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& Napoleon 1780-1815.

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Presentation on theme: "& Napoleon 1780-1815."— Presentation transcript:

1 & Napoleon

2 A Story that Matters Fall of the Bastille p. 546 Questions to ponder:
Why It Matters Questions to ponder: Do you believe the Bastille was stormed to set prisoners free, because it was a a symbol of oppression, or as the first step to overthrow the French Monarchy? What is the difference between a revolt and a revolution?

3 Background to the Revolution
France’s society was based on inequality The __________________ 1st: _________ (130,000 people who owned 10% of the land) Exempt from the taille (France’s chief _____) 2nd: ____ (350,000 people who owned about 25-30% of the land) Held leading positions in government, the military, the law courts, and church offices Also exempt from the taille 3rd: __________ (made up overwhelming majority of population) Peasants largest segment-75-80% of population (owned 35-40% of the land) Skilled _____________ Rise in prices > Increase in wages (hurts buying power) _________________ (Middle Class: merchants, bankers, lawyers, etc.) 8% of population; owned 20-25% of land


5 Resentment ________________ no longer existed, but French peasants still had obligations to their local landlords that they deeply resented I.E. Fees to use facilities; Contributions to clergy Artisans struggle to survive (from their lack of purchasing power) leaves them angry with little to lose Bourgeoisie unhappy with the privileges of the nobles Aristocrats/Bourgeoisie unhappy with monarchical system resting on privileges and on an old and rigid social order

6 Financial Crisis Immediate cause of the Revolution: The Near Collapse of Government ___________ Bad harvests in 1787/1788 led to food shortages, rising prices, and unemployment Nearly ______ of the population was poor! Despite these problems, the French government continued to spend enormous amounts on _________ and court ____________ Queen Marie Antoinette known for her extravagance Louis XVI was finally forced to call a meeting of the ____________________ to raise new taxes (had not met since 1614!)

7 The Estates-General The French Parliament
Each estate received one vote Sounds fair right? What’s the problem? Third Estate breaks away and calls itself the ______ ________ (June 17, 1789) Drafts a constitution Locked out! ____________________: Swore that they would continue to meet until they had produced a French Constitution

8 What’s a King to Do? Louis XVI prepares to use force against the Third Estate However…before he was ready, a mob of Parisians stormed the _______________ (armory and prison) and dismantled it Louis XVI could no longer trust his royal troops! No troops=no _________________________ Popular revolutions break out throughout France

9 The National Assembly “_______________________________”
Inspired by the American Declaration of Independence and Constitution “the natural and imprescriptible rights of man” to “liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression” Freedom/Equal Rights for all; access to public office based on talent; Freedom of speech Ended tax exemptions Read p. 554 and answer #1-3 Draw a picture at the bottom of your paper showing an early event of the French Revolution Possible topics: Poverty of France, Marie Antoinette and her luxuries, the Tennis Court Oath, storming of the Bastille, women protesting the lack of bread, Louis XVI’s return to Paris, or the war with Austria

10 Connections Around the World
Read “A National Holiday” P. 551 “A National Holiday” Poster Assignment Every nation celebrates its Independence day with different kinds of festivities. For example, in the U.S. many people have BBQ’s and watch firework displays. Choose two other nations and research how each nation and its people celebrate their Independence Day. Create an illustrated poster or chart showing your results. The more creative you are, the better your grade. Must have facts about their Independence Day as well as what people do for it!

11 Louis XVI’s next move… Louis XVI had remained at _____________
Refused to accept the National Assembly’s decrees on the abolition of feudalism and the Declaration of Rights October 5, 1789 The _____________ come to him! “detachments of women coming up from every direction, armed with broomsticks, lances, pitchforks, swords, pistols, and muskets” Told of how they and their children were starving and forced him to accept the new decrees Stated that he should return to Paris to show his support for the National Assembly

12 Other Changes Church Reforms Constitution completed in 1791
National Assembly needed money so they seized and sold the lands of the church French Government now controlled the Church Bishops/Priests were __________________ Many view ____________s as the enemy of the Revolution Constitution completed in 1791 Set up a _____________ monarchy There would still be a king, but a Legislative Assembly would make the laws

13 Will this spread elsewhere?
Neighboring nations did not want to find out Austria and Prussia threatened to use force to restore Louis XVI to full power National Assembly _________________ and declares war on Austria (which goes badly) The Paris ____________: group of radicals who organized a mob attack on the Legislative Assembly and the royal palace Took the King captive and forced the Legislative Assembly to suspend the monarchy and call for a National Convention (to be chosen on the basis of ________________________)

