flow and Low Fi02 for “Retainers”

30 HFT Conclusions – Patient Care Aspects
Ability to Oxygenate Better than a Mask No Need to Use Pressure Devices Just to Oxygenate Patients Excellent Weaning Tool for Patients on BiPAP Can Be Used on Multiple Diagnosis Used to Treat Entire Spectrum of Respiratory Compromised Patients Mouth Breathers & Difficult to Treat Patients Low Maintenance While on Patient No Masks to Keep Tight No Rainout in Patient Delivery Tube Circuit Good for 30days LOS Easy to Read Display

31 Q & A

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