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M ENGASUMSIKAN P ERAN A NALIS S ISTEM Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Fifth Edition
T OPIK UTAMA Information systems Phases of analysis and design System maintenance CASE tools Alternate methodologies Kendall & Kendall 1-2 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
I NFORMASI Informasi merupakan sumber daya organisasi yang harus dikelola dengan hati- hati sebagaimana sumber daya lain. Biaya berhubungan dengan pemrosesan informasi. Pemrosesan Informasi harus dikelola untuk mengambil keuntungan penuh dari potensi. Kendall & Kendall 1-3 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
K ATEGORI Sistem informasi teermasuk ke dalam salah satu dari delapan kategori berikut : Transaction processing systems (TPS) Office automation systems (OAS) Knowledge work systems (KWS) Management information systems (MIS) Decision support systems (DSS) Expert systems (ES) Group decision support systems (GDSS) Executive support systems (EES) Kendall & Kendall 1-4 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
S YSTEMS D EVELOPMENT L IFE C YCLE Siklus hidup pengembangan sistem (systems development life cycle) adalah pendekatan sistematis untuk memecahkan masalah bisnis. Dibagi menjadi tujuh langkah (phase). Tiap langkah mempunyai aktivitas khusus. Kendall & Kendall 1-5 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 1 Identifying Problems Opportunities Objectives Personnel involved Analyst User management Systems management Kendall & Kendall 1-6 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 2 Determining information requirements Interview management, operations personnel Gather systems/operating documents Use questionnaires Observe the system and personnel involved Learn the who, what, where, when, and how, and the why for each of these Kendall & Kendall 1-7 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 2 Personnel involved Analyst User management User operations workers Systems management Kendall & Kendall 1-8 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 3 Analyzing system needs Create data flow diagrams Document procedural logic for data flow diagram processes Complete the data dictionary Make semistructured decisions Prepare and present the system proposal Recommend the optimal solution to management Kendall & Kendall 1-9 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 3 Personnel involved Analyst User management Systems management Kendall & Kendall 1-10 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 4 Designing the recommended system Design the user interface Design output Design input Design system controls Design files and/or database Produce program specifications Produce decision trees or tables Kendall & Kendall 1-11 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 4 Personnel involved Analyst System designer User management User operations workers Systems management Kendall & Kendall 1-12 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 5 Developing and documenting software Design computer programs using structure charts, Nassi-Schneiderman charts, and pseudocode Walkthrough program design Write computer programs Document software with help files, procedure manuals, and Web sites with Frequently Asked Questions Kendall & Kendall 1-13 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 5 Personnel involved Analyst System designer Programmers Systems management Kendall & Kendall 1-14 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 6 Testing and maintaining the system Test and debug computer programs Test the computer system Enhance system Kendall & Kendall 1-15 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 6 Personnel involved Analyst System designer Programmers Systems management Kendall & Kendall 1-16 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 7 Implementing and evaluating the system Plan conversion Train users Purchase and install new equipment Convert files Install system Review and evaluate system Kendall & Kendall 1-17 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
P HASE 7 Personnel involved Analyst System designer Programmers User management User operations workers Systems management Kendall & Kendall 1-18 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
S IFAT A NALYSIS DAN D ESIGN Analisis sistem dan desain adalah pendekatan sistematis untuk mengidentifikasi masalah, peluang, dan tujuan; menganalisis arus informasi dalam organisasi, dan merancang sistem informasi terkomputerisasi untuk memecahkan masalah Kendall & Kendall 1-19 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
S YSTEMS A NALYST Systems analysts act as Outside consultants to businesses Supporting experts within a business As change agents Analysts are problem solvers, and require communication skills Analysts must be ethical with users and customers Kendall & Kendall 1-20 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
N EW T ECHNOLOGIES Teknologi baru yang terintegrasi ke dalam sistem tradisional Ecommerce uses the Web to perform business activities Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) has the goal of integrating many different information systems within the corporation Wireless and handheld devices, including mobile commerce (mcommerce) Open source software Kendall & Kendall 1-21 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