14 The Move to Radicalism Georges Danton (leader of the Paris Commune) seeks ________ on those who aided the king and resisted the popular will Arrested and massacred thousands National Convention officially abolishes the limited monarchy and sets up a ________________ What will happen to Louis XVI? National Convention sentences him to _____ (1793); Read V.F.T.P. p 555 Infuriated other European royalty Took up arms against France

15 How will France defend itself?
Committee of Public Safety National Convention gave broad powers to a special committee of 12 known as the “________________ _________________” Headed by Georges Danton first, then by Maximilien _________

16 The Reign of Terror Committee of Public Safety in control
Job: defend France from foreign and domestic threats 40,000 killed (16,000 by the ____________) Read about the killing of a whole city (Lyon) p. 558 Claimed brutality was only _____________ After the wars and domestic crisis was over, the Declaration of Rights of Man would be fully realized

17 Attacking Christianity
In trying to create a new order that reflected its belief in _______, the National Convention pursued a policy of ___________________ Removed “St.” from street names Closed and pillaged churches New ____________ (not from birth of Christ but from September 22, 1792-the 1st day of the French Republic) End Result: Failed to work because France was still overwhelmingly Catholic

18 Would ultimately change the nature of modern warfare
Tell me more… Read quote on p. 560 HUUUUUGEEEEE! (over one million) Successfully pushed back enemies Important step in the creation of modern nationalism Got most of the population, not just professional soldiers, involved in wars (although because of this, wars became more destructive too) Propaganda Writing Assignment P. 561 #9 A New Kind of Army

19 Terror Over, New Government
National Convention reduced the power of the Committee of Public Safety Churches allowed to reopen New Constitution (wanted more stability) Created a 2-House Legislature Council of 500 (initiated laws) Council of __________ (250 people who accepted or rejected) Both Councils were chosen by ______________ (individuals qualified to vote in an election Council of Elders selected 5 people to act as “The ___________” (who would rule along with the legislature)

20 The Directory The Directory’s Reign Time of ________________
Had many political enemies Unable to find a solution to the country’s continuing economic problems Relied on the _____________ to maintain its power Met its end in 1799 Popular General ______________________ leads a coup d’etat (sudden overthrow of the government) and seizes power

21 The Age of Napoleon “Voices from the Past” p 563 “I Am The Revolution”
French Revolution made it possible for him to rise up through the military Early Life Born in _____________ right after it was annexed Read the works of the philosophes and educated himself in military matters

22 Napoleon: The First Consul
Overthrows the Directory Creates the “________________” Theoretically a republic, but Napoleon had absolute power Napoleon’s Domestic Policies Make friends with the Church Papal agreement: Catholicism is major religion, church doesn’t ask for land back Most famous achievement: _______________________ Included was the Civil, or Napoleonic, Code Preserved most of the gains of the revolution by: recognizing the principle of the equality of all citizens before the law the right of the individual to choose a profession religious toleration the abolition of serfdom Powerful, centralized bureaucracy: advancement based on ABILITY

23 Read p Take Notes in the Margin! Napoleon's Empire

24 The European Response Napoleon thought his empire would last forever
Two reasons contributed to its collapse: The Survival of ___________________ Britain’s ___________ was unmatched Napoleon couldn’t invade The Force of _________________ (a unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols) France hated as oppressors Showed other nations what national pride was

25 The Fall of Napoleon The Invasion of Russia
Lead 600,000 men into Russia Needed a quick defeat, but Russians didn’t ___________! They ______________ for hundreds of miles, burning their own villages and countryside along the way Why would they do this? Kept Napoleon’s forces from finding ____________! Retreated all the way to Moscow (which was ablaze when Napoleon got there Lacking food and supplies Napoleon begins the “_________________” By now it was winter time…IN RUSSIA Less than 40,000 of the 600,000 made it back to France in 1813 End Result: Gave other nations _________ to rise up and attack the crippled French Army Paris was captured in 1814 Napoleon exiled to the island of ___________

26 The Final Defeat King Louis XVIII takes over, but has little support
Napoleon escapes Elba and returns to France _______________________________ However, Napoleon convinced them to follow him! Returns to Paris triumphantly! Powers that had defeated Napoleon pledge to remove him again Napoleon attacks Belgium At ___________ in Belgium on June 18, 1815 Napoleon met a combined British and Prussian army under the Duke of Wellington and suffered a bloody defeat Napoleon exiled to __________________

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