A DVANTAGES OF U SING THE W EB The benefits of using the Web are Increasing awareness of the availability of the service, product, industry, person, or group 24-hour access for users Standard interface design Creating a global system Kendall & Kendall 1-22 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
R APID A PPLICATION D EVELOPMENT Rapid Application development (RAD) is an object-oriented approach to systems development Kendall & Kendall 1-23 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
S YSTEM M AINTENANCE System maintenance is Removing undetected errors, and Enhancing existing software Time spent on maintenance typically ranges from percent of total time Kendall & Kendall 1-24 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
S YSTEM E NHANCEMENTS Systems are enhanced for the following reasons: Adding additional features to the system Business and governmental requirements change over time Technology, hardware, and software are rapidly changing Kendall & Kendall 1-25 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
CASE T OOLS CASE tools are automated, microcomputer-based software packages for systems analysis and design Four reasons for using CASE tools are: To increase analyst productivity Facilitate communication among analysts and users Providing continuity between life cycle phases To assess the impact of maintenance Kendall & Kendall 1-26 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
CASE T OOL C ATEGORIES CASE tools may be divided into several categories Upper CASE (also called front-end CASE) tools, used to perform analysis and design Lower CASE (also called back-end CASE). These tools generate computer language source code from CASE design Integrated CASE, performing both upper and lower CASE functions Kendall & Kendall 1-27 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
U PPER CASE Upper CASE tools Create and modify the system design Store data in a project repository The repository is a collection of records, elements, diagrams, screens, reports, and other project information These CASE tools model organizational requirements and define system boundaries Kendall & Kendall 1-28 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
L OWER CASE Lower CASE tools generate computer source code from the CASE design Source code may usually be generated in several languages Kendall & Kendall 1-29 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
A DVANTAGES OF G ENERATING C ODE Time to develop new systems decreases The time to maintain generated code is less than to maintain traditional systems Computer programs may be generated in more than one language CASE design may be purchased from third-party vendors and tailored to organizational needs Generated code is free from program coding errors Kendall & Kendall 1-30 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
R EVERSE E NGINEERING Reverse engineering is generating the CASE design from computer program code Source code is examined, analyzed, and converted into repository entities Kendall & Kendall 1-31 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
R EVERSE E NGINEERING P RODUCES Reverse engineering produces (depending the tool set used) Data structures and elements, describing the files, records, and field Screen designs, if the program is online Report layouts for batch programs A structure chart showing the hierarchy of the modules in the program Database design and relationships Kendall & Kendall 1-32 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
A DVANTAGES OF R EVERSE E NGINEERING It has the following advantages: Reduced system maintenance time Program documentation is produced for loosely documented programs Structured programs may be generated from unstructured, older programs Future system maintenance is easier to implement Unused portions of programs may be eliminated Kendall & Kendall 1-33 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
O BJECT -O RIENTED A NALYSIS AND D ESIGN Object-oriented (O-O) analysis and design is used to build object-oriented programs This includes not only data but the instructions about operations that manipulate the data Kendall & Kendall 1-34 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
T YPES OF O BJECT -O RIENTED A NALYSIS AND D ESIGN There are three types of object-oriented analysis and design: Object-oriented analysis (OOA) Object-oriented design (OOD) The Unified Modeling Language (UML), a standardized object-oriented modeling language Kendall & Kendall 1-35 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
N ATURE OF A NALYSIS AND D ESIGN Structured analysis and design provides a systematic approach to developing systems and is cyclic in nature Analysis and design errors detected in the later phases of the systems development life cycle cost more to fix than if detected in earlier phases Kendall & Kendall 1-36 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
A LTERNATE M ETHODOLOGIES Alternate methodologies are available for analyzing systems These include Prototyping ETHICS Project champions Soft Systems Methodology Multi-view Kendall & Kendall 1-37 Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc.
